The Welch Company
440 Davis Court #1602
San Francisco, CA 94111 2496
415 781 5700
April 13, 1989
Rev November 14, 1994
Rev May 17, 1998
Rev March 21, 2001
Rev April 26, 2004
Rev August 8, 2004
Rev April 5, 2005
P O I M S
PLAN, ORGANIZE, INTEGRATE, MEASURE
The Art of Automated Management For the 21st Century
Faster, Better, Cheaper Intelligence
By: Rod Welch
1. Technology Improves Leadership
.....Alphabet Technology Can be Improved
.....Intelligence Organizes, Analyses, Aligns, Summarizes Details
.....False Knowledge from Meaning Drift, Information Overload
.....Communication, Secrecy Biggest Risk in Enterprise
.....Knowledge Management Uses Intelligence Process
.....Culture of Knowledge Advances Civilization
2. Limits of Technology - Good Intentions are Not Enough
.....Prepare for New Realities of 21st Century
.....Information Overload Overwhelms Span of Attention
.....Murphy's Law, Crisis Management Solved by Intelligence
4 The New Vision - Automated Integration
.....Investing Intellectual Capital Takes Intelligence
.....Intelligence Melds a Critical Mass of Professional Practices
.....Convert Plans into Action - Test of Leadership
.....Controlled Visibility Manages Context
5. Management Cycle - Producing Intelligence
.....Plan - Good Results Require Investing in Good Management
.....Perform - Actions Yield Experience
.....Report - Investing Intellectual Capital Adds Value to Experience
.... Intelligence Integrated Management Builds Knowledge Space
6. Communication - Understanding and Follow up Can be Improved
.....Chronology Context Connection Create Knowledge
.....Communication Metrics - Feedback Alignment Measure Accuracy of Listening
.....3-layer Architecture Transformation to Culture of Knowledge
.....Documents Linked to History and Analysis Create Knowledge Space
.....Clear, Concise, Complete Communication via Internet
7. Productivity - Managers Must "Debug" the Work
.....TQM and ISO 9000 - Faster, Better Cheaper Intelligence
.....MBO - "Organic Subject Structures" Help Organize and Analyse
.....Time Management - Automated Experience Machine
8. Think, Remember, Communicate - Improved by POIMS
9. Command and Control of the Record - Better Results
10. Objections - Leadership Must Overcome Ignorance, Fear, Denial
......Management is Complex - Need for Improvement Ignored and Denied
11. Conclusion - POIMS Empowers Stronger Management
Technology Improves Leadership
The "art" of management is integrating time, information and
people to achieve objectives. But the pace of modern
life invites shortcuts to "expedite." Shortcuts on
cause mistakes. People work longer and harder,
taking more shortcuts to catch up, but this causes more
mistakes, loss and conflict.
is blamed, however, the real culprit is an Information Highway that
overloads human span of attention. "High tech" is denying
leadership needed "intelligence" while leading management to
implode. Downsizing and bankruptcies are common solutions for
reducing the burden on human intellect to a level people can
manage. A better solution is a better partnership between
leadership and technology that strengthens the synergy between
people and organizations for managing a more complex world -- hence
Personal and Organizational
Integrated Memory and Management
POIMS strengthens personal
to manage complexity by augmenting human
This objective requires a threshold definition of
knowledge that permits technology to
meaningfully and routinely lift personal and organizational performance
above the limits of information technology (IT),
which currently overwhelms
mentalese, causing confusion, error, loss, crisis and calamity. Thus, the
first step is to understand information, knowledge and
intelligence in relation to tasks people perform. How are these mental
constructs different, and how do they relate to human performance that can be
augmented by tools?
Managers are both leaders and technicians. People lead using
"people skills" to motivate, and provide guidance by aligning
communications with organizational
objectives. Managers use techniques aided by tools
to plan, organize and control the work through specially
designed business metrics. These nominally separate
tasks of leadership and technology must be integrated into a
whole, or single, process that yields more than the sum of its parts. Thus,
plan, organize, integrate and measure convey
a traditional view of POIMS that is enabled by a stronger foundation for
personal and organizational memory and management that leverages
Designing computers to augment intelligence requires integrating
common tasks with efficient usability. Like human design that complements
mental connections from sensory capacities with
facile dexterity using hands, eyes, ears and talking, computers
must be configured with software and ergonomics to support
efficient complementarity. The
natural synergy between people and organizations can be leveraged with
a better partnership between leadership and technology using a
3-layer architecture for transformation from
information to a culture of knowledge.
In turn, technology requires a 3-layer architecture that enables people
to use good practices consistently by integrating
tasks and expanding span of attention on the core ingredients of
P O I M S
Day-to-day executives, engineers, managers, marketing folks, indeed
all of us, do not think of our work in these terms. Most of our time
each day is driven by a constant stream of information, particularly
when the "boss" gives orders. It is not evident that the constant flow
of information we receive and create is, also, constantly being
converted into knowledge by our mental faculties that strive
to align actions with objectives,
policies, law, regulation, contracts, commitments, schedules and
budgets, in addition to specific daily details
of professional disciplines, personnel relationships,
machines, buildings and travel.
The complexity of knowledge work and the art of management, which are
fundamentally cognitive processes, are hidden by the mind's ability to
summarize a lot of information
into simple "common sense" rules of thumb, or paradigms, for solving
daily problems and acting on opportunities. People naturally
focus on the present because that is where information is derived from
action that occurs in the moment, and where
threats to safety and life itself must be met by taking immediate action and
reaction. These dynamic imperatives of existence
spawn biological drives that limit span of attention to
here and now, the past few minutes or hours, i.e., information from
this meeting, this call, this email. What happened
is gone. "It's history;
water under the bridge";
what will happen tomorrow? "We will deal with it!"
The biology of human cognition applies an
intelligence process that
automatically uses "knowledge" from
past experience to predict future impacts,
without conscious effort, time or expense. This mental process
of continual feedback loops verifies
accuracy for taking immediate action, and is accomplished by
guessing about correlations of cause and effect
between perception of current circumstances and memory of
relevant history stored in the mind as personal experience. However,
guessing about alignment between perception and experience
necessarily presents a knowledge management
Limited time and complexity cause incorrect correlatons that are
hidden from the conscious mind, resulting in
false positive feedback that makes communication misleading. Mistakes are
avoided by the tradition of documentation which people can check to verify
accuracy of first impressions. However,
the biology of cognition that makes alignment to construct knowledge
seem fast and easy
imparts a natural belief that listening to understand
and follow up on communication is accomplished through innate gifts of hearing
and observing. People therefore feel that intelligence to
convert information into knowledge is
under the common rule: seeing is believing. As a result, the
core issue of quality control that separates
good management from bad management (see also TQM)
is whether to invest time for deliberative analysis to verify momentary
"guesses" about cause and effect. People can choose diligence to check
alignment of new information
patterns relative to experience and controlling authority from objectives,
requirements and commitments; or, forego deliberation, and simply react
by guessing about alignement of information that flows from
meetings, calls, email and other experiences of daily life.
(see for example
Drucker on the difference between information and communication)
eschews deliberation to make communication effective, and, instead,
acts on momentary, sensory perception from seeing and hearing what transpires
in constant meetings, calls and documents, which are largely designed to convey
convincing style and image that feels good .
Spontaneous reaction to information based on "common sense," a "gut feeling,"
guessing, hunch and hope, is a powerful asset of human cognition in many
situations, but is very misleading in handling complex management issues,
because the intelligence process of identifying
relevant experience from personal and organizational memory is entirely
subconscious. This is a recipe for continual bumbling, loss,
conflict, crisis and calamity because
decisions and action based on style and image impart only
cursory understanding that is
disconnected from relevant details about objectives, requirements and
commitments essential for accurate knowledge that makes management effective.
For example, summaries created for Powerpoint presentations
are ticking time bombs waiting to explode because there are no connections
to context that maintain alignment with objectives and requirements. (see for
Enron reviewed on February 4, 2002)
requires proactive intelligence support.
Adding energy to "connect the dots" of cause and effect
yields the power of knowledge that
controls the future (see
locality principle). This begins with an accurate
record of organizational memory
on daily work, sometimes called history, experience, knowledge, and
in some cases intelligence.
People readily grasp that timely, accurate
is better than forgetting, or worse - remembering incorrectly
(see false knowledge).
tools and practices to quickly construct a
well ordered record
explaining chronology, and to also add...
- Connections of cause and effect across the expanse of time that
aligns new experience each day
with history, and with objectives, requirements,
and commitments; and further...
- Context managed with flexible, organic
structure for precision access to find knowledge
on relevant history in time to be effective.
Diligent capture, context, and connection refine accuracy for continual
learning, planning, and decisions so that people can take
complementary action, commonly called...
Complementary action through teamwork
avoids conflict and magnifies
individual potential, which is the essence of management,
communication, coordination, collaboration and organization that makes
command and control
of the work a meaningful reality.
Good management practices are well established by experts like
Stephen Covey reviewed
on December 5, 1992, by
Peter Drucker reviewed
on November 30 1993; and by management standards published by
reviewed on July 21, 1995. Good management reflects the accumulated wisdom
from thousands of years
learning hard won lessons by people who struggled with the
tension between acting on impulse, and planning to make action effective.
An example is the
Federal Acquisition Regulations (FAR)
reviewed on May 4, 2002.
FAR requires organizational memory and alignment of the work
with objectives, requirements and commitments essential to save
time and money by working intelligently, as called out by
Covey, Drucker, PMI and ISO.
However, the hidden, spontaneous character of innate,
biological intelligence creates an
overwhelming tendency to ignore regulations, experts and professional
standards for management practice, because
responding immediately to
information from sight and sound through seeing, talking and hearing always
seems faster and easier than investing time to check the record.
Under the rule that
talk is cheap,
using common sense to forage on
information in-the-moment requires no cognitive overhead. Acting on impulse is
an overwhelming biological drive for survival that presents an illusion of
progress by failing to invest time for deliberative
analysis to get things done correctly, on time and within budget. When
time is short, good management seems unnecessary. This slippery slope leads to
bad habits of ignoring good managment altogether, even when there is plenty of
time. People are drawn by the false promise of cost savings from discovering
that bad management costs nothing in-the-moment, because it requires doing
is excused as "expediting" that ignores future
consequences, like the story of the ant and the grasshopper. The
common sense appeal of momentary cost savings from ignoring requirements for
good management, however,
conceals cause and effect in a maze of complexity (e.g., the fog of war)
that tricks the mind into feeling safe and secure. These feelings, driven by
ignorance of future consequences, create a
powerful false positive to reject investing time and
expense for deliberation in favor of relying on style and image that entertains
to influence spontaneous, impulsive
conduct. Ultimately, the critical difference between
information, that brings immediate emotional
satisfaction, and knowledge, that brings larger rewards by being
prepared for future consequences, forms a powerful
cognitive dynamic that lures the unwary to avoid good management, as
under the always plausible excuse that there is
not enough time to understand content,, because, as the saying goes,
when time is short, future consequences are out of sight and out of mind.
Law, regulations, professional standards, training and, most
importantly, leadership, empower people to
overcome the overwhelming tendency to use bad management that is
driven by mental biology and by powerful, near-term
cultural forces of peer pressure to act
on information delivered with style and image. Laws, regulations and
standards are designed to force deliberation for analysis of
future consequences that are not evident in the moment,
but threaten the long term survival of the larger culture. If civilization
could survive without good management, there would be no need for laws and
regulations. Accordingly, the price of survival is
eternal vigilence to ensure performance of requirements for
effective intelligence, as the cheapest, and only, way to avoid the
horrendous cost that
people pay for bad management, as shown
by events on September 11, 2001. (see also
NWO on the price people pay for
failing to pay the cost of good management.) Vigilence and leadership
are powerful remedies for innate biolgical drives to
avoid good management,
reported, for example, on October 26, 1995, and more recently on May 22, 2002
showing more time, hard work and ingenuity are invested to
dodge and circumvent requirements than are needed to simply implement
regulations and standards for saving time and money.
forms a stronger partnership between leadership and technology by making good
management faster and easier. Enabling people to save time and money with less
effort overcomes fear and denial that resists improvement, because tasks that
require less diligence and discipline expand the
pool of people willing to try a new way of working. More people trying to
improve increases the number who discover that investing time for good
management saves time and money. In the same way that a backhoe excavates
faster and easier than using a pick and shovel, and driving a car is faster
and easier than walking, so, too,
empowering people to handle more information faster and more
accurately overcomes fear of accountability for mistakes that causes people to
deny and ignore laws, regulations and standards for
good management. Leadership must, however, in the first instance, be the engine
of improvement. Support and guidance through education and pilot testing
overcome ignorance by providing experience to discover that investing time to
learn and use technology for working intelligently strengthens human mental biology. Vigilence to cultivate enabling
forces that grow the synergy between leadership and technology can achieve a
breakthrough that empowers people to follow laws, regulations and standards for
saving time and money by using good management. The first step is understanding
the science of management.
Management combines science and art with professional diligence
that enables a proactive, forward
looking process, noted above, under the common rules...
Look before you leap,
...that endeavor to understand cause and effect for making action
Understanding requires diligence for deliberation to study
background, history and experience
that expands span of attention so that planning is aligned with objectives,
requirements and commitments. An audit trail of daily work enables both
alignment and accountability that together are the foundation of good
management. Getting credit for good results and avoiding blame for mistakes
requires good management. Deliberation necessarily is the antithesis of
spontaneous, impulsive reaction based on whatever pops into the mind at the
moment, as occurs in ordinary speech during meetings, calls and email that
dominate the practice of management, first to save time and later to avoid
accountability. However, bad management increases mistakes and so increases
the slippery slope of ignore, cover up, conflict, crisis and calamity that
increases accountability. Thus, scurring to use bad management in hopes of
avoiding accountability can only succeed in compounding tragedy, as befell the
By definition, rewards of good management are always in the future,
and so are easily overwhelmed by the excuse of expediting,
because bad management
requires doing nothing by simply reacting in the moment to
continuous information, and avoiding organizational memory in order to create
wriggle room for deniability
that avoids accountability. Since cost savings
for working intelligently occur in the future, while savings from avoiding the
time and expense of good management accrue immediately, it always seems faster
and easier in-the-moment to make people say yes by making people feel
good with communication that is entertaining, rather than use intelligence to
align daily work with objectives, requirements and commitments.
Only express requirements with incentives and sanctions in contracts,
laws, policies and procedures can overcome the powerful paradigm of common
sense that prevents people from discovering time-bombs in time to avoid
explosions days, weeks, months and years in the future. In other words, good
management for saving time and money is a cultural artifact at constant war
with human mental biology that is driven to sacrafice the future in order to
feel good in the moment. This fundamental
dynamic necessarily requires express support, particularly in the modern age
that accelerates events. Technology that increases physical strengths by
compressing time and distance, in fact creates a continual fog of war
that reduces the traditional art of management for listening, deliberation,
understanding and follow up to mere cliches.
As a result, since good management
urged by experts and mandated by law and regulation,
as discussed above, is easily avoided as "overkill" under the excuse of
saving time, and since
is easily induced by entertaining pictures and sounds
that appeal to common sense in the moment for saving time, and
is easily excused as expediting to save time, then
technology that takes less time for using good management to work intelligently
is the only way to help people be more effective. Therefore....
POIMS technology empowers people to quickly...
- Understand complexity by capturing and connecting cause and effect
to work intelligently,
and check alignment with objectives, requirements and
commitments to work accurately.
- Plan follow up to work comprehensively and
Learning occurs from synergy between
Tools and functions that harmoniously balance and
integrate these complementary human tasks significantly
leverage natural intelligence.
Capturing a greater share of
daily experience optimizes productivity from
investing intellectual capital.
Knowledge of chronology, context, and connections to
understand cause and effect compounds effectiveness, yielding
a powerful asset that controls the future. (see
locality in NWO)
Daily work that relies primarily upon spontaneous reaction to
information in the moment from meetings, calls, and documents
increases complexity causing continual bumbling, loss, conflict,
crisis and calamity, as ticking "time bombs" reach critical mass.
Investing time to deliberate for understanding experience
and planning follow up by writing a coherent
report on current activity
yield "knowledge" by continually
"connecting the dots" that reveal cause and effect. This form of intelligence
makes knowledge a more powerful cognitive resource than merely using
information for guiding daily work.
History, therefore, shows that continual learning to
grow knowledge yields a higher reward than continual
foraging on information in constant meetings, calls and email.
However, deferred rewards from investing are counterintuitive, because
taking time for learning and deliberation delays action. Delayed action is
inherently a potential threat to safety and survival,
and so is inimical to, and therefore torments,
the conscious mind that is biologically wired to use
information absorbed through the senses (sight, sound, oder, touch,
rythm, etc.) for navigating through life by reacting spontaneously
moment-to-moment. This biology is effective for bucolic life, aided
by the subconscious mind that automatically creates connections of
cause and effect. However, modern society requires investing time for
deliberation to verify the accuracy of connections and plan for future
consequences. Therefore, enabling people to overcome
the emotional urge to graze on information, requires an
architecture that fosters a culture of
leveraging the power of thinking for pattern recognition,
and strengthening the weakness of thinking due to limited
span of attention.
The architecture of human cognition is driven by
capabilities that "feed" each other through the binary structure of
subconscious and conscious mental processing. This is
largely manifested in daily life through "communication." People take
action to satisfy "needs" arising from sensory perception of evolving
circumstances, e.g., seeing, talking, hearing.
Awareness of context recognizes repeatable situations
based on memory of experience,
i.e., knowledge of prior action and results, called "causation."
of context and relevant experience is a limited
capacity. We can have a lot of information, but limited
span of attention is the
in mental biology that prevents using most of our memory to
distinguish nuance that separates one context from another.
New World Order...
on limiting capacity to find critical details)
Limited span of attention and limited time
also limit understanding correlations that impart implications from
matching patterns of new information with relevant experience, which is
critical for "connecting the dots" of cause and effect in order to
determine what needs to be done. In short, information that comes too fast
overwhelms limited span of attention and so is misunderstood or ignored.
The result is false knowledge under Murphy's
Law that causes continual mistakes, delay,
crisis, conflict and loss. Faster information causes
continual bumbling, rather than continual learning.
In simplest terms, better management is largely a communication function.
Communication, however, requires more than traditional speaking and
listening skills, honed from natural gifts of human biology for seeing and
In today's high speed environment, "listening" requires proactive effort to
follow up so that things get done quickly and
accurately, without endless cycles of rework that escalate
problem handling into loss, crisis,
conflict and calamity. To strengthen natural "listening,"
POIMS initially requires technology for capturing a larger share of daily
experience that builds shared meaning through personal and
Relevant experience can then be accessed quickly at the time it is
needed by people collaborating on common objectives.
POIMS technology expands span of attention beyond the limits of human
biology in the same way that the slowest runner can use an automobile to reach
the store much faster than the fastest runner. Similarly, a backhoe is a
construction technology that leverages natural, physical strength, so that one
person can excavate 100 times more than when relying on innate biological
gifts. This same principle leverages cognitive strength to manage more
information. As information piles up each day, technology can help people work
intelligently. "Connecting the dots" into "knowledge" of cause and effect helps
get things done accurately and on time. This is accomplished by combining
traditional "time" management with "information" management, or, more simply:
integrating time and information. Since technology makes integration
practical, it is useful to describe the process as automated integration
of time and information to produce knowledge.
In sum, POIMS supports transitioning from information technology (IT) to
a culture of knowledge.
Information is processed by the mind's "thoughts" to obtain
understanding, and support follow up, i.e., taking action.
This innate mental process, commonly called "intelligence,"
is overwhelmed by
information overload, as technology
moves information faster and
faster. Limited span of attention in human mental biology
cannot process information fast enough to correctly
understand connections of cause and effect that constitute knowledge.
When information moves too fast, more information does not make
people better informed; it makes everybody mixed up, because the biological
thinking process cannot keep up with the flow of
The practice of literacy uses
technology for constructing a physical,
analog of internal human thinking about information, commonly called "writing."
Giving external, objective form to, otherwise, fleeting internal thoughts,
permits crafting and organizing information, which greatly aids innate
cognitive capabilities that create knowledge by constructing small
meanings into different patterns that form larger understandings. Letters
are connected in a linear model of memory segmented by
spaces and punctuation for flexibile, expansive representation.
Words form sentences, then paragraphs, yielding an unlimited
range for a powerful mind to shape and refine context in order to strengthen
ordinary thinking about the world, including the mind itself. The alphabet is
explosive technology for connecting cause and effect
that yields the
power of knowledge.
Creating, preserving, and retrieving connections with alphabet technology
to accurately understand cause and effect
drives the advance of civilization by making people
(see Havelock, Lenat, Drucker reviewed on November 8, 1999).
The traditional linear model using alphabet technology in documents makes
information legible, permanent and transferable; and, it connects related
information in different documents through a system of references to a
bibliography. Over many, many centuries industry developed technology
and highly specialized crafts that enabled publishing documents to become a
powerful engine for learning that grows civilization all around the world.
Today, wordprocessing makes editing to construct, shape, revise, craft and
present information with pleasing appearance even faster and easier for
everyone. Powerful technologies like the Interent and email enable people to
routinely publish and distribute high quality documents quickly and cheaply
throughout the world, which previously could only be done by big companies
using expensive equipment, trained specialists and complex marketing
However, making everyone a publisher does not enable anyone to use information
quickly and effectively. Indeed, the powerful
phenomenon of universal publishing,
which accomplishes important goals for democratic and egalitarian
empowerment, also, creates information overload that overwhelms human
Nobody can find anything
because nothing is in the right
place at the right time. Too many people having
too many problems finding information when needed paralyzes
productivity, which reduces earnings and stock prices (see report by
ABC News in the record on December 7,
2000). Solving this problem, by turning a fast growing liability, of too much
information, into a powerful new asset, requires a new and different kind of
technology, one that helps the mind process information faster and accurately
to create connections that yield knowledge, wisdom and vision. Some people say
the effort to improve information technology is called Knowledge
Management, as a logical extenstion of literacy that advances use of the
alphabet. It could just as easily be called knowledge
technology, intelligence tools, knowledge spreadsheet, or anything else.
The name is less important than the actual process for improving
Thinking is the engine that transforms information into
innately use intelligence to connect information into patterns of cause and
effect for understanding how the world works. Experience and education on the
natural order, structure, and patterns of cause and effect enable
logical reasoning to predict future consequences. As a result, energy invested
to construct connections of causality yields the power of knowledge that
lifts civilization. However, the new reality of 21st century technology
brings mountains of information faster than the
mind can "connect the dots" to dia use and effect within a contextual
frame. Complexity overwhelms the mind with erroneous assumption. Without
accurate knowledge, management devolves into bumbling and eventual
entropy. (see also
cognitive overhead in New World Order...)
The biology of human thinking that turns water into wine
needs a boost in the new world order of the 21st century.
How then does the architecture of human
intelligence convert information into
that can be aided by technology?
Intelligence: Organize, Analyse, Align, Summarize, Feedback
In Cognitive Science, intelligence is a process that captures a continuous
stream of information from sensory perception through sight and sound from
seeing, reading, talking and hearing, but, as well, from rhythms of
movement for writing, walking, swinging a golf club, driving a car, etc.
The mind innately and involuntarily connects patterns
of sequential associations needed for survival. Jeremy Campbell describes
in his book "The Improbable Machine" positing that
the "Human mind cannot help but connect one thing it knows with another..."
forms chronology that applies the irreversibility of time. Since survival has
multiple requirements, e.g., air, water, food, protection, shelter, etc.,
cognition (i.e., sentience) makes sense of complexity from multiple needs
and dynamic circumstances by associating patterns of sequence into
contextual frames that guide conduct. Biology of mental
metrics (some authorities describe
dimension matching) for time and context
from linking the story of daily life that "a" occurred before "b".
This simple binary mechanism connecting cause and effect induces
awareness from trails associating action with failure, loss, irritation,
pain, and death, and alternatively with success yielding rewards, survival,
satisfaction and pleasure. Thus, the brain enables survival by remembering
from performing action in the present
so that later memory of the past can
plan for the future. Memory that "a" occurred before "b" builds
understanding (see NWO) "a" can be relied upon to yield "b".
Repeated patterns connecting cause and effect build sufficient
for confidence and faith to transform mere awareness into "belief," a rule,
a paradigm, a lesson learned. In a complex world, belief, rules, paradigms,
and lessons can be learned incorrectly because "a" can occur before "b"
under one set of circumstances, yet not under another. Therefore accuracy
refining understanding of context is the price of survival, and death is
the cost of error. This formula can be expressed by the proposition that
truth of belief from memory of chronology and context, together with
energy connecting cause and effect yields the power of
to control the future. Some authorities in traditional philosophy
describe transformation of information into knowledge as
justified true belief,
with antecedents in legal practice that relies on the weight of evidence
to authenticate accuracy of communication, for example testimony at trial.
Physical science grounds the power of knowledge in the
based on the irreversibility of time. The finality
of time as a condition of existence underscores the importance of accuracy
linking cause and effect.
Power discharged in every direction is a destructive explosion. Order focuses
dispersed power like a magnifying glass turns benign rays of light into a
productive force controlled by the human mind, i.e., knowledge. Similarly,
"subjects" manage the power of knowledge by organizing connections of cause and
effect into organic structures of context.
(also topics, categories, classifications) describe the
context of cause and effect within boundaries that limit the reach of deciding
to take action based on new information. Survival requires seperating action
for eating from action for protection. So, for example we cannot farm the land
to grow food using actions that blow up the enemy. To survive, the brain must
seperate chronologies of experience for seperate needs. Therefore, knowledge
of cause and effect within the limits of context drive decisions on immediate
action, and further enables people to plan for future events by understanding
past experience under the rule past is prologue. As a result, subjects
describe needs, goals. objectives, requriements and commitments.
Human needs occur along a continuum of scale, beginning at the
molecular level, and grow continuously by assembling small meanings into larger
objectives, like DNA grows life itself. Scalable knowledge expands personal
memory, belief, confidence, and faith in the reliability of cause and effect to
form organizational memory with mechanisms for common storage and
to solve problems and make discoveries beyond the originating individual.
The organic structure of subjects (i.e.,
is necessarily fluid and so impossible for the conscious mind to distinguish at
low levels of detail. Internal subjects, though complex, comprise a closed,
consistent environment managed entirely by the subconscious mind. Nobody
gives it a (conscious) thought. The external environment is open and dynamic,
and can be managed by the conscious mind, however, most often this occurs
by rote using subconscious processing. An example is putting a document
in a file folder, putting dishes in the cupboard, etc. The burden of managing a
vast range of subjects that represent needs and evolving context is assuaged
by culture that provides guidance for taking action through habit, tradition,
manners, and peer pressure. Civilization adds laws, regulations,
policies, contracts, specifications, history, organizations, commitments,
and planning for added guidance, but this, also, increases the complexity
of managing knowledge by increasing the number of subjects. In other words,
habit, tradition, manners and peer pressure require little conscious
mental attention to organize information into subjects, and use those
subjects effortlessly to find relevant experience for taking action.
But these traditional technologies (e.g., laws, contracts, commitments,
etc.,) require a lot of conscious effort to organize chronologies of cause
and effect into the correct context for finding relevant guidance to
make action effective. The growing gap between external guidance and failure
to comply with guidance due to limited span of attention presents a growing
knowledge management dilema that necessarily restrains the advance of
POIMS is a new kind of technology that leverages mental biology for
managing organic structures to quickly and accurately represent evolving
context across the full range of subjects from daily experience, and provide
based on situational awareness.
difficult to comprehend,
because (a) existence is overwhelmingly complex to the conscious mind, and (b)
the intelligence process that manages subjects occurs involuntarily in the
subconscious mind, i.e., on "automatic pilot." Unlike information that
accumulates consciously through the senses (seeing, hearing, touching, doing,
etc.), mental processing that creates knowledge is hidden, so there is no
conscious awareness of experience, time nor process to guide development
of tools for creating knowledge independently from the human mind.
This makes it difficult for traditional information technologies
(IT) in wordprocessing, spreadsheets, email, filing folders, key words, DBMS,
MIS, AI, and the rest, to support "intelligence" for managing evolving context.
Management science over centuries has devised discrete techniques for handling
complexity in performing professional practices. Experience in project
management, law, accounting, writing and the military offer clues that unlock
secrets for a theory of knowledge beyond IT that saves time and money.
The mental process of connecting information into patterns of
cause and effect that impact survival and related objectives can
be likened to a form of Knowledge Space
that establishes context,
similar to engineering drawings that position physical objects in
dimensional space. This evolving context is continually
compared, again, along a continuum, from subconscious to
conscious situational awareness,
for pattern matching, and subject identification that drive decision making
in relation to prior experience, i.e., history, and controlling authority from
habit, tradition, manners, peer pressure, fashion, policy, contract and law.
of mental maps strengthens credibility, belief and reliance on cause
and effect, leading to conviction. This makes context a critical
dimension of knowledge for establishing accuracy and relevance.
Information that does not align with history and authority
reduces belief, and induces caution,
rejection, and inquiry through
to verify and refine accuracy. This continual "intelligence"
process of converting information into knowledge (modeled below as
plan, perform, report) generates
experience by creating connections that link cause and effect,
which is the core resource for survival and
improvement of the human condition. Information from daily experience
can, therefore, be thought of as
intellectual capital, which can be
"invested" to improve a product, a community, a nation and
civilization itself, by adding and checking links to
verify accuracy and expand understanding
of cause and effect based on context. Or, we can let information simply
settle into links entirely on automatic pilot, like so much straw in the wind.
Since time limits the ability to invest intellectual capital, technology
that aids the mind's process of making connections, like the
boosts human performance by orders of magnitude, hence the observation that
literacy makes people superhuman. The
common term for summarizing the notion of "superhuman" people is
"civilization." Prior to literacy, most people lived a very rudimentary
existence, frought with perils close to the earth, like
other species. In today's world most creature comforts are amply satisfied;
yet, there remains a powerful drive for improvement. People want better health
care, a bigger house, more personal time for family and liesure; some yearn to
explore other planets. As with the
advance from pre-literate times to civilization, technology that further lifts
the capacity to think, remember and communicate
is the only path for another great leap in human progress. Achieving this
goal requires support for intelligence. How does it work?
Mental connections of cause and effect are
created from a continuous stream of information
received through daily activity -- i.e., sensory perception from seeing,
hearing, talking, smell, tactile and motion experience
doing things, including hand/eye coordination, rythm, etc.
-- and occur on a vastly complex scale in the
subconscious mind. Multi-level processing supports a binary architecture of
cognition for thinking and doing. Intelligence smoothly manages transitions
mind for guiding action with continual feedback loops (commonly called
thinking, pondering, deliberating) that verify
accuracy of perception based on alignment with experience
appropriate to the context of current circumstances.
2-tier model of cognition
presents a powerful, often perplexing, and
sometimes deadly knowledge management dilemma endemic to the general model of
that defines existence. (see New World Order...)
Conscious awareness perceives the world through the prism of
based on sequential action, i.e., chronology,
where people can only do one thing at a time; the body can only go in one
direction or another; can only read one book, one page, one sentence at time.
Striking a nail with a hammer, the body cannot at the same time, also, saw, or
measure. But, since needs and influences are dynamic and complex, subconscious
"thinking," or "intelligence," uses parallel processing to connect information
from walking, reading, hammering, sawing, measuring, and everything else people
do into a more powerful cognitive resource, called "knowledge," that organizes
chronologies of cause and effect across a wide range of subjects that impact
survival, directly and indirectly, into a single resource...
This complex resource is summarized in the conscious span of attention
to focus mental strength on serial processing of only a
few subjects for guiding external sequential action on discrete
objects from moment-to-moment.
in the conscious span of attention
connects relevant details from an individual's total life
experience in order to manage evolving context for taking action in the moment.
Subconscious processing spawns
many connections (thousands, millions)
essentially all at once in personal memory based on rules, sometimes called
"paradigms," formed from experience. Parallel processing is extremely fast
handling vast amounts of data to construct concurrent connections that make
sense of everything the mind encounters moment-to-moment. This often
leap-frogs the slow pace of conscious processing to perceive possibilities
that defy logic, based on commonly accepted standards and practice.
Benefits of parallel
processing to quickly understand evolving context and to imagine powerful
new, and counterinutitive solutions
are balanced by reduced
accuracy, because rule-based processing is highly prone to error. Variance
between momentary memory of experience, and recognizing patterns from
contextual boundaries of actual conditions that are processed with fixed rules,
make error endemic to the subconscous mind. Jeremy Campbell explains that
people pay a price of constant error remembering only fragments of
events, and filling out the gist of the story with details that fit
common sense rules and paradigms for understanding cause and effect.
The Improbable Machine)
Error from fixed-rule based judgments are often disparaged as prejudice,
and discrimination. Paradoxically, subconscious mental errors are a
powerful force for survival by quickly focusing conscious attention
in the ballpark
of correct understanding.
Conscious processing of situations perceived by the subconscious solves
the problem of error by investing time to verify mental connections against
actual conditions, including organizational memory when a record exists
that can be accessed in time. (see also
in New World Order...)
Of course, sequential processing for accuracy is
necessarily very slow, and is limited by
span of attention. (see above)
Limited time, impatience, laziness and indifference all encourage
reliance on rigid rules, rather than consciously investigating actual
situations to avoid error of prejudice.
This 2-tier model of innate, biological cognition
presents a constant dilemma of balancing speed and accuracy to
work intelligently by
constructing connections that convert
information into knowledge for getting things done correctly and in time to be
effective. In very stark terms, if all processing is subconscious, using
only rigid rules and paradigms, then speed is
optimized, but accuracy fails; so, we crash and die.
If we consciously try to check everything,
then we run out of time and die, before getting anything done.
When time is available, introspective thinking, medititation and prayer are
helpful for discovering critical connections by focusing conscious and
subconscious attention on a single subject without interference from normal
Synergy between conscious and subconscious processing
can sometimes yield insight for solving problems and
recognizing possibilities that are otherwise hidden by daily work.
(see New World Order Needs Old Time Religion)
Studying accurate history increases the
chance for clarity of understanding leading to breakthroughs from meditation.
These days, however, too few have time to think,
to study, nor to capture a record, verify accuracy, organize and
access the record that enable studing to be prepared for either meditative
or written analysis.
Information that comes too fast overwhelms span of attention. When
mental biology is exceeded, comprehension declines because the mind cannot
construct meaning by associating new information with experience. Confusion
aligning cause and effect within contextual boundaries increases ambiguity,
erroneous understanding and false belief. Without timely feedback, strong
belief in false connections degrades productivity
from the power of...
Negative synergy compounds mistakes from compressing time and
distance because information density overloads the mind. Without a
well ordered record and tools for precision access to align daily work,
gradually and inexorably away from original connections. Constant meetings
calls, and documents incrementally change memory, understanding, and belief
(i.e., what was previously "known" --
New World Order...). Over time, cause and effect is
changed or entirely lost. Worse, meaning that correlates cause and
effect can be completely reversed in the human mind. Since this occurs
incrementally and on automatic pilot, i.e., without choice or
volition, mental processing of false knowledge is hidden. It is a
"secret" in the subconscious mind that wells up into momentary feelings of
assuredness, commonly called
(see again New World Order...), that succors the conscious
mind's desire to avoid stress and conflict in order to feel safe in taking
or avoiding action.
has been an important concern for government and
enterprise in securing safety. The same tension arises between
privacy and productivity. Doing nothing provides complete
security; doing anything risks error and discovery. Life requires
balancing values of security and productivity.
Today, most risk comes not from disclosing secrets to
enemies but from communication with friends that
imparts false knowledge,
leading to actions which conflict with objectives, requirements and
commitments. Information overload makes connections of cause and effect,
i.e., knowledge, from meetings, calls, email, related sources and history,
a "secret" from participants. When there is no proactive "intelligence" effort
to maintain alignment, called out by POIMS, "knowledge" from processing
spontaneous, stream-of-conscious information that occurs in daily
communication, for example, talking, listening and taking notes during a
meeting, is often erroneous due to short term perspective of
as explained in NWO.
Incorrect connections form in the mind between new information
that seems, in the moment, to align with prior experience, because a few
elements of experience, that can be summoned into the conscious
span of attention, before something else is said, or done, that diverts
attention to a different task, have similar patterns, but are not
sufficiently aligned to justify causal connection, based on the full range
of relevant experience, i.e., history.
When information is constant, there is not enough time to think of
everything; understanding is impulsive, cursory, and, in the moment, makes
common sense. Thereafter, the desire to feel good (e.g., safe) is
manifested in daily life by urging others to hold in common our "knowledge" of
the way things are. This biological drive to transfer momentary common sense by
telling others what we believe we "know," and which is widely considered a
powerful strength of "communication," actually conveys false knowledge from
meaning drift that is hidden from ourselves, and from others, i.e., made
"secret," by the noise of information density. Soon, leadership is blinded by
common sense that appears safe in the guise of self-assurred and commanding
communication delivered with entertaining style. These "people" skills, that
enable entertainers to repeat lines carefully crafted and researched for
selling an audience on saying "yes" to buying a car, or switching to a new
brand of tooth paste, are devestatingly effective in spreading the contagion of
false knowledge, like a virus, throughout an organization, when communication
is not aligned with objectives, requirements and commitments from
Since communication is a predicate to action, a harsh
new reality has emerged from success creating faster
information technology (IT) that enables large
organizations in government and enterprise. This powerful combination of
technology and leadership fosters a devestating paradigm shift
that marks the dilemma of the millennium from making...
the biggest risk in enterprise
Error increases exponentially from faster flowing and unchecked
information in large organizations
unwittingly transferring meaning drift
in the form of common sense. (see again
New World Order...).
Paradoxically, large organizations are essential for
economies of scale and so require faster information technology.
Yet, these powerful forces of success in the modern age create
chronic information overload that overwhelms human
span of attention, causing continual bumbling. (see for example
Henry Kissinger's book Diplomacy reviewed on June 9, 1994).
Without proactive "intelligence" to "connect the dots" by adding links for
continual alignment that refines accuracy and builds
shared meaning, from feedback and an audit trail of
traceability to original sources (see PMBOK and ISO, reviewed
on July 21, 1995), then, in the absence of any such
"intelligence" process, (sometimes called
continual learning, also,
etc.), daily communication on the job degrades to entropy, euphemistically
called the fog of war
NWO), where every call, every meeting, every email, document and
discussion sows the seeds of error, loss, crisis, conflict and calamity that
occurs days, weeks, even years in the future, far removed in time, place, and
"Meaning drift" occurs routinely from the common practice of
paraphrasing to aid memory, easily illustrated in the friendly after dinner
The human mind innately recodes (i.e., paraphrases) information absorbed
through biological hearing to fit personal experience and paradigms, commonly
called "interpretation." Small changes in phrasing give a story meaning
and perspective. Mentally constructing context aligned with personal
experience significantly improves memory. That is why people are much
better telling a story "in their own words," rather than verbatim.
Small changes to a story are harmless in the moment, because original
context is clear. Meaning drift, however, multiplies, when information
increases and flows faster without
for alignment to
original sources. Stories re-told apart from original context therefore
suffer significant change. Since the degree of deviation in the
moment is small, there is strong denial that
meaning drift is a significant
problem. In fact, communication and common sense seem so fast and easy
that talking and hearing dominate the
practice of daily management, making it hard for people to admit the magnitude
of mistakes and loss caused by meaning drift in the
of rising information density.
Every person hired these days has responded to a call for good
communication skills that
expedite the work. That being so, people feel
their competence, and thereby their livelihood, is threatened
by admitting that the strongest part of their work practice,
is the biggest cause of mistakes, delay and extra cost. Recognizing this
challenge is the paradigm shift of the millennium, because the
most common solution for most problems is to have another meeting,
make a phone call or send an email. For these long established practices to
now be recognized as the cause of problems, rather than the solution, presents
a seemingly insurmountable dilemma, leading to sclorotic denial.
Andy Grove, Chairman of Intel Corporation, notes on page 128 of his book,
Only the Paranoid Survive that even
successful executives have difficulty admitting to themselves, much less
to others, the magnitude of the problems they face. The only solution is to
strengthen memory, context, experience, and inference, also, called alignment.
Human cognitive capabilities can be aided by proactive
to organize, analyse, align, summarize and obtain
that verifies information and refines accuracy of knowledge.
This form of intelligence discovers the errors and
secrets, that occur constantly in handling
in time to avoid mistakes, delay, extra cost, conflict and crisis.
Sometimes we call the work product of intelligence activity,
for example by the CIA, simply, "Intelligence," and the worker is called
an "analyst," who assesses information and "connects up the dots" of cause and
effect. Someone who proactively seeks out "intelligence" is called a
"secret agent" or "spy."
Along the same vein, we simplify by saying POIMS technology enables a
culture of knowledge that aids
intelligence by enhancing alphabet technology,
for deliberative analysis,
as contrasted with spontaneous,
cursory analysis that occurs in conversation, meetings, calls and email.
Thinking through writing
improves human memory by expanding span of attention. Since literacy is the
driving force of civilization, adding power to
this core competency lifts civilization to a new plateau, in like manner
that alphabet technology and later the printing press lifted past
generations. POIMS technology extends this lineage to
integrate time and information that yields
chronologies of cause and effect for guiding daily tasks and planning the
future, based on past experience, more commonly called
knowledge. Expanding further,
organization, analysis, alignment, summary connected to details, and
proactive mental metrics for daily communication by refining
accuracy of what we know, i.e., "knowledge" grows through continual
learning. Timely, accurate understanding reduces the risk of "secret"
mistakes caused by meaning drift in daily communications
Work to proactively create knowledge for discovering
problems and opportunities in time to take effective action is called
rather than "spying." Other common expressions include
knowledge management, Context Management,
analysis, or simply intelligence to focus on defining a new way of
thinking, learning and working, by integrating computer science,
management science, and cognitive science.
A new way of working intelligently
redresses the knowledge management dilemma caused by
limited span of
that is overwhelmed by information overload, commonly expressed as...
I can't think of everything at once!
I don't have time to think!
Why is this always happening to me?
Limited time and span of attention limits ability to make sense of information
by aligning daily work into patterns of cause and effect that enables
Understanding fails when information density overloads mental biology.
Meaning drift compounds complexity, which conceals context. Misunderstanding
context paralyzes productivity with continual cycles of correcting
mistakes, i.e., rework,
called "problem handling" and
"crisis management." POIMS technology expands span of attention by making it
faster and easier to develop intelligence using
chronology, context, and connection.
What exactly are the "details" of human knowledge that
intelligence strives to
summarize, but which
quickly get disconnected due to
meaning drift. In fact, as seen below, even a partial list of
subjects processed by human intelligence in the blink of an eye is
overwhelming to the conscious mind, and thus presents the modern dilemma of
(Conscious Span of Attention)
Risk of Action
Risk of Inaction
Clearly, there is a lot to think about everyday on the job; but, just
as clearly, most of the details are on the "back burner," because consciously
considering the entire array is overwhelming. People
avoid worrying about "connecting the dots" to understand complex
details of daily work, because
managing "knowledge" is a lot of hard work,
reported on March 7, 2000. Based on the military model of command and
control, managers spend 80% - 90% of their time communicating
in meetings, calls, and documents.
Peter Drucker cites analysis as the core responsibility for management to make
sense of constant communication, but further notes the tendency for
people to give up. (see review on November 30, 1993) Research by the
US Air Force Institute of Technology (USAFIT) found that
constant communication overwhelms tools and best practices.
(reported on July 7, 1997) Management then
degrades to entropy (see also
meaning drift in NWO)
with everyone working from personal memory, because nobody
has command and control of organizational memory. How then do people
avoid mistakes from subconsciously
processing a vast array of complex, interrelated information?
Culture and bureaucracy provide helpful guidance on
taking action in complex conditions. While
culture and traditional command and control exercised through
bureaucracy resist improvement, people benefit from
constancy that resists changing tools and practices that have brought prior
success. Established conditions and protocols with
responsiblity divided, significantly reduce the burden of cognitive
overhead for individuals to think of everything.
Within this framework, accounting, cost and schedule control,
forms management, records management, data base management, MIS, data mining,
IT and other business systems help control critical details using
Today, technology can create, store and transfer documents using electronic
databases, email, the Internet and other traditional
modes in filing cabinets, file folders, 3 x 5 cards, books,
printed and handwritten materials, postits, reminders, brief
case, to-do lists, etc. But, documents remain largely isolated chunks of
information disconnected from decisions that expedite daily work under the
common rule that...
Paperwork never catches up with the real work!
(see telecon on January 7, 1997)
What has been missing up until now is a common theory to
augment intellignece for integrating the many
and varied information streams in peoples lives and in
organizations that create knowledge of cause and effect.
Information technology (IT) offers a wide range of powerful contact
programs to manage people and organizations. Email, wordprocessing,
data base, graphics, spreadsheets and other programs accomplish important
tasks. However, as noted in the USAFIT study, more information degrades
management to entropy without "intelligence support"
for "connecting the dots" into useful knowledge.
The POIMS design, therefore, strives to advance
information technology (IT) toward a culture of knowledge. The change from
information to knowledge tools, however, is necessarily
counterintuitive because there is no tradition for a proactive
in business, as there is in the military. (see also
New World Order... )
The only "intelligence" support for leadership and
management comes from after-the-fact
adjustments, when meaning drift
causes work to drift off course. (see above)
When damages occur that people are unwilling to absorb, they hire very
expensive intelligence specialists, more commonly called lawyers.
Attornies for both sides (sometimes many sides) spend years examining
documents, interviewing people, and analyzing alignment with objectives,
requirements and commitments. This very deliberate analysis eventually
discovers the truth about what caused failure of events long
since past, and further enables judgements for management
to organize, analyse and align future conduct that avoids
harm. (see again NWO) Until now, there have been no tools to make
"intelligence support" for deliberate analysis a cost effective role
for proactive problem handling in business to accomplish
rather than wait for the law to discover the best course
after-the-fact. (see NWO)
Knowledge Management (KM)
has the right literation for tools that make
a routine practice of daily management saving lives, time, and money,
as called out by
Drucker, who has long championed a concept of "knowledge work."
(see review on October 25, 1999) This potential has proven elusive. While
"knowledge" is a common term, building tools that are usefully distinguished
from information technology (IT) requires an "out of the box" conceptual leap
integrating computer science, management science, and cognitive science.
Equally, routine exposure to knowledge of causation with better accuracy from
using links and feedback encounters
resistance to transformation because cultural inertia
discussed above. A Knowledge Management dilemma presents an
innovation loop where inexperience with benefits of intelligence support
engenders greater fear of accountability for mistakes than for
damages caused by mistakes under the common rule from the
Legend of Prometheus
that ignorance is bliss. (see review on November 8, 1999)
In the face of engineering and cultural obstacles driven by
ignorance, fear, and denial, market forces have driven
the banner of Knowledge Management (KM) in many disparate directions, largely
for selling past initiatives that failed to improve communication through
executive training on conversation, and technology that focuses
on information (IT), discussed above. Review of
IBM's announcement on February 26, 1998 to market services for
found little relation to either intelligence, knowledge,
nor management, and found strong
correlation with past initiatives to market IT under new names.
IBM's experience with Lotus Notes in the 1990s, IBM's
Lotus Notes into Raven
for Knowledge Management reported on November 30,
2000, and the subsequent report on August 22, 2002 that
feeling some pain
using Lotus Notes aligns with analysis of
Peter Drucker's work in the early 90s, noting that people have given up,
because the complex architecture of human thought makes
communication vastly different from information, and therefore difficult
to improve. Research sponsored by SRI
found in a report on March 7, 2000 that Knowledge Management is a lot of
using popular information technologies (IT). This suggests that a
different kind of technology is needed for KM. However, IBM later reported on
June 6, 2000 that Knowledge Management
failed to meet expectations, and
another name for information technology with no substantive
improvement, which aligned with prior
analysis in 1998, and with concerns cited by the team meeting at SRI who
concluded on June 15, 2000 that
there isn't enough knowledge to
develop tools for Knowledge Management.
The cultural leap from information to knowledge tools has seemingly imbued
Knowledge Management in all of the following...
Information Technology (IT)
Artifcial Intelligence (AI)
Project Management (PM)
Integrated Cost and Schedule Control (CSCS/C)
Command and Control
Transformation from 20 - 30 traditional disciplines into a unified theory of
Knowledge Management necessarily takes time. Presently,
two (2) distinct camps have emerged,
representing the binary structure of existence. Both groups
aim to advance civilization by improving communication in daily
meetings, calls, memos, reports, correspondence, books, etc. The
popular term for this effort is "collaboration." Each group
strives to improve different parts of collaboration, roughly divided between
speaking and writing. Historically the division between
orality and literacy can be
summarized as a dichotomy between talent and tools. Other binary forms are
instructive on foundational divisions in management under
Theory X and Theory Y. (see again Drucker)
For example notify or consult, command and control or creativity and empower,
proactive study to deliberate, plan, and prepare or react spontaneously
on impulse, accountablity or license
all reflect competing benefits of expediency and accuracy. Best practices of
leadership teach executives skills for relying
on natural talent (i.e., intelligence) for speaking, hearing, and observing
extemporaneously in continual discussions, and email, while tools strive
to augment intelligence with alphabet technology, wordprocessing, and now
POIMS technology for authentic conversation verified with alighment to
original sources, as called out in management standards. (see review of
PMBOK, and ISO on July 21, 1995)
The traditionalist, orality, natural intelligence
group "collaborates" and exercises "leadership"
to make things happen in the moment with
fantastic social networking. These social skills rely on
talent for talking people into saying
"yes," with convincing and entertaining speech, dialog, conversation,
and discussion that demonstrate exceptional
memory, wit, rhetoric, and charm. In classical times people were called
orators who rose to prominence
with strong communication skills for collaboration.
Orality relied on poetry and pictures
to aid human memory in delivering an
entertaining story to hold audience attention. (see
history of writing reviewed on November 11, 1999) Today, roles for
people skills closely align with "salesmanship" and
by executive training, and formal education that sharpens
talent for speaking, debating and people skills to communicate with minimal
use of tools. Powerpoint programs, for example,
are used to prepare pictures that make speech convincing, and cell
phones are embraced for extending the reach of natural talent for talking,
both without pause about compounding the risk of error, loss, crisis and
calamity due to meaning drift.
The second group promotes KM for collaboration using tools that
augment intelligence and strengthen cooperation, beginning with
alphabet technology to produce documents.
Later the printing press, typewriters and, today,
wordprocessing have led to Information technology (IT) that
empowers people to act in concert over time by preserving
original understanding through literacy in documents that extend human memory
beyond the moment.
Time is the bridge between talent and tools in knowledge work. Talent
using tools over time in particular ways augments natural intelligence
(talent) for understanding causation that drives future consequences.
At least from the time of Plato and Aristotle in 400 BC, advocates of
orality, i.e., reliance on natural talent for speaking,
and those working on tools for
literacy, i.e., originally alphabet technology, and today Information
each distrusts the other, as evidenced by Plato's
Phaedrus. This distrust presents another knowledge management
that balances binary structure, since,
talent for people skills, and tools for memory are both
essential to civilization. As stated above in discussing
thinking and doing,
requires taking action,
in the moment,
based on accurate understanding of cause and effect derived from
experience that is aligned over time,
beyond the moment.
However, still today, suspicion and fear manifest the ancient divide
between talent and tools.
One group advocates Knowledge Management for
fantastic social networking to build personal
"relationships." This important effort promotes
traditional behavioral methods for verbal communications in leadership,
teaching, and salesmanship, and is applied for
mentoring, collaborating, expediting, change management,
reengineering and TQM. The other branch of Knowledge Management
comes from computer technology.
Artificial intelligence (AI) and project management
software tools for "thinking," and "planning" use flow diagrams that
render relationships in abstract, logical mappings of network graphics.
Examples are organization charts, work breakdown structures (WBS), cost
control, schedule (CPM, C/SCSC), and computer aided design (CAD) software.
Inventory, purchasing, accounting, and banking software further animate
efforts to support general Knowledge Management with technology. This second
group proposes computer networks to communicate, share information, and
collaborate on preparing
documents, like contracts, product specifications, books, letters, and so on.
These tools enable people to prepare professionally formatted
documents with security and
version control. The Internet, and
wireless technologies, enable a lot of people around the world,
across the street, and down the hall, to contribute on preparing documents.
Email merges perspectives of Knowledge Management as conversation
and as technology (see the record on May 5, 2000).
Making it fast and easy to create and send documents makes
stream-of-conscious writing similar to speaking. This creates an impression
that email merges strengths of speech for fast, easy communication
to share information, understand, and collaborate, with accuracy of a
written record, commonly called "documentation" that makes teamwork
and coordination effective. Email lists of
issued and received
correspondence further remind people to follow up, as an Action
Item system, and email Subject
descriptions can organize the record to help
find critical details. AI and web page engineers are working to add
classification (metadata search criteria), and structure for documents through
ontology, XML, SMGL, computational linguistics and other means to transform
documents into a system of Knowledge Management that makes communication more
effective, people more efficient, and enterprize more productive.
This perspective has four (4) defects that make email an important part,
but not sufficient for Knowledge Management...
on impulse, together with instantaneous worldwide distribution give
an illusion of productivity and progress. Like fools gold
that raises hopes for instant riches, email fosters laziness and
sloth that suppress deliberation and industry. (see
review on September 8, 2001) Without
command and control
of the record, order and accuracy decline. Since damage
is deferred, rising complexity gradually overwhelms span of
attention. Little deviations mysteriously grow into major
problems, crisis, and calamity under Murphy's Law. Fear of
accountability paralyzes productivity, as seen from the
Microsoft case reported November 10, 1999.
Clearly, there is no incentive to maintain a
lot of documents riddled with errors. In fact, email encourages people
to destroy, rather than invest, intellectual
- There is no record that AI and web page engineers can build an "engine"
that automates the architecture of human intelligence. All of the successful models apply
technology to closed systems with well defined and very limited
boundaries that control variables. Human reasoning, intelligence, and
knowledge occur in an open system with vast relational and hierarchial
complexity, where variables are dynamic. (see
on May 23,
- Email is less accurate even than speech, which is inherently
prone to error due to limitations of mental biology, reported by
reviewed on November 8, 1999.
Email is spontaneous, cursory, lacks summary, organization, and
alignment with objectives, requirements, commitments, and history,
and thus constantly sows seeds of error.
- Email practice is additive, redundant, participatory, and
normative for cordiality, comity, and leadership to entertain,
persuade, cajole, instruct, and guide that occurs in speeches,
dialog, conversation, and chatting. Accuracy is secondary.
- Email assumes accuracy of factual representation, and
forgives error; like conversation, verification through alignment
with relevant context clutters relaxed communication that aims for
persuasion through clever and entertaining presentation.
report on August 20, 2002) Rigors of
traditional documentation for analysis, accuracy, abstract, and
objectively distanced deliberation are avoided as disruptive to
conversation in email etiquette. (see
report August 23, 2002)
- Email omits words and referents that assume common
understanding which are recognized in conversation through
immediacy of gestures, expressions, and props, like pointing to a
diagram, or experiencing a common setting, which are all missing
from email. People assume that others understand cursory,
incomplete writing that saves time based on association in a stack
of prior emails, called a "thread." However, when distribution is
expanded, new recipients are unaware of associations, and
continuing participants often forget assumed referents due to
passage of time, i.e, lack of immediacy that occurs in
- Hurrying causes words to be omitted or entered incorrectly,
endemic to email that satisfies human drives
favoring speed over accuracy
(see review on
April 15, 2003) Typing errors can convey an opposite meaning of
intended communication. This prevents collaboration and
coordination, because people take conflicting rather than
complementary action. Proofreading by the writer fails because the
mind "sees" with continuity of context what was intended. Readers
in a different context of time, location, and experience see only
what is actually written.
- Email is one-sided, and so cannot be corrected and clarified
based on immediate contextual dynamics that occur in conversation.
Lack of immediate feedback and context increases complexity that
overwhelms span of attention, causing errors, delay, rising cost,
conflict, and frustration. Feedback loops to refine accuracy are
often resisted. (see NWO)
- Email ease of
Knowledge Management must therefore strengthen "intelligence" that
avoids error and discovers opportunity in the growing
mountain of information from meetings, calls, and email.
POIMS architecture with flexible structure
for intelligence support
adds chronology, context, and connection
to email and other information streams, yielding a source of
investment to grow the power of knowledge rather than bigger
Documents are a good medium for information, but a poor medium
for knowledge; and, collaboration is a small, albeit, important
derivative of Knowledge Management; however,
the primary benefit of KM is
for taking timely, effective action. Structure is important for
organization and context, but flexibility is, also, essential for
reviewed on May 23, 1989)
Action Items are more effective based on "intelligence" using the
context of objectives, requirements, and history for setting priority
of all pending issues, rather than being driven by momentary demands of
others received through email that crowd out time for accurate
understanding. (see example of
Action Items on September 22, 2000)
Some authorities search for a solution that advances beyond information
technology by proposing a process of creating documents through
collaboration on the Internet as a form of collective intelligence.
Documents are a cultural modality for using alphabet technology that evolved in
a manual world 2,000 years ago, and are only a small part of the factors that
influence daily action. A more robust solution empowers people with technology
that moves up the scale of cognition from information to knowledge.
Knowledge Management (KM) captures the right
improving the information technology (IT) paradigm, but has been implemented
with familiar methods (e.g., email, wordprocessing, dialog skills) that are
already comfortable to everyone. (see collaboration,
People have therefore lost confidence in this phrase (KM) for
identifying meaningful advance. (see review of
IBM's research on June 8, 2002)
Knowledge tools (by any name) should significantly broaden the range of
aided by technology for making action effective, i.e., accurate, on
time, and within budget. Since accuracy, time and money are always in
conflict, the only solution is to develop technology that strengthens the
weakest link in the productivity chain. POIMS calls for expanding
span of attention
to continually align conduct along a broader range of objectives,
requirements and commitments than the human mind can achieve on its own, so
that people are better able to take complementary action, rather than cause
conflict. (see meaning drift
and secrecy). Enabling complementary action and
reducing mistakes by using technology to
work intelligently brings a sea
change in productivity and earnings, similar to driving a car, rather than
walking. (see discussion above)
Today, we have an electronic world that
permits, indeed now requires, moving beyond Information Technology (IT) that
produces documents (e.g., books, memos, email, etc.), to a
culture of knowledge
that leverages intelligence in the microcosm of the mind to enable a
new way of thinking, learning and working.
(see New World Order...) Connectionist theory in cognitive science
(see, for example, Jeremy Campbell's book,
The Improbable Machine)
opens the door to a new kind of technology that
lifts civilization with a powerful modality of
that strengthens daily action by adding an
to integrate information in documents with
experience, i.e., time. Knowledge
technology must aim higher than mere collaboration and documents, by
integrating cognitive science, management science and computer science.
Intelligence support for knowledge is a significant step to lift civilization
by lifting the capacity to think, remember, and communicate.
Retooling basic literacy skills to
read and write
requires a more robust
paradigm than traditional documents based on alphabet technology.
Documents contain information at the time of publication.
Knowledge is much more powerful. It
occurs in the human mind from the intelligence process of organizing and
integrating a continuous stream of information, including but extending
well beyond documents, and received through sensory perception as an
evolving context that forms connections of cause and effect in relation
to human needs and experience. Most information is processed primarily
in the subconscious mind. Since
intelligence converts information into
knowledge innately, people feel that documents contain the actual knowledge
that guides daily conduct, because documents are external objects
available to the conscious mind, while the millions of connections
for managing context that comprise knowledge are hidden in the subconscious.
As a result, people tend to describe creating documents on the Internet
as "Knowledge Management," and assume, without any experiential evidence, that
this combination somehow aids productivity through better collaboration, all
without hesitation about the distinction between
information and knowledge. This omission, that overlooks the binary structure
of cognition based on conscious (information) and subconscious (knowledge)
processing, conceals the larger opportunity
to lift the capacity to
think, remember and communicate
by transitioning from information to a culture of knowledge.
POIMS argues that
Knowledge Management (KM)
to improve accuracy of daily work while saving time and money
requires technology, skills,
and a professional role that enhance human life and enterprise by
strengthening alphabet technology for maintaining a
well ordered record that leverages human intelligence. Tools that integrate
time and context convert information from meetings, calls, and documents
into "knowledge," rather than merely create documents. Connecting
cause and effect based on time and context yields the power of knowledge for
working intelligently to plan for the
future. "Intelligence" integrates continuous information
with human experience by "connecting the dots" of complementary
threads for chronology
and context. Better comprehension of dynamic and
evolving circumstances, combined with timely memory of
relevant details enables people to makes sense of rising
complexity from isolated meetings, calls,
pictures and documents piling up on desks, in
filing cabinets, libraries, and computers. Understanding documents and dialog
in relation to experience organized with the organic structure of context
into a well ordered record yields an
effective Knowledge Space
that aids personal and organizational memory and management,
hence POIMS. Knowledge Management must therefore
synthesize tools and practices from management science, computer science,
and cognitive science. It is a complicated
Until now, enterprise outside the military has avoided intelligence
New World Order...). and has relied, instead, on an
amalgamation of ad hoc information systems, commonly called
which, as reported by the U.S. Air Force Institute of Technology, necessarily
degrades over time into useless
entropy, that escalates cost and delay. In the vernacular: the
never catches up with the real work! As a result, decisions are based
on the stream-of-conscious component of "collaboration," i.e., conversation
and email, guided solely by human memory, in the moment, which
devolves into mere "guess and gossip" under
Feel Good Management practice that aims more to avoid
accountability than to meet objectives and align the work with
requirements and commitments. Since stream-of-conscious
communication lacks the metric of intelligence, errors mount
causing escalating delay, loss, crisis and calamity, because
people are working more on problem handling, i.e., expediting, than on moving
ahead. Information gridlock turns energy and talent
into a frenzy of self-protection, rather than an engine of progress.
Productivity, earnings and stock prices
because too many people are having too many problems (see the report by
on December 7, 2000).
Improvement comes, not by reducing conversation and documents,
but by adding intelligence
that integrates time and information,
as elements of Knowledge Space connected to human experience.
This requires tools, practices and roles to speed up the
process of investing intellectual capital
so that the human mind can keep up
with the pace of expanding information from collaboration through documents
As shown in the array, above, human intelligence
summarizes details to fit within a limited
span of attention. When the boss asks for the "bottom line" and
the "big picture" the request is to summarize thousands of
details into a simple yes or no calculation of the form...
Yes, proceed, let's do it!
No, don't do it!
Today, these ultimate decisions are based on hunch and hope due to the growing
complexity of factors that influence results, and the compounding effect of
reliance on dialog, as the dominant component of communication. Without
from proactive metrics
for communication, decision makers are forced to rely on
style. Management disconnected from substance is a voyage of
continual bumbling that reaches its destination only after the most
Since all managements are in the same environment, relative success
comes to those best able to get others to pay for mistakes, e.g., customers,
sureties, vendors, employees, taxpayers.
to management is a powerful advantage in the
POIMS technology ensures that alignment,
and analysis of relevant details are accurately and
timely summarized to produce good "intelligence," rather than "guess and
gossip," "hunch and hope," that controls
processing in the human mind.
"Intelligence" work is normally not thought of in this way. People conjure up
a CIA operative accomplishing daring feats, or a
spy satellite taking pictures to discover far away secrets which
foreign enemies are trying to conceal.
Communication Metrics focuses on
in the meaning, correlations, implications and nuance from
calls and documents everyday, all day long, by friends and foes alike. The rule
that people use only 2% of mental capacity is not substantiated in the
literature. But, clearly, as the number of management details escalate under
the new reality
of the Information Highway, more and more
of what transpires in a busy day
exceeds limited span of attention. This presents a huge opportunity to improve
performance by adding "intelligence" to management to order to expand span of
attention, i.e., to overcome limits of human cognition.
Therefore, designing technology to improve management
requires stepping back to look carefully at the mind's
intelligence processes in relation to the tasks managers
perform, even though it reveals a greater degree of complexity
than is recognized day-to-day. The dual meaning of POIMS
reflects the complexity of leading and planning,
thinking and doing.
Peter Drucker says that
technology applies the art, craft or science of any
organized human activity, and that advance toward a culture of
knowledge work is the ultimate craft of civilization.
POIMS technology aids advance toward a culture of knowledge by helping
consistently use good
management practice on the theory that doing the "right things"
faster, more accurately, more often, yields better results.
requires doing things in the right order and
degree. This harmony, or balancing of forces, which managers
bring to their craft is called "integration." It means more than
a "suite," or series, of related functions like wordprocessing,
spreadsheets and contacts. Synergy from complementarity between
functions is critical to make
the management process efficient, productive and effective.
Like the design of a car, a building, or a satellite in space,
key components of management (people,
process, time) must work together smoothly so that each
supports the other in order to meet the
challenge of the 21st century.
A better future begins with fundamentals. Management creates
wealth by investing knowledge and ideas (intellectual capital)
in people through communication. This investment
occurs as a continual process of...
Plan, Organize, Integrate and Measure
...which can be automated into a simple management cycle:
Plan, Perform, Report
The POIMS management cycle is an "intelligence" process that
converts information into
knowledge using an organic subject structure
that combines TQM principles of quality and MBO principles for managing context
with time for managing chronology. These ingredients applied with the speed
and accuracy of technology can fulfill the promise: "time is money
and knowledge is power. The irreversibility of time and the
locality principle in a world of accelerating complexity
require intelligence support adding energy to "connect the dots" of
cause and effect that yields the power of knowledge to predict
future consequences. (see review on March 12, 2004). POIMS extends this
promise to meet new realities awaiting
future generations by empowering people with the gift of time and
the power of knowledge to control the future.
LIMITS OF TECHNOLOGY
Good practices alone are of no help to busy people. For
example, writing reports, attending meetings, making calls, reading
and sending email all take time, and
cause false hope that effective communication has occurred; or,
fear that others are not "listening." Engineers, doctors, lawyers,
executives, customers... everyone feels guilty about
not reading a new report until the next report, call or meeting
buries it with new information. Every day the disconnect grows
between new information and what is understood and integrated
into the work flow. Inaccurate information and limited time to
understand context create
about what needs to be done, by whom, when, how and at what cost. Inaccurate
understanding turns the awesome power of human memory into a loaded "time bomb."
feel strongly that something is true, which is actually
false, meaning drift sows the seeds of mysterious mistakes that are hidden from
the conscious mind. Information technology degrades good practices into
entropy. People simply
give up on accuracy, allowing events to drive continual
reaction fixing problems (i.e., rework). There is never enough
time for planning to avoid problems when there is not enough time to think.
Eventually a critical mass of bumbling explodes under the horrific rule of
Murphy's Law, because constant meetings, calls and
documents create chronic information overload.
Without proactive intelligence
to align information for accurate understanding, "time bombs" are ticking,
People like computers for improving the appearance of information in
documents; yet, realize that, like the Pied Piper who made the
wrong path sound good, making bad information look good
causes disaster. This is the path to Murhpy's Law. Still, the
best selling applications for personal computers mainly improve
appearance of documents, reflecting an obvious fundamental:
pretty things sell because beauty is biologically attractive,
like a bee selects pretty flowers for the best nectar.
Since everyone is "selling" in one fashion or another, we demand
ways to make our message attractive, and to distribute it
So far, at the end of the 20th century, the marketplace has met
this demand with stunning success, and that is the problem!
The 21st century will require accuracy and comprehension
making sense of complexity to understand cause and effect.
Prepare for New Realities of 21st Century
Information Density Overwhelms Span of Attention
Murphy's Law, Crisis Management Solved by Intelligence
of the 21st century is overwhelming success of technology that
compresses time and distance,
while masking the true state of
affairs with a "pretty face" of style and image pleasing
a busy mind, when there is not enough time to
look beneath the surface to question, to analyse, nor check for alignment.
Good management practices mandated by standards, regulations and contract
hidden in plain sight
by the fog of war that occurs
each day on the job in constant meetings, calls, and email where nobody
has time to think. Without time to think, technology that only
produces information piling up in computers
fosters a new world order where
communication is the biggest risk in enterprise.
This new reality overwhelms
span of attention every day all day long.
Information overload causes chronic
mistakes, a contagion of bumbling hidden from the
conscious mind by
New World Order...). When
circumstances eventually cascade into crises that force
previously overlooked, forgotten and ignored mistakes into an overburdened span
of attention, current mistakes
are forced outside span of attention to await a future crisis.
This cycle of crises from continual bumbling and problem handling
is the source of
provides a psychological safety valve to relieve and excuse
stress, conflict and loss caused by too much information that
exceeds span of attention.
The human mind has always been susceptible to error when
confronted with too much information. A battlefield commander, a
foreman during a concrete pour, a
in the examination room,
a traffic cop at rush hour, a
quarterback on the field of play, all face the challenge which
historically humans confronted in a harsh environment. Survival
of life depends upon physical and mental capacity. Humans rely
relatively more on mental capacity than do other species.
Span of attention is more crucial to humans because physical
capacities cannot make up for mistakes. We cannot outrun nor
overpower our natural predators, so we use "intelligence" to
plan for survival. The practice, or craft, of
"management" evolved as a survival strategy that
invests time for thinking,
planning to prepare for future conditions. Being prepared
overcomes limited span of attention and thereby reduces the frequency of
crisis in accomplishing objectives. Of course today, the focus in
business is on enabling prosperity rather than mere survival, but the value
of investing time to be prepared is still critical to success.
The management role of "thinking" and planning prepares the commander,
the foreman, the
the traffic cop and the
quarterback to overcome limited span of attention, so that the chances
success are increased. The classic worry...
For want of a nail, a shoe was lost;
For want of a shoe a horse was lost;
For want of a horse a battle was lost...
... exemplifies the proactive
role of management that positions leadership to succeed by
planning ahead to anticipate for future conditions
and providing the means to meet them.
The Information Highway, however, is rapidly turning the traditional role of
management to be prepared by "thinking ahead" into an oxymoron, because
technology is rapidly reducing the time to deliberate for understanding
the meaning of new information received each day, commonly
I do not have time to think!
...and the corollary frustration...
Why is this always happening to me?
Management is becoming an impulsive exercise that does not have time to
The emerging business environment of information overload that
drives emotional reaction from one crisis to the next is a
huge change, a significant
must be addressed with new skills and tools in
order to restore a better balance between action and reaction,
emotion and analysis, between doing
and thinking, and between constant crisis and the mental process of
"intelligence" to information that creates knowledge and ideas, i.e.,
High tech alone (wordprocessing, email, fax, cellular phones)
merely multiplies the sea of details for which management is
responsible. This conceals critical nuance, correlations and
implications. Mistakes occur, people fall behind, take
shortcuts and soon shun reports and fear high tech. Instead of
the computer working for people, everyone is working for the
computer! Management and technology are in conflict. The solution
requires a better way to convert information into what managers
really need: knowledge and ideas, i.e., intellectual capital.
POIMS solves the
of the millennium by empowering people to retool basic
literacy skills that leverage human
through the power of
Advancing beyond traditional information modalities to foster a
culture of knowledge is a
powerful paradigm shift, enabling a more robust
foundation that lifts civilization to a new plateau.
THE NEW VISION
The future will bring more wordprocessing, copies, scanners,
fax, voice mail, email, cellular phones, meetings, LANS,
Quality Circles; more ways to increase information to be
absorbed, processed and followed up. Under present management
practice, increasing information reduces productivity
due to superficial treatment, because there is...
not enough time to think
The idea of POIMS is to:
- Automate creating, connecting, distributing, filing
and retrieving information, so that managers have
more time to think, to plan, to lead!
- Automate the Management Cycle in
combination with effective professional practices, so that these
tools can be applied consistently and quickly.
This vision of automated integration to replace
manual methods empowers people to accomplish tasks that are helpful
to others, as a by-product of doing self-interest
tasks for themselves. The
incentive and timeliness of personal objectives, creates synergy that leverages
knowledge and ideas throughout an organization, hence POIMS.
Integration requires a system of controls for communication similar
to traditional business metrics for cost and schedule (e.g., C/SCSC used in
military procurement), because communication is the driving force of
productivity. Before action is taken, there is a lot of communication in
meetings, calls and documents that direct the work. When communication is not
aligned, the work will not be aligned. Therefore proactive intelligence that
aligns communication greatly increases the chances that cost and schedule will
align with objectives.
Communication combined with cost and schedule control provide a more robust
to plan and manage the work.
For example, the traditional, common sense focus on writing a letter uses
alphabet technology to convice, persuade, and
otherwise sell other people with effective presentation. Information
technology (IT) for wordprocessing, email, Powerpoint, and the Internet are
excellent for preparing, formatting, and distributing
documents that look good.
Programs to store and retrieve documents with key words, like PC Docs,
provide excellent information management. However, a lot of cognitive overhead
occurs in the mind to manage meaning and context of documents.
Besides reading and writing a persuasive letter, report, article, book...,
Communication Metrics complement traditional
literacy practices with tools and methods for verifying accurate, comprehensive
understanding. Strategy, purpose, and options for following up are
often not set out within documents. Subjects, relationships, and connections
between documents, meetings, calls, and work history usually
only exist in the minds of people, and quickly fade as the next document,
meeting, and call arrives. Intelligence support captures a
well ordered record that "connects the dots" to transform mere
information into the power of knowledge.
Maintaining the correct order of chronology, context, and connections yields
command and control
of the record, which in turn enables accurate understanding in time to
follow up with effective action.
These common cognitive overhead tasks that typically occur as mental pondering
and worry, actually comprise an effective Knowledge
Space, for good management to save time and money, but are ignored by
existing technology, or require input by support staff, which is neither timely
nor accurate because the information explosion overwhelms human span of attention. Adding support for integrating
information streams into a useful Knowledge Space provides precision access
essential to make complex work history a resource for saving lives, time,
and money, rather than a crushing liability. This powerful new way of working
can be described as a practice of
Knowledge Management, explained in NWO
(see also transition from
"documents" to "knowledge" explained above).
POIMS technology enables capturing control criteria within the few seconds
needed to identify a letter. Reducing the time needed to manage the record
leverages the writer's desire to issue a letter. Organizational memory
maintains an accurate
record (see Report below) for accomplishing
the purpose of the letter, even if the writer later forgets, or is not
available, weeks, months, even years
later, when action is needed.
Integration can also be advanced with
interoperability to widen the range of sources
for "connecting the dots" in Knowledge Space by opening files for
different software programs. (see work on October 20, 2003) Integration with
other technologies leverages investment in training and
existing work product, reducing the burden on people to learn new tools.
Files supported by web browser technology
enhance the power of knowledege by enabling access to links.
and explicit links
further expand benefits of interoperability
by giving people instant access to precise locations that enable timely
accurate understanding. Under Moore's Law,
as more software supports granular addressability,
direct access to specific locations will expand
the power of knowledge for everyone to
Investing Intellectual Capital
Organizational Memory Leverages Power of Knowledge
is the body of knowledge and ideas that connect cause and effect on
the details of
from discussions, meetings, calls, email, documents and experience
e.g., seeing a movie. hearing a concert, smelling a flower,
throwing a ball, observing a sunset, camping, writing and reading
a letter, software, a poem, report, book, a list of things to buy
at the store, etc.,
digging a ditch, doing a scientific experiment, milking a cow,
testifying at trial --
in other words, the whole of human experience absorbed by the senses
that comprises memory of existence.
Rather than forget valuable
experience, as mere debris floating down the river to a
sea of lost dreams, capturing a greater share of
activity and communication that impacts
objectives, requirements and commitments
is the first step toward capitalizing on
an extremely productive resource, which, up until now, has been
hidden in plain sight. (see, for example,
Jeff Conklin reporting contemporary organizations have
weak ability to remember and learn from the past, reviewed April 20, 2001)
POIMS is a new strategy to invest the time and talent of
people in capturing, integrating and applying personal
and organizational memory, as the core of enterprise management.
For thousands of years pen, paper, mail,
staples, desks, secretaries, etc., shaped the evolution of
special professions for knowledge work. Today wordprocessing and
email are helpful, but do not increase management productivity,
because management practices are largely unchanged. Meaningful
change to empower consistent use of
requires a practical way to capture, organize, align and
apply knowledge and ideas generated by daily work, as a new
strategic resource for intellectual capital, also called
"organizational memory," that extends the power of traditional practice for
storing documents in historical
A new way of working supports an
that strengthens the Management Cycle to
plan, perform and report on daily work. This design
a critical mass of complementary professional practices
yields synergy that leverages innate personal capacities
to think, remember, and communicate, with organizational
assets of skills, experience, and tools, which
together make proactive management practical and effective...
Automating and integrating
key aspects of professional practices permits
generalized use without years of training. Using key practices
in combination, so that each supports the other, lifts basic
capacity to think,
- Contracting provides a new vision of "Time"
management that links the present with the
past and the future.
- Engineering uses thorough "Document"
- Sales professionals use effective "Contacts"
- Research scientists use alphabet technology for capturing each
step of experiments so they can study cause and effect that enables
discovering new knowledge. Similarly, test pilots report each task and
flying. Back on the ground, pilots prepare
by writing a story that aligns data captured during the flight
with objectives and prior understandings. Reconciling conflicts in
analysis reveals issues not apparent while performing tasks, because
the "heat of battle" requires full attention and energy, and the "fog
of war" conceals critical correlations, implications and nuance.
Investing time for deliberative analysis
in science and engineering
expands span of attention to deepen understanding.
- Banking and ecology show that "investing"
and recycling time and information, magnify
knowledge and ideas.
- Legal practice uses citations to discover and maintain alignment
of cause and effect with controlling forces in law, regulation,
contracts, commitments; alignment reduces errors and the time required
to apply decisions consistently.
- Detectives use 3 x 5 cards for organizing disparate facts of a
criminal investigation and then move the cards on a display board to
form multiple views, scenarios and theories for discovering patterns of
cause and effect that solve the case.
- Accounting uses organic, structured systems of identification,
summaries, audit trail, and double-entry verification under the rule
that little deviations cause big problems.
- Computer programmers debug
the work to improve productivity with quality control that
corrects defective reasoning.
- Journalism provides outlining, headlines and highlighting to
report information that "connects the dots" from "data" into daily news
stories about who, what, when, where and why events occur based on
chronology that accumulates into history for understanding cause and
effect. POIMS requirements
for precision access
strengthen traditional journalism with a dynamic model of
organizational memory (see NWO)
- Intelligence experts analyse cause and effect, and summarize
details so that a lot of important information can be absorbed quickly
and accurately by decision makers.
Linking summary to specific details
in a continuous stream of daily working information builds
case studies that are organized and aligned for
root cause analysis. Understanding cause and effect based on
chronology and context
develops proactive solutions to real-time problems, and, further, discovers
new ideas and opportunities for saving time and money. (see
examples of Decision Support in New World Order...)
Adding "intelligence" to personal and
organizational memory enables continual learning, which yields
a practical form of Knowledge Space
that guides and leverages daily work minute-by-minute, hour-by-hour for days,
weeks, months and years. This strategic resource is
aptly summarized by the notion of "investing intellectual capital,"
because rewards of investing are deferred, yet grow over time. Likewise,
POIMS increases productivity and earnings by investing talent and time for
converting information into knowledge.
Convert Plans into Action
Implementation of POIMS technology starts as a personal schedule,
like a desk calendar, except everything that needs to be done can
be listed, so that priority does not default to "last in, first
out" continual crisis on the Information Highway. This
improves visibility of issues to solve
limited span of attention that otherwise causes
miscommunication, misunderstanding and mysterious failures attributed to
which further cause hurt feelings,
frustration, anger and mistrust that lead people, who
become disconnected from critical details, to lash out
at others for
not telling the truth. A popular solution is to
hire psychologists, to soothe
hurt feelings, and help people avoid "hostile" encounters. POIMS technology
maintains connections of critical details (see also
so that mistakes, frustration, stress, loss and conflict are
avoided, along with the cost
of the psychologist.
Controlled Visibility Manages Context
POIMS technology enables assigning priority to planned tasks in a
simple, direct manner based on current perspectives, and
allows adjustments to priority, as events unfold. This design
supports the scientific method
of plan, perform, report,
based on the innate mental process of
that links summary to detail. Using software
according to the design
specified in POIMS drives productivity, illustrated by a
reported on March 5, 2004. The study shows how people can
quickly step deeper into details for planning and performing
tasks, like meetings, calls, designing a bridge,
performing a medical operation, and other
common tasks listed in the record on July 8, 2002.
Organic structures segment and classify
information to quickly assemble chronologies based on
context, over days, weeks, and years, that aid human memory in
recognizing patterns of cause and effect. An "electronic
notebook," shows a Diary of references, background and strategy
that is linked to original sources, so that, when necessary, a
chain of events can be quickly traced to originating cause.
Increasing the speed and accuracy of obtaining relevant details for
planning, performing and reporting improves productivity of daily work.
For example a phone call about a contract change is a one
line entry in the Schedule. Pressing a button opens a "plan"
showing who is involved, and prior calls, meetings, research,
and documents affecting the contract change. The "plan"
shows issues to be discussed and position options, linked to
prior events and analysis
that can be opened to verify
personal recall. While talking or whenever convenient, the
results of the discussion can be entered into the planning
record, like writing notes in a paper notebook. This converts
the Schedule "plan" into a Diary "report" of action. Thus,
converting information into knowledge is the
process that converts plans into action.
The Diary can in turn be used to schedule follow-up that is
automatically linked to its history, so that at all times there is
instant access to "what happened" and why. This scenario
shows the smooth integration of the Management Cycle with
time and information (i.e., Schedule and Diary). Automated
tools that create and access linked information instantly,
improve the basic human process of converting hard won
experience into useful knowledge and ideas.
Plan, Perform, Report
can be modeled as a plan, perform, report process.
Waiting to cross a street, the mind forms a plan;
consciously looking ahead, yet also looking back in time for
experience with comparable conditions. "Let's see, the light
is yellow; a car is coming. Can I make it in time? What about
reward v. risk? Does the path have any obstacles?" So, a
great deal of planning occurs before stepping off the curb, based
on experience that imparts knowledge of cause and effect.
"Oops, I step in a pothole while checking that oncoming car."
Performing the plan yields information, which is reported as new
experience. Subsequent reflection to organize, analyse, align and summarize
new experience yields knowledge and
ideas that impact future plans.
Will I remember?
How can I find relevant information when needed?
posits that launching a satellite, building a dam, or managing
a merger all entail the same basic elements of human cognition
as the simple task of walking across the
street. Only the scale is different. The "potholes" are bigger,
often more subtle, and the "traffic" is faster, so we need
better tools to plan, perform and report our experience on
from experience performing daily work, i.e.,
to decide who, what, when, where, why, and how things are done
(see Report on results yielding lessons learned).
Macro planning identifies strategic relationships of cost, time, staff,
equipment, materials, as shown in CPM, WBS and Org
charts. Most managements do this macro planning well, using
specialists and modern team practices. Micro planning is
identifying the detailed tasks
performed by managers in order to
accomplish the macro plan. New realities
of modern life that compress time and distance
make planning daily work very difficult,
because information density increases complexity causing confusion
about relevant history. Confusion accelerates
and hides critical knowledge of cause and effect. The solution is
planning for proactive management that prevents small, seemingly
inconsequential errors from growing into
How does it work?
Daily planning identifies people, documents, objectives,
commitments, options. It is traditionally performed on-the-fly, relying
on personal recall, hand written notes, and visible
reminders from stacks of paper, objects and entries in schedules.
POIMS proposes technology that strengthens
personal experience by instantly recycling information from
prior related events, and organizing them in a Schedule of
"things-to-do." In a manual world listing "things-to-do" is
Top managers know, however, that when there is a lot going on,
critical details on organizational memory that impact objectives,
requirements and commitments are overlooked, i.e.,
fall through the cracks, causing problems
that delay completion and increase costs. As problems mount,
crisis management creates
endless cycles of correcting mistakes, then correcting the
corrections. Management experts call this the
Constantly fixing mistakes, with
rework (see also NWO) is variously called
and "problem handling" that is accomplished with strong
communication skills for getting people to say "yes," in-the-moment,
actual understanding nor alignment between the work and requirements. This
pushes conflict into the future, hoping to
avoid accountability, in-the-moment, by transferring responsibility to others.
However, lack of alignment ensures
continual bumbling that reduces productivity, rather than
enabling continual learning that grows the economy.
Accountants call the rework cycle "cost overruns" that reduce earnings
and eventually stock prices. As bumbling becomes pandemic, organizations
downsize to reduce the contagion of too many people having too many
problems. When enough organizations have receded sufficiently to permit
effective planning and decisions, the economy is able to grow out of
The problem with keeping a list of "things-to-do" is that the
dynamics of daily management result in there not being enough
time to maintain a useful list. In a very real sense, economic
recession is the accumulated effect of a critical mass of people
being overwhelmed, because limited span of attention cannot
keep track of things to do, in what order, and with sufficient attention
for the work to be done correctly.
When things don't get done, when work is delayed and does not align with
objectives, requirements and commitments, i.e., when planning fails,
productivity, earnings, and stock prices fall.
POIMS technology solves this problem using integration of time and
information, so that planning is faster and easier.
Doing "things" generates
intellectual capital, also, called
experience. Talking, listening, observing, taking physical
action, all human activity constantly
accumulates understanding in the human mind that is
integrated with memory of related experience in the
context of human needs, which arise organically in hiarchial
and relational structures. The organic structure of needs
appear to the conscious mind as objectives, requirements and
commitments that give "meaning" to daily working information.
Thus, groups, teams, projects, departments and organizations
because they have common objectives and
requirements based on mutual commitments.
defines shared meaning by setting boundaries in choosing
conduct to perform
the work. Managers plan, communicate and follow up to
balance performance of objectives, requirements and commitments
with limited resources. Diversity in culture and people meld
through the prism of shared meaning. Knowledge from daily experience
is largely formed involuntarily by the mind's automatic pilot of
intelligence that connects
performance with context, and is mostly hidden from the conscious
span of attention. (see subconscious processing)
There are rarely pat answers in performing daily management.
Managers mainly use a leadership
cycle of push, pull, prod, wait..., try again,
rather than direct. This is a work of "art," performed by
thinking and communicating.
POIMS technology aids these natural mental process that integrates thinking and doing . People
attend meetings, make calls, write and review letters, memos, specifications,
books, email in line with common practice. However, rather than rely on
personal memory, people can quickly find relevant history in an electronic data
base of personal and organizational memory to verify accuracy of relevant
experience. People can write notes to analyse calls, discussions, meetings,
and why things were done, not done, and identify what still needs to be done
when more time is available for follow up. Support for
working intelligently helps people "connect the dots" with links
in real time that align performance with objectives, requirements, and
commitments. This new way of working integrates the traditional line between
performing "work" and writing "reports," because "performing" work yields a
"report," like crossing a street yields personal experience.
"Reporting" improves the traditional practice of "documentation" by continually
investing intellectual capital
that strengthens both time and context management.
Modern technology significantly extends
the model of the ancient scribe with a new way of working
by writing with a practice of
Today's tools enable people to capture contemporaneous
work history with connections to objectives, requirements, and
commitments. This new form of literacy
provides a comprehensible story of personal and organizational memory
that routinely makes sense of daily experience. Traditional
study, analysis, and deliberation are transformed from rare moments of
when people can steal some time to think (see NWO...),
into a routine practice of
connects the dots to discover powerful secrets of cause and effect.
An expanding history of daily experience along the continuum from simple to
complex tasks in discussions, meetings, calls, and documents can be further
connected for precision access
to sources and authorities, e.g., publications,
policies, procedures, regulations, and laws. These expanded
connections provide an audit trail to understand causation, i.e.,
why things happened. Links further show the context of actions aligned with
objectives, requirements and commitments. Routinely constructing
organizational memory on the story of daily work fits the model
of human cognition presented by Jeremy Campbell in his book
The Improbable Machine,
reviewed on March 3, 1990. Campbell correlates human
reasoning with experience, rather than logic. This design places
a premium on accurately understanding time and context illustrated
by the common question:
Then what happened?
Reporting that integrates time and context provides instant access to
verify accuracy and expand span of attention for performing future work.
In turn, creating links forward and backward in time
triangulates the record with cross-checks
that continually refine accuracy, while providing constant
reminders that strengthen innate memory. (see NWO)
As stated, all human tasks entail a single, simple
intelligence process for
driving a nail, mowing
the lawn, fixing the car, going to the doctor, setting up the computer,
revising the organization chart, planning a project, promulgating policy,
resolving a dispute, creating a software program, designing a bridge, etc.
Work product from investing intellectual capital is described variously as
intelligence, analysis, reporting, knowledge, personal and organizational
memory, the "record," the "story," history, experience, information, or, even,
a "knowledge repository." Conventional writing and wordprocessing for
documentation can therefore be aided with new tools for adding organization,
alignment, structure and summary that converts information
For the most part, the story of daily life is only reported in the
human mind as
comprising loosely connected chunks of conversation and experience that
associate cause and effect (see intelligence
). Implicit knowledge is also called "tacit knowledge." "Reported" in
this context refers to the biology of human memory that is recorded and stored
in the brain throughout life, and ends with death. As noted, doing things creates experience that generates impressions
about cause and effect. Tacit knowledge is refined and honed into expertise
and craftsmanship by repetitive experience, and mentoring, coaching, etc., but
not by written analysis that correlates and distinguishes different
experiences. Examples include eating, mowing the lawn, hammering a nail,
performing an experiment or a heart operation, playing the piano, throwing and
catching a ball, driving a bus, tying your shoes, etc. Implicit knowledge
occurs through thoughts, thinking, hunch, guess, gossip, gut feelings, warm
fuzzy feelings, and memory, all processed instantly by the subconscious mind. Complex hand/eye coordination, or in
the case of playing musical instruments, hand/hearing coordination, and for
driving a car hands, feet, eyes and hearing all combine for coordinated action
responding to changing traffic conditions. Thus, understanding through
tacit/implicit knowledge enables immediate action reacting in the moment to
evolving dynamics. Skills and confidence grow primarily through repetitive
experience, demonstration and conversation with coaching and mentoring.
Writing transforms implicit into explicit knowledege ( see literacy and alphabet
technology) Of course, aspects of writing are implicit and creative,
involving hand/eye/hearing coordination applied with "unexplainable" skill and
imagination to construct lucid prose, or in the case of a novel to formulate
interesting plots, and sub-plots with attractive description, and fascinating,
lively dialog. Writing also manipulates external objects. Editing rearranges
words, phrases, sentences, paragraphs. Deliberation by the conscious mind
applies diligence to authenticate accuracy with links that connect the dots to original sources. Storage in
external media using documents, libraries, file folders, and computer files and
disks increases accuracy of memory by orders of magnitude. Better memory aids
constructing comprehensive analysis. Synergy between the quality of writing
for rendering explicit knowledge, and accurate memory arises from external
storage segmented by chronology, and organized by subjects into an organic
structure of context. Assembling knowledge into contextually bound
chronologies, i.e., integrating time and context, enables precision access to
find relevant details quickly.
Managing knowledge quickly and accurately helps people discover trails, links,
and associations that connect cause and effect without expense and painful
experience of trial and error. Adding energy to construct connections yields
the power of knowledge that controls the future (see good
management, citing the "locality principle"). Explicit knowledge
therefore lives and grows, beyond individual life to improve work, avoid
problems, and advance civilization across generations. (see chronology, context, connection)
Some implicit knowledge is hard to transform into explicit writings. It is a
lot easier learning to tie your shoes, drive a bus, or hammer a nail by
watching someone, and getting help rather than follow written explanation.
Same is true for frying an egg. Try writing up how to flip an egg "over easy"
in a frying pan. Some people feel that, since not
everything can be reduced to
writing, knowledge management seems beyond reach, leading to calls for sole
reliance on mentoring and conversation. On the other hand, baking a cake,
frying eggs with peppers, cheese, onions, and sausage to make an omelet usually
yields better results following a cookbook. Similarly, hammering a nail is
hard to convey in writing, and is easy to learn with the aid of a mentor or
teacher; however, building a house, bridge, or a factory is faster, easier,
cheaper, and turns out better with written plans and specifications, rather
than merely having a mentor or teacher explain everything.
Telling stories that convey implicit knowledge in conversation sitting around a
camp fire can be fun and personable in building relationships, like The
Canterbury Tales from the 14th century. Writing stories to produce history
improves accuracy making sense of complexity by orders of magnitude, and
derives knowledge of lessons learned. Written stories survive through the
ages, rather than die with the original participants, shown by Chaucer,
Homer, Plato, Peter, Paul, John, etc. These venerable experts discovered that
attending a meeting is made
much more productive by writing up the history of what
transpires in order to make sense of complex stories, rather than trust to
Since the human mind is wired to think through stories, writing a coherent
story is a big part of analysis that makes history a powerful "intelligence"
asset for creativity to solve problems and discover new ideas. Written
analysis aids memory of daily work in meetings, calls and documents so that
people can draw correlations, implications and nuance from the context of
objectives, requirements and commitments that give information meaning.
Distributing the story provides feedback that gets everybody on the same
page, and checking the record empowers people to be prepared for productive
communication and collaboration by aligning discussion in the next meeting with
commitments, objectives, feasibility, scope, and requirements. These dynamics
of explicit knowledge enrich understanding and build shared meaning beyond
innate biological capacity of implicit (tacit) knowledge to remember only the
gist of the story, about 5% - 10%. Deliberative analysis under POIMS
strengthens thinking through writing by leveraging
personal and organizational memory.
New computer functions for crafting, finding, connecting, organizing and
summarizing information enable people to discover opportunities and mistakes in
reasoning, and to recognize conflicts with objectives, requirements and
commitments in time to take effective action, which otherwise are overlooked
during discussion and personal thinking due to complexity that exceeds span of
attention, often described as the fog of war. As a result, the POIMS process of improving personal and
organizational memory significantly augments
intelligence by leveraging the ability to remember the gist of the story.
A report using common practices of literacy,
enhanced with new functions for "intelligence,"
improves listening to understand and follow up communication
well beyond the limits of innate biological gifts for hearing, seeing and
reacting to information in the moment. Feedback refines accuracy of knowledge
about critical details from daily work
by reducing errors and conflicts in memory. Better listening makes
communication effective so that people and organizations take
complementary action that makes collaboration
Writing in a flexible structure of
Knowledge Space expands span of attention
that aids personal and organizational memory. Better memory improves both
writing and reading comprehension. Traditional literacy is strengthened
by quickly creating controllable action items linked to original sources
so that time invested in reading and writing can be directly applied to taking
action for getting things done on time and within budget.
A flexible structure strikes a balance between speed and organization so that
people can capture a greater share of personal and
organizational memory, and can add intelligence that saves time and money.
A format with routine,
established elements for people, documents, time and organization positions
narrative in a powerful context of
for Knowledge Space originally developed in 1985, and reviewed on May 23, 1989.
Outlines, lists and headings that
summarize meaning, and organic subject structure strengthen literacy by
ensuring relevant history is continually considered for "connecting the dots"
between current, momentary, and cursory understanding and
the actual record of prior related events. These connections enable people
to discover critical correlations, implications and nuance in time to
take effective action. In other words, "reporting" crafts the story that
makes sense of complexity by adding organization and
analysis showing alignment with history, objectives, requirements and
commitments. Making sense of complex work-in-progress by continually
expanding the record of important history
reveals actions needed that are otherwise not evident, i.e., hidden,
due to the fleeting, discursive character of
human mental biology that controls speech and hearing, again, solving the
fog of war problem. Despite the benefits of literacy,
only fragments of daily experience (i.e., the "dots" of life)
are reported in written notes, memos and reports,
because traditional documentation is slow and bureaucratic. This is
evident from the common lament that managers do not have enough
time to think using conventional technology for creating
useful "intelligence" from endless meetings, calls and documents (e.g.,
email). Therefore, we need a better technology. POIMS recognizes "time"
is an integral dimension of knowledge, that forms a powerful working
environment of Knowledge Space where
people can routinely connect the dots of fleeting information into timely
POIMS technology is a practical way to capture a
larger share of daily experience, and to analyse, organize, align and summarize
with links to history, objectives, requirements and commitments
that make human memory the most powerful
force on earth. Unique organizing structures
provide faster access than retrieving documents in filing cabinets, email and
wordprocessing programs. This eliminates the paradigm of analysis
as "paper work" that stifles initiative. Instead,
provides support to
create and preserve knowledge and ideas under the POIMS paradigm of investing
Capturing the record of who, what, when, where and why events
happen helps a busy mind "connect the dots" in organizational memory
to understand correlations, implications
and nuance through the common process of
thinking through writing.
Technology makes this self-dialog process fast and easy and fun through
the prism of flexible structure. Writing things down, linking things up, and
adding organic structure for context management expands
span of attention to strengthen the
weak link in management
because continually constructing and using traceability to original sources
verifies accuracy of
root cause analysis. Flexible structure positions
people, objectives, requirements, commitments, laws,
regulations, contracts, policies and procedures, i.e., everything that
influences action, in the context of time. The resulting chronology
yields a spreadsheet for knowledge
of cause and effect, essential for
decisions that make action effective by leveraging the power
of human thought.
Computer aided thinking under POIMS
adds intelligence to daily
information that yields "knowledge" about related
events, called "history," which can be accessed on any subject
along the chronology in seconds, rather than hours, days and
months required by conventional information technology. Instant
access to history, combined with automated tools to quickly organize,
analyse, align and summarize the record, enhances the
synergy between time and information that occurs in the mind.
This means crafting and connecting the record (i.e., "reporting,") to
convert information into knowledge is a practical way for people to invest
every day for effective Enterprise Management. Some people refer to this
investment as a Knowledge Repository, Organizational Memory,
Case Studies, Root Cause Analysis, Intellectual Capital,
Continual Learning, Organizational Learning,
Business Intelligence, or simply Knowledge Management.
By any name, the core process is "intelligence."
Integrated Management Builds
Organizational Memory in Knowledge Space
New realities of a faster, more complex world require technology for
seamless integration of the intelligence cycle that
drives daily management...
P L A N
The POIMS plan, perform, report process, sometimes called the
scientific method, strengthens the innate
of cognition with a 3-layer architecture
that integrates people, process, and time. (see also
Deming on quality)
A composite design helps people generate knowledge and ideas with an
for managing time that inherently augments
Work can be continually aligned with objectives over days, months and
years by "connecting the dots" from daily experience into a record of
Common tasks, that are complementary (each supports the other), helps
overcome biological drives to use
by making good management
fast, easy, and fun, even when the mind is burdened by
complexity and limited time.
Constructing an external rendering of
knowledge that people can shape, craft,
improve and manage significantly improves technology that
piles up mountains of useless information. (see
due diligence in New World Order...).
People are forced to rely on guess and gossip, because nobody can
find anything, which presents a constant challenge:
Will I remmeber
what happened today, when I need it next week, next, month, next year?
The new reality of chronic
bumbling (see Kissinger
reviewed on June 9, 1994) grows from technology that increases
information density beyond biological capacity for situational
awareness (see again New World Order...). Intelligence support
converts a crushing liability of constant information overwhelming
span of attention, into a strategic asset of
organizational memory for getting things done with precision access.
Intelligence makes good management routine, rather than
the rare exception, by converting useless information into the power of
knowledge. How then to advance from information to a culture
common storage strategy
integrates the inherent
granularity of time
with a continuous information stream from daily experience,
where everything is in the right place at the right time.
process of plan, perform, report grows natural chronologies of
cause and effect based on the organic structure of context for
objectives, requirements and commitments. Expanding
to apply organic structure in greater detail and scope than
currently occurs for records management, filing,
accounting, scheduling, and WBS (work breakdown structure)
methods, increases command and control of the work. In turn, the
power of knowledge using low-level DNA-like structures
for subjects strengthens accuracy and access to organizational memory,
and opens a path for transformation from documents
to Knowledge Space. Replacing traditional
documentation, now causing management to fail because faster information
technology (IT) overwhelms limited span of attention, is accomplished by
extending traditional methods of locating physical objects in dimensional
productivity paralyzed, and case study on
Economy Implodes When Information Overwhelms Mental Biology
reported on October 3, 2001)
extends the familiar practice of
dimensional space to provide a physical
framework (see New World Order...) for
integrating time and information. This combination yields a flexible
spreadsheet for knowledge that advances the power of
alphabet technology for performing
common literacy. Expanded grammar for granular addressability, references,
and explicit links significantly increase
precision access into the vast and expanding record of daily work
(see discussion of
firepower on February 4, 1995). Dimensionality of
mental coordinates applies
flexible structures of time, context, and connection within a
framework of linear nodes that triangulate accuracy. (see discussion
on May 23, 1989) Better accuracy and precision access add value
by transforming traditional documents
into contextually organized case studies that continually grow
lessons learned, based on the evolution of objectives, requirements and
commitments. A stronger literacy model makes traditional
a more rigorous and routine part of daily life by reducing time and
effort to write diary narrative connecting cause and effect into the power
of knowledge that makes sense of expanding complexity.
Leveraging the innate "plan, perform, report" intelligence process
with technology optimizes human potential
by growing personal and organizational memory into a dynamic
Knowledge Space. Computers become a powerful
Operating System for People and
"Paperwork" decried for slowing
productivity is transformed by precision access into useful experience
that drives command and control to expedite the work
minute-by-minute, hour-by-hour, every day.
spreadsheet for knowledge
expands the traditional linear model
of information in documents. Knowledge requires both
flexible structure and
A user interface
with integrated functions builds synergy from
self-interest dynamics that drive individual
effort for capturing daily experience to
invest intellectual capital.
Reciprocity between performing personal tasks, including
reading, writing, analysing, collaborating,
sharing and testing ideas and plans through communication that relies
on the record all day, every day to save time and money, is reinforced
by tangible reward for investing time to grow knowledge within a time
frame that builds
personal and organizational commitment to sustain the process over
days, weeks, months and the years of a lifetime.
POIMS technology augments human thinking by providing
speed, accuracy and integration
performing a critical mass of tasks that fuse
cognitive processes for creating an experiential record. Without an
critical mass of support, technology yields little benefit to management.
POIMS therefore strengthens personal and organizational memory that
enables a culture of knowledge.
Intelligence, knowledge, wisdom,
experience, chronology, memory, history are
all integrated in the mind. Fusion of cognitive processes
chart of organic mental structure in NWO)
drives continual learning that resolves
confusion in complexity by adding alignment in organizational memory
to discover and understand causation based on context. Understanding
relevant experience from
working intelligently guides the constant
flow of decisions in the unfolding story of life that expands history every
day. POIMS architecture strengthens these natural cognitive gifts by
focusing technology on command and control for
managing objectives by
building a continuous history of case studies, which are organized and
accessible based on the context of evolving needs.
Knowledge Space extends the concept of a general
into a dynamic source of
personal and organizational memory by automatically creating
chronologies of related events that give instant access
to relevant history based on
situational awareness. School children commonly use
an encyclopedia to find information for their homework assignments.
Adults use Knowledge Space
to find critical details for performing daily work on the
job to save lives, time, and money.
Chronologies comprise an "audit trail" of alignment based on sequence
that imparts knowledge of cause and effect, essential for understanding the
context of why things happened.
Case Studies, Lessons Learned, Continual
Learning, Traceability to Original Sources and
Root Cause Analysis
all derive from command and control to construct
and access chronologies of cause and effect
based on the organic structure of context. (see "reporting" in
New World Order... for scope and
plan, perform, report cycle with conventional methods and tools for time
management (past, present, future), creates synergy that grows
ideas for strategy and planning based accurate knowledge of relevant history.
Time saved by eliminating multiple handling of information in
traditional documents can then be invested to get things done correctly.
This dynamic continually
expands the record of organizational memory that leverages the natural power
In the late 19th century, the philosopher, scientist and humanist,
Charles S. Peirce, developed semiotics that recognized
the need to continually refine the accuracy of knowledge based on
experience. (see review on May 15, 2000).
Albert S. Einstein
is equally credited with recognizing knowledge
requires continued verification through experience. (see review on November
These authorities suggest that useful technology requires a design that can be
routinely used for capturing and constructing a greater share of personal and
organizational memory. (see Communication Metrics)
The design must further enable people to quickly and accurately construct
connections that grow knowledge of cause and effect; and, there must be a means
for access in time to be effective solving daily problems. In other words,
useful information requires both timely construction of an accurate
experiential record, and later finding the details relevant to current needs
by remembring only fragments of the original
story, as occurs on the job in the real world.
Access on demand using
situational awareness for finding the full
story at the precise location in Knowledge Space that is relevant to current
context helps solve the dilemma of cognition. Better
accuracy and faster access defines innovation that improves productivity by
Technology that supports intelligence applies the power of the
microcosm where the subconscious mind makes sense of complex information
by automatically making connections with past experience, noted by
Jeromy Campbell in his book
The Improbable Machine, reviewed on March 3, 1990. Campbell
further explains there is a tradeoff between speed and accuracy, as noted
above explaining the binary architecture
of cognition (2-tiers). Subconscious
connections are very fast in order to process massive amounts of data
by relying on rules of thumb, paradigms and common
sense to calculate a summary impression on danger and opportunity, and then
passes control to the conscious mind for action.
The conscious mind is much slower, but more accurate in refining
first impressions by customizing connections to actual conditions. Campbell
describes the knowledge dilemma of trading speed for accuracy. People pay a
price for relying on common sense, rather than investing
time to ensure accuracy,
but, also, suffer when action comes to late to be effective.
POIMS design for
fits the 2-tiered model of cognition
that balances competition between speed and accuracy. A special set of
critical links are automatically constructed based on simple rules of
chronology and context. This design follows the natural architecture of
subconscious processing that is very fast, actually transparent to the user.
However, accuracy degrades over time, as context
evolves, causing meaning to drift
away. Like the subconcious mind, while not
entirely accurate, automatic links quickly place people
in the ballpark
of relevant context, where specific links can then be created at will, based on
that one thing should be connected to another. This
significantly increases the speed of consciously constructing an accurate
record of organizational memory, because custom links take only seconds
to create, and then can be accessed instantly.
Custom links are created by marking a location, and then
moving to another location in the current record, or in another record, or
in an external document, i.e., anywhere in
and pressing Enter or double clicking. If an anchor exists, it is used;
if not, an anchor is automatically created. This takes less than
one (1) second, reducing construction of links to a matter
of volition. "Connecting the dots" to discover cause and effect
for working intelligently
can be thought of as stitching the frabric of life into a continuous mosaic.
Meaning is discovered and understanding is preserved of
correlations, implications, and nuance, which otherwise are lost
as mere fleeting and blurred impressions each day.
proposed a formula for increasing computer power. Using this power
to expand span of attention narrows the gap between conscious
and subconscious processing by expanding
span of attention. Strengthening
the weak link in the
dilemma of cognition increases both speed and
accuracy on an expanding scale. This means that expanding computer power
under Moore's Law, including
makes "intelligence" a
highly leveraged asset, where a
few people construct organizational memory that
grows the power of knowledge for everyone. (see NWO)
POIMS requirements enable people to routinely externalize the innate
that refines accuracy of knowledge acquired through
traditional literacy (i.e., reading and writing,
explained below), both from communication, and from ordinary experience in
daily life. Linking one source to another constructs a persistant
web of external connections in the framework of
Knowledge Space (see again New World Order...)
that leverages mental metrics for understanding cause and effect, based
on alignment in relation to chronology and the organic structure of context.
Like alphabet technology that externalizes connections to construct
information, expanding support for the power of knowledge has dramatic
benefits for proactive management to take action in time to be effective.
User interface efficiencies make constructing connections fast and easy
by linking immediately at will based on
situational awareness, i.e., mere volition. (see explanation in
New World Order...)
complements linking by enabling people to
find sources quickly in organizational memory
that verify accuracy, and expand span of attention. Expanding
fragmentary memory beyond the gist of the story increases productivity with
integrated design responsive to human needs understanding chronology, context,
and connection. Ergonomic tools optimized for efficiency
apply left and right hands equally with eyes and ears sensing the natural flow
of tasks using keyboard, mouse, and computer screen. Executing commands
with both hands necessarily applies a greater share of left and right brain
The Hand reviewed on January 21, 1999).
Synergy between computer power and brain power optimizes mental
biology smoothly applying a critical mass
of integrated, complementary
functions so that each supports the other. Efficient usability adding
to information makes
the structure of knowledge "connecting the dots" of cause and effect
useful to people. Without efficient application, computers
remain a mere appendage of wasted potential (see
Larry Ellison, CEO Oracle,
remarks at professional event in Paris, France, February 22, 1997; and see
Bill Gates, CEO Microsoft, remarks on Charlie Rose television
broadcast, November 8, 2002)
Working intelligently with everything in the
at the right time transforms the drudge of
diligence into a paradigm of discovery. Working intelligently becomes
fun, like playing a piano. Quickly executing complementary
computer tasks that make sense of dynamic, complex events increases
satisfaction and rewards through increased effectiveness.
Command and control
of the work seems like conducting a symphony in perfect harmony. While
perfection is never reached, ergonomic, efficient usability optimizes
human potential for continual improvement.
Eight (8) steps
plan, perform, report design that
leverages the power of knowledge for
Tools with efficient usability for personal and organizational
integrated memory and management (POIMS) generate synergy between
practices of chronology, context, and connection
and principles of locality and complementarity (see
Schombert on 21st Century science March 12, 2004).
Routinely adding intelligence to
"connect the dots" from daily meetings, calls, and
documents increases productivity through
command and control
to get things done correctly in time to be effective...
- Report -- like a journalist, write the story of who, what,
when, where, and how events transpired, and with traceability to
original sources - see "Align." Routinely
capturing the record invests intellectual
capital from meetings, calls, and documents (e.g., correspondence,
laws, regulations, books, articles, movies, specifications) within the
flexible structure of Knowledge Space that
integrates personal and organizational memory showing
the natural chronology of cause effect that empowers command and
control of the work through a "plan, perform, report" intelligence
- Organize -- 1st element of
triangulation to strengthen accuracy; develop and assign
organic structure for objectives,
requirements, and commitments (similar to practices in
accounting, planning, Work Breakdown Structure (WBS), and
library Dewey Decimal systems) for managing context; constructing and
organizing the record
expands span of attention to discover correlations,
implications and nuance used for steps 1, 3 and 4. Investing time to
organize enriches intellectual capital that enables people to be
prepared for finding information quickly when needed by
remembering only the gist of the story;
finding critical details
quickly aids analysis and alignment to refine the story and verify
- Analyse -- refine the story to make sense of complex
information by crafting correlations with prior related
history that explain why events transpired; refining
and aligning (see step 4) the record discovers subtle, hidden meaning,
i.e., nuance, that is otherwise overlooked,
so that understanding cause and effect is comprehensive and consistent
rather than fragmentary and conflicting relative to history,
objectives, requirements and commitments.
- Align -- 2nd element of
triangulation "connects the dots" of cause and effect
that yields the power of knowledge to control the future;
checking alignment verifies accuracy and expands span of attention
by linking details of daily work into trails of associations
to relevant history that empower people to accurately remember why
events occurred, and consequences, which are otherwise hidden by the
fog of complexity from compressing time and distance with
constant meetings, calls, and email;
adding alignment to the record applies and expands existing
chronology, context, and connections. Synergy from checking and
adding connections makes sense of complexity by discovering
correlations, implications and nuance that disclose gaps and
and conflicts in understanding which can be corrected in time to
avoid mistakes performing the work, and discover opportunities
for saving lives, time and money.
- Summary -- craft headlines for perspective with multiple
views that save time by enabling people to quickly understand
the meaning of complex information, and decide when to pause for
studying more detail, based on
Executive summary prepared from headlines covers three (3)
- Purpose/objective of meeting in relation to purpose of
project, i.e., the project objective is "x" and we are
meeting today to get this part done.
- Major problems blocking progress and major goals
achieved that advance progress or that show problems are
- Major action to be taken and by whom (typically showing
your customer is waiting for something from you, or you
are waiting for action by the sponsor, etc.)
- Action Items -- analysis and alignment yield comprehensive
awareness of situations in
context for planning new tasks and follow up.
- Schedule -- implement planning for timely follow up to
get things done, core metric of communication.
- Feedback -- 3rd element of
triangulation continually refines accuracy of knowledge.
Feedback loops are closely related to follow up and
notice practices Both proactive and post action feedback
are critical for timely, effective
Intelligence support to routinely add
organization, analysis, alignment, summary and feedback to new information
from meetings, calls and documents meets
Peter Drucker's call in an
article reviewed on October
25, 1999 for technology to "routinize" support for human cognition in
using good management practices.
Unlike conventional methods where work usually begins with a blank page,
POIMS aids the mental process of analysis by recycling
prior records of related events, which need merely be
edited to reflect new subjects, substance and alignment. Since from one event
to the next relatively little is truly new, the
plan, perform, report
intelligence process saves a lot of time generating useful knowledge.
Scheduled tasks are converted into diary records that align work with plans.
Diary records are converted into Scheduled tasks that align planning with work
experience. As in the human mind, information is simply transformed into
alternate forms, yielding the true power of conservation...
recycling knowledge and ideas to create new wealth
time, treasure and tragedy. Since literacy is the foundation of
civilization, POIMS requirements for advancing alphabet technology, which
made people superhuman beginning approximately 2,000 years ago
(see Havleock on the
Alphabetic Mind, reviewed on November 8, 1999)
necessarily portends a rise in the quality of life by strengthening
the ability to cope in the
of a faster, more complex world.
Better ability to cope in this new world order is essential for any notion of
Enterprise Management that strives to remain viable and effective over
time. Organizational memory integrated with
intelligence support yields continual learning through case studies reap a
rich harvest of lessons learned and innovation.
Everybody worries about communication. Telephones, fax, email,
meetings, beepers, speed information in all directions aimed at
improving productivity under the theory that "more is better."
However, people need more than information! Effective
communication requires understanding cause and effect, i.e.,
background, correlations, implications, and alignment with
objectives, commitments and the chronology of prior events. This
requires fast access to a record of background so that new
information can be fit into a new array of knowledge. Thus,
communication only occurs by converting information into
Chronology, Context, and Connections
Convert Information into Knowledge
Writing a diary using the
eight (8) steps for intelligence support
converts the complex
story of daily work
into a well ordered record
that makes finding relevant history fast and easy. Timely, accurate
knowledge connecting cause and effect from daily experience
optimizes the management process
(plan, perform, report).
Links connect order, pattern, and structure for proactive management
to verify accuracy and discover opportunity in time to be effective.
While no technology can "automate" context management for the jumble of
meetings, calls, and documents (e.g., books, articles, reports,
endless email) encountered
on the job everyday, the design of POIMS technology leverages time and
energy to routinely create the correct order "connecting the dots" of
cause and effect that
yields the power of knowledge to control the future
(see Command and Control).
A few people with specialized
skills constructing a well ordered record
enables a lot of people to save lives, time, and money.
Granularity organizing organic structure of context makes complexity an
asset for increasing productivity, rather than a liability that overwhelms
span of attention (see
review on March 12, 2004). Chronology of a diary provides
common storage that
maintains sequence for understanding the logic of cause and effect.
"connect the dots" that augment intelligence with precision access to
relevant history, documents, objectives, requirements and
commitments based on
Constructing chronology and connections within contextual frames
(called variously subjects, categories, classifications, issues...)
reveals correlations, implications, and nuance that
drive discovery through analysis.
Assigning the organic structure of context
to daily work enables
finding relevant history quickly and easily when needed for root cause analyis
and decision support. Linking further augments
intelligence by connecting
details, which routinely expands
span of attention. Benefits
of writing daily communications
increases with time, because chronology, context and connections add powerful
new dimensions to conventional literacy for
converting information into knowledge, i.e.,
understanding, ideas, innovation, productivity, and progress. Adding
intelligence support to manage daily experience therefore yields a discipline
of Knowledge Management that adds value to
documentation in traditional email, reports, articles, and books.
Accuracy, Alignment, Access
"Experts" teach better
listening to improve communications. The cognitive process of
"listening" offers an alluring shortcut for leadership
to expedite the work with dialog, personality, and memory
under the common sense rule: talk is cheap.
Today, a new world order of high speed technology bombards people with
constant information that compounds complexity. This
faster paced world overwhelms human
mental metrics for ordinary
sensory capacity to speak, see, hear, and remember. Mistakes that occur
in communication during meetings, calls and email often go unnoticed,
because, when the mind is engaged continuously, little deviations are beyond
span of attention. (see research on March 3, 1999) Misunderstanding
compounds over time as meaning drifts away
into chronic bumbling until entropy reaches critical mass and explodes into
conflict, crisis, and calamity, with loss of lives, time, and money. (see NWO
on Aristotle's rule, and Murphy's Law)
This new reality requires a method of Communication Metrics using technology
that augments intelligence for maintaining alignment to strengthen listening.
Accuracy is the common sense
for communication (see research on February 5, 1995).
People use innate intelligence
to "connect the dots" that calculate alignment with relevant experience.
Traditional practice in accounting and management constructs an
an audit trail to "connect the dots" showing
traceablity to original sources,
called out by professional standards. (see review of ISO on July 21, 1995)
The legal profession has evolved a method of citations that rigorously
to maintain alignment between sources over time. In today's world, however,
citations, alone, are inadequate for accurate communication
to avoid mistakes on the job. An effective system of Communication Metrics
requires technology that makes the work fast and easy to support natural
intelligence by creating
connections for accurate alignment, based on
Equally important is the ability to access links into organizational memory
for verifying accuracy and contextual relevance in time to take
effective action. If access is not fast and easy, accurate
knowledge in organizational memory is of no use.
laws, regulations and professional standards,
people naturally gravitate toward work habits of least effort.
Reliance on assumption from
remembering the gist of the story is a lot easier than rifling
through the filing cabinet to get minutes of the last meeting for sending an
accurate letter to verify understandings. Therefore, common practice on the
job varies dramatically from professional standards, because
information technology (IT) makes pressing the
Send button fast and easy for spreading error throughout
an organization and all around the world in email, without the bother of
verifying anything in the record. Reliance on
assumption (see New World Order...)
"kills" productivity and earnings, as error spreads like a virus using email
for fast and easy easy distribution.
The only solution to killer applications is to make
intelligence, i.e., accuracy and access, fast and easy.
support for intelligence makes possible a practical system of
where an accurate record is both permenant and instantly
accessible for maintaining an audit trail that "connects the dots" to
understand causation over days, weeks and years.
Organizational memory routinely constructed
and integrated with personal memory in
faster information technology (IT) into a strategic
asset rather than a debilitating engine of continual bumbling.
Communication Metrics that
strengthen accuracy and access through chronology, context, and connections
leverage the power of
shared meaning in organizational memory. Better memory makes
effective by enabling
rather than everyone relying on personal memory
that yields conflict, error, bumbling and loss.
In turn, collaboration plays a powerful role
to refine accuracy of communications with
Distribution through the Internet is fast, easy, and less expensive than
traditional methods by several orders of magnitude.
Secure intranets protect vital interests of confidentiality. Low cost,
distribution of understandings from calls, meetings, and documents
dramatically improves productivity through feedback loops that reduce
because people can refine first impressions and correct
misimpressions by providing clarification in time to
avoid mistakes. As a result,
synergy between routinly distributing the record
and obtaining feedback continually refines accuracy of organizational memory,
and expands span of attention with
reminders of alternate
interpretations for investigation and taking action in time to be
effective. (see New World Order...)
Alignment with history and sources (e.g., requirements, policies, regulations,
contracts, etc.), together with feedback to and from people, disclose
small differences in meaning, intent and understanding that can be adjusted
with little effort, time and expense
to avoid delay and extra cost that time multiplies
into conflict, crisis and calamity. (see for example
Managing Toward Accountability
reviewed on Aug 29, 1997) Accurate understanding and timely follow up to get
things done correctly, on time, and within budget improves productivity and
earnings through collaboration.
Since communication occurs in the mind, the mind must be
tested (see debugged)
to discover understandings from discussions, meetings, calls and
documents, including email.
POIMS argues that computer aided reporting, i.e.,
adding intelligence to information,
is the most direct way to measure accuracy of communication....
- If we do not organize new information according to objectives,
requirements and commitments, then understanding correlations,
implications and nuance fails to recognize context of relevant
experience and controlling forces. Failure to understand context
diminishes ability to understand future information, causing errors to
cascade into bumbling.
- If we cannot align new information
with relevant history, objectives, requirements and commitments, then
"understanding" the meaning of communication fails. (see
New World Order...)
- If new information is not summarized and connected to relevant details,
ability to locate understandings relevant to future context in time for
effective action is greatly reduced.
- If there is no feedback metric to verify understandings are
accurate, then the risk of false knowledge causing miscommunication is
- If the work scheduled to follow up does not align with new
information, then communication was not effective.
are practical and essential business "metrics" of communication. In other
words, adding "metrics" to communication by adding "intelligence" to daily
working information measures whether useful listening occurred, based on
alignment with the record of organizational memory.
When intelligence fails, the likelihood of future error causing follow up to
fail due to false knowledge
caused by erroneous understanding, miscommunication
and meaning drift
is 100%. This high risk of error causes continual bumbling that
reduces productivity and earnings, because in
a faster paced world, communication is the biggest risk in enterprise without
metrics implemented with tools, practices and a work role.
3-layer Architecture Transformation to Culture of Knowledge
Technology for intelligence support
developed with a 3-layer architecture (see above) is, also, deployed
with a 3-layer architecture for
to a culture of knowledge,
without investing a lot of time and expense learning a new way of working.
(for context see outline on
intelligence support in NWO)
People use existing skills working with familiar tools on familiar
things to create information in meetings, calls and documents (layer 1);
and explicit links
(discussed below) strengthen accuracy
by adding connections to verify alignment with organiztional memory (layer 2).
Taking a few seconds to verify accuracy based on situational awareness
enables many people to work intelligently
so that everyone benefits from reducing mistakes, without everyone
investing additional time. Like accountants, CAD engineers, pilots,
bus drivers and others, who leverage specialized skills and technology that
help a lot of people, a few people use skills and tools that implement
POIMS requirements to organize, analyze, align, summarize, and
provide feedback. Only a few people using
eight (8) steps that add intelligence to
information can construct, and refine accuracy of
organizational memory in Knowledge Space
(layer 3) that makes access to critical details
fast and easy for everyone. Since
granular addressability and explicit links are constructed
can access organizational memory quickly to collaborate, and get things done
correctly that saves lives, time and money.
This solves the Knowledge Management dilemma
by striking a better balance
between speed and accuracy that enables people to improve productivity
by quickly learning to use powerful new tools that leverage existing
skills and training.
Some will object:
I don't want to write, and click anything
to expand span of attention, because talking is fast and easy.
I'm a good listener; I know what I heard; I want to
expedite by relying on whatever pops into my head at the moment.
Doing the work shows what I understood; if problems occur,
Thoughtful practitioners have learned, however, that "talk is cheap" means
that good hearing does not yield accurate communication, when there is no
feedback loop. Biological hearing is not "listening."
Hearing must be tested with questions and aligned with what has
been said before, with contracts, policies, law, regulation and other
controlling forces in order to enable effective listening through accurate
understanding and timely follow up that gets things done on time and within
Experienced managers and executives also know that
pounding the table and providing memo pads inscribed "Don't say it. Write it,"
does not overcome the allure of relying on conversation, because conversation
is fast and easy, and doing anything more takes time that is in short supply.
To get more intelligence,
POIMS says lower the cost and
increase the benefits. This requires automated tools that make
possible a new paradigm for knowledge work. It means a shift
from isolated "documents" to a continuous
where writing, linking, analysing, aligning, and distributing
information is faster, more flexible and useful than traditional
documents and reports. In particular the ability to retrieve
specific information from a sea of details at the moment it is
needed, increases the incentive to create it. These utility and
self-interest dynamics make testing communications by the metrics
of feedback, alignment and analysis a viable new management
Documents Linked to History and Analysis
Produce Knowledge Space
POIMS links intelligence
from organizing, analysis, alignment, summary and feedback metrics,
with traditional "documentation" in correspondence, reports,
memos, email, and publications in books, magazines and
newspapers. Common storage for organizational memory
in Knowledege Space gives timely access
to all formal and informal communications, because
everything is in the right place at the right time. Timely access
is supported by context management
to construct and navigate multiple paths with organic structure
noticeable time and effort, so that people can find information
quickly when needed based on contextual understanding of circumstances
in the moment, i.e.,
Common storage and timely access to
organizational memory accomplish popular goals for a
paperless office, where "filing" is a mere mental exercise of
volition (see also a
reviewed, for example, in an article on June 13, 1998)
Formal correspondence requires features to differentiate issued and received
documents, and capture control criteria that impacts management and legal
obligations, e.g., is a response needed, who should respond and when?
Creating correspondence must therefore automatically post a Document Log that
shows accountability, context, and schedules follow up.
Similarly, publications are captured in the context of actual
work flow. This provides clarity of application. Linking tools
connect analysis to documentation, so that original sources can
be accessed based on organizational objectives and relevant
history. Often the most important aspect of a letter is what is
left out, so POIMS links this information automatically, when
correspondence and documents are prepared within a POIMS
Integrating document management with
intelligence that is organized by
chronology and organic structure, and which links summary to detail,
creates a dynamic working environment of
for both personal and organizational experience. Some
experts variously call this integrated environment for enterprise management a
Virtual Office, or Paperless Office,, that provides
an automated history, with names like
Repository of Experience, Lessons Learned, Case Studies,
or more simply a Knowledge Repository.
POIMS extends this concept by integrating history with communication,
planning, and performing daily work, i.e., technology enables people
and organizations to take timely action, by augmenting
to make getting things done faster and easier.
Clear, Concise, Complete Communication via Internet
Builds Shared Meaning
Intelligence Collaboration Powerful Synergy
The Internet can deliver vast amounts of information anytime,
anywhere. However, people do not need more information. We
need precise information on specific subjects, and we need
knowledge of correlations with related scenarios, and alignment
with requirements and authority. People need
POIMS requirements support analysis with
using flexible structure, (2) connections that maintain accurate
alignment, (3) summary linked to details, (4) organic structure with granular
contextual boundaries to access relevant research, and (5) feedback
that refines accuracy. Integrating these elements harmoniously in a structure
of Knowledge Space
yields a common resource of organizational memory for
clear, concise, complete communications. Networking on the Internet
and with secure company intranets enables everyone to exercise
due diligence to avoid mistakes without investing more time. Systems
that rest on diligence for accuracy benefit greatly from
intelligence support, because good intentions to work harder invariabily
founder on limited time. Integrated tasks accomplish more work in the
same time with greater diligence supported by technology.
Another dimension of Knowledge Space is the contribution of people who
receive the record of organizational memory for
intelligence support on the Internet or a secure intranet.
POIMS requires automatically constructing
with anchors on every location where
links are needed (e.g,, paragraphs - see automatic and
custom linking above).
are generated to make anchors visible using a system of
highlighted double dots (e.g., see the first character of
each paragraph throughout POIMS). Applying explict links
on the Internet, or a secure intranet, makes "connecting the dots" to
fast and easy for everyone (place the mouse on the double dots
and right click to open a menu; click the "Copy Link" option;
the link address can then be pasted
into an email - takes about 5 seconds).
Web browser technology enables everyone to create
connections into Knowledge Space using explicit links,
but without the burden of learning and using specialized technology.
(see 3-layer architecture
for transformation) Instead,
people can capture connections of their own choosing,
using familiar tools and skills via email, and deliver useful intelligence
to anyone, anywhere in the world at any time.
These evolving dynamics show great promise for expanding the
power of knowledge. Creating a connected record in seconds rather
than hours, days and weeks with other methods is
a significant gain in productivity realized from
efficiencies of a
model, which have previously proven elusive.
(see review on April 18, 1991) Productivity gains from only a few people
are multiplied many times over by empowering
millions of people with command and control
of the work, because finding
critical details to get things done is no longer a frustrating exercise of
looking for a needle in a haystack,
but now is accomplished quickly by clicking links based on
situational awareness (see also
Documents Linked to History and Analysis)
Increased accuracy from the precision access using
and explicit links make the goal of
clear, concise, complete communication a practical new
reality. (see New World Order Needs Old Time Religion) Expanding the
power of knowledge to everyone for constructing links at will, which in turn
enable instant access to precise locations for everyone scales up to
save enormous time
and frustration looking and hunting to find critical details, and saves even
more time, when people don't take time to find the right things, and so spend
much more time correcting mistakes from relying on assumptions and
remembering only the gist of the story. Productivity grows quickly
switching from negative to positive
synergy relying on accurate information in time to be effective.
The Internet and secure intranet networks support uniform and timely
of intelligence to a wide audience.
Uniform, timely delivery builds shared meaning. This form of
delivery avoids the common problem of people not reading a
large report because it appears too imposing at the time it is
received, and so is put off to another time, when it is too late
to apply "intelligence," or is ignored altogether. Clear and
concise communication avoids the problem of information overload,
where meaning is lost or misconstrued due to the vagaries of
interpreting a large amount of information. Delivering
"intelligence" anytime, anywhere via electronic networks maintains shared
meaning over the period of time required for coordinated action,
which is the goal of leadership.
Clear and concise communication enable timely follow up, and
complete communication enabled by links to "connect the dots"
ensures accurate understanding for making action effective.
These ingredients for a system of Communication Metrics form a
stronger partnership between
leadership and technology
that improve management productivity by working faster and more accurately.
PRODUCTIVITY - DEBUG MANAGEMENT
"Experts" agree (e.g.,
productivity requires making better decisions that avoid mistakes,
including avoiding denial that mistakes have been made, which
require correction. If speeding up the assembly line causes
more defective widgets, Quality Control will catch them. If QC
costs less than the additional widgets, productivity is improved.
That does not work for management. Its defective "output" flows
far into the future. However, when the "boss" errs, inexperience
and social pressure endemic to organizational hierarchy, impede
subordinates from sounding an effective alert. Therefore,
managers must challenge themselves.
The software industry provides a helpful model for how managers
can challenge themselves by applying the "debugging" process that
computer programmers use to discover their erroneous instructions
executed deep within the architecture of computers. Managers must
likewise "debug" their work product before disaster strikes by
- What will be affected by this decision, including subtle,
collateral impacts that are not be obvious?
- Does the decision align with the facts; how strong is
the evidence of "facts," are they reliable?
- How does the decision align with objectives, requirements and
These steps to "debug" management require analysis (see again
Peter Drucker) of personal and organizational memory, which,
in turn, requires tools and skilled people to capture daily experience in
the context of controlling authority in law, regulation, contracts, industry
standards, policy and procedures.
The POIMS process of adding intelligence
to information strengthens traditional analysis by routinely organizing
the record and "connecting the dots" into chronologies of cause and effect.
intellectual capital that improves accuracy
of communication, listening, understanding and follow up
throughout the organization. Accuracy is improved by applying common
binary structures to cross-check personal perceptions, similar
to "double-entry" verification in bookkeeping. As with the tradition of
bookkeeping in financial management, adding metrics to communication
enables people to discover little deviations (i.e., errors and mistakes)
in alignment between daily work and controlling forces (e.g., contracts,
objectives requirements, commitments), at a time when correction can be made
without significant time and expense to prevent events from cascading out of
control into major cost and delay. In other words, paying the price of
good management to reduce
mistakes saves time and money otherwise expended on endless cycles of
correcting corrections, commonly called
rework. The same process, also,
discloses opportunities and ideas from discovering patterns and associations
for improving work processes
that are overlooked in the absence of intelligence support.
A variety of ways to find information using complementary
functions and practices
for manipulating integrated data bases provide multiple views based on the
organic structure of context.
Granular division of subjects,
and the innate granularity of time
provide multiple paths for fast, often instantaneous,
This makes finding the proverbial
needle in a haystack
fast and easy, based on situational awareness.
New World Order...)
The biology of
subconscious mental metrics enable people to readily remember the
of the story that is usually in the ballpark
of relevant context; however, innate
memory is often incorrect and incomplete on details. For example, reporting on
September 27, 2000 indicates people typically
remember only 5% - 10% of the actual story, and then fill in the
remaining 90% -95% with assumptions based on common sense. The worry people
feel about the
devil in the details underscores the
price people pay for fragmented memory under new realities of chronic
information overload (see New World Order...).
Accurately remembering critical details of organizational memory
presents a significant opportunity to improve performance using POIMS
requirements for reporting in a framework
of Knowledge Space.
Rather than rely on a fragment of truth and use
common sense to fill in the gaps (see The Improbable Machine
by Jeremy Campbell, reviewed on March 3, 1990), POIMS technology leverages
ability to remember the gist of a story to get the full story from
organizational memory. The power to find 100% of the story, by remembering
only 5% - 10%, significantly augments cognition by expanding span of attention.
Research on March 3, 1999 shows that expanding
span of attention
aids human memory; earlier research on March 19, 1990 found better memory
i.e., aids human reasoning. The key is that we don't have to
write everything down in order to improve. Just remembering 10% to 20%
doubles performance so that people can find the right information in time to
save time, money and lives.
Fast and easy retrieval, means more information will be
generated, because it is more valuable. Since doing more of
a task improves performance, users get better and faster
at capturing the record. Thus, under POIMS technology, automated
tools for investing intellectual capital
empower managers to achieve the TQM objective...
i n t e l l i g e n c e
Total Quality Management and ISO 9000
TQM transcends the bureaucracy of traditional hierarchical
organizational models by applying "quality metrics" to leverage
individual spirit, energy and talents of cross-functional teams.
This yields better planning and communication that improves
performance. Another way to describe TQM is improving
productivity by constant review of work practices, including
teamwork, planning and communication. ISO 9000 and 10006 provide specific
criteria for accomplishing a lot of the aims attributed to TQM, yet
improvement through quality control to
reduce mistakes in daily management remains
elusive. Managers are under constant pressure to cut corners
and take short cuts in hopes of saving time and money. TQM, ISO,
PMBOK, FAR and all standards recognize that short cuts on good management
cause continual bumbling, which increases the
time and cost of rework, more commonly called "expediting." When
investment for quality management falls, entropy rises under the second law of
thermodynamics, leading to error, loss, chaos, conflict, crisis, and calamity.
work model has become a management
standard cited in various forms by ISO and the Project Management
Institute's body of knowledge (PMBOK). These standards recognize
that study and planning are processes for adding "intelligence" to
information, which is essential in order to make action effective. Andy Grove,
president and chairman of Intel Corporation supports Peter Drucker's call
for managers to
analyse and to
But information overload from constant meetings, calls and email reduces the
time to think. There is no time to plan nor to study before
taking action, when the mind is constantly absorbing information.
Deliberation, analysis and alignment are ignored in hopes of saving time to
expedite the work, which leads to a spiral of correcting mistakes, i.e.,
continual bumbling and escalating costs of rework. Therefore,
POIMS technology uses automated integration of the management
cycle, plan, perform, report,
as the only viable means of empowering managers to consistently implement
TQM and other good management practices. Consistent use of good practices
to analyse, plan, understand and follow up
improves earnings, and is the best form of proactive risk management for
reducing mistakes, stress and conflict.
Management by Objectives (MBO)
Organic Structure Constructs Multiple Views
Technology that integrates
Managing by Objectives (MBO), with time, and information makes
Context Management (see New World Order... for scope) a routine
business practice. Records management, library practices with the Dewy
Decimal system, accounting systems,
and network planning with CPM and WBS methods create a framework
for organic structure that positions everything in the right place at the
right time in Knowledge Space. Fast and thorough
identification of context with subject indexing (also, topics, categories,
classifications, taxonomy, epistomology, ontology, etc.)
breaks down chronological events into vertical and
horizontal relationships that define granular boundaries for objectives,
requirements and commitments which guide performance of daily work. (see also
Perform explaining shared meaning)
People can construct, access and manage context
with unlimited refinement using relational and hierarchial boundaries.
Command and control of the
microcosm in the organic structure of knowledge (see New World
Order... on the DNA for the
Garden of Knowledge) makes
finding specific details fast and easy to
discover, study, and learn cause and effect. Synergy between
precision access based on granular indexing of
context, and dynamic linking based on granular addressability
makes dynamic contstruction of Knowlege Space
a practical reality for finding
critical details on the job in time to save lives and money.
This design expands comprehension of meaning beyond biological limits for
span of attention,
reported in research by Professor George Miller, reviewed on March 3, 1999.
Organic structures can be quickly assembled into multiple views,
similar to the way DNA creates vastly different organisms by assembling
common building blocks into a multitude of life patterns. Accuracy of
human memory is strengthened through greater command and control of
complex knowledge structures, which are normally hidden from the conscious
Navigating through organic structure to assign subjects begins with mere
fragmentary memory of related context. Hierarchial indexing expands span of
attention by orders of magnitude. Leveraging innate mental capacity to
recognize many correlations, implications, and nuance from initially
understanding only the gist of the story (see
above) is a powerful Communication Metric that refines comprehension by
constructing a comprehensive record connecting cause and effect. Clearly, a
practice of context management that continually grows a data base of reminders,
and further presents all relevant subjects in an orderly manner yields better
results than relying on momentary memory of a busy mind necessarily focused on
events of the day. Records can be segmented and tagged with multiple subjects
to manage evolving context, reflecting the real-world fact that information has
different meanings over time due to the fluidity of life (see explanation of
intelligence). Context management requires
skill and attention, like tending a garden of knowledge, in order to
enable people to understand connections of cause and effect in time for taking
effective action. The skill, time and rewards of context management at lower
levels of organic structure support a new professional
The POIMS design enables people to align daily work with organizational needs,
and to draw support from others without taking up valuable time in meetings,
phone calls and documents. Managing context with granular divisions of organic
structures continually evolves new subjects and associations. Investing time
to manage the garden of knowledge yields big rewards by enabling
effective intelligence support, described
Personal privacy must be protected within a
framework of shared knowledge. "Filing" requires mere
intellectual volition. Instant linking to related information,
and outlining and highlighting, are essential to control the
details of daily business life in a faster paced world.
Automated integration of time and information
makes it practical to adopt this new
paradigm of investing intellectual capital.
Managing Time - "Experience Machine"
Chronology Intelligence Connects the Dots of Knowledge
Traditional practice managing time centers on scheduling
things to do. The irreversability of time presents an elemental
paradigm of intelligence applying the mental faculty of
linking the past and the future with the present. People
"know" the "In Box" contains pending tasks to prepare and
review documents for getting things done correctly.
The "schedule" has appointments for meetings and calls to discuss issues.
However, few people can recall what they did yesterday,
last week, or two years ago that relates to unfolding events today
in ways that control the future. Since experience is the primary source of
decision making, better access to an accurate record of
experience improves productivity by eliminating errors of
assumption about the sequence of cause and effect that
makes sense of complex problems. The 8-steps
of Communication Metrics construct a
that combines time and context.
Simply maintaining chronological order of a diary record
goes a long way toward intelligence support that yields
knowledge of cause and effect for predicting the future.
Investing time to understand the past in order to see the
future rests on the principle...
past is prologue
Management requires an efficient space where
people can invest a little time each day to think, analyse, review,
research and plan, rather than merely react to unfolding crises.
Thinking through writing
the story of daily work
makes analysis a practical reality using the
of plan, perform report. Soon, the story of daily work
grow into a rich history of who, what, when,
where, why and how things get done, problems to avoid, and knowledge of
solutions for moving ahead. Organizational memory
enables looking back in time at past experience
that influences present actions and future plans. Tools
that link, organize and retrieve information make this
investment pay off by emulating the mind's ability to instantly
draw only relevant information, but without the mistakes that
time and emotion inflict on faded memories.
Technology that provides a Knowledge Space for organizational memory
places people at the controls of a powerful
forward and backward in time with equal speed and accuracy.
Some people feel there is not enough time to "write everything
down," and do not want to spend all of their time
behind a computer. People are already writing notes on
important matters. This is the key! Technology is helpful to
track important information, so it can be used when
needed. Since integrated scheduling and reporting make
writing more efficient, more can be done within the time
already devoted to writing and thinking.
THINK, REMEMBER, COMMUNICATE
LISTEN AND LEARN
Integrating time and information advances the traditional linear model of
alphabet technology with a
plan, perform, report
process that significantly augments
intelligence. Technology to
routinely organize, analyse, align, summarize, and verify with feedback
a greater share of daily experience lifts
innate capacity to think, remember and communicate through better
synergy between personal and organizational memory.
Thinking through writing
in the flexible structure of Knowledge Space
maintains chronology for remembering causation based on context.
Better memory of chronology and context improves
listening to understand
complexity, and follow up to get things done correctly.
Case studies drive continual learning with root cause analysis to discover
lessons learned. These dynamics lift civilization with the
power of knowledge through better use of experience and academics.
This phenomenon occurs because....
- Alphabet technology
was an explosive invention that has lifted civilization
for 2,000 years by converting the story
of daily life into history with
analysis that strengthens innate thoughts. Writing is a
process that makes sense of complexity by investing time to craft,
shape, and understand correlations, implications, and nuance through
the medium of documents, which can be studied, and improved through
alternate renderings, because documents
preserve accuracy of otherwise emphermal memory
by several orders of magnitude. Writing constructs
linear connections that form words, sentences, and paragraphs into
stories that aid human thinking by connecting information with
time (chronology) and context (organic structure of knowledge),
based on objectives, requirements, and commitments.
Formal rules of punctuation and grammar enable consistent
interpretation among disparate people, and across generations.
These core tools of literacy for constructing writings
that accurately convey cause and effect, i.e.,
knowledge, comprise an essential
foundation that lifts civilization by augmenting individual and
cultural intelligence. (see, for example,
11 rules on commas, reviewed September 24, 2004)
Since the world is multi-dimensional, people often struggle
with the linear model of text to represent context in writing. The
struggle to write discloses gaps, errors, and confusion. Andy Grove
points out in his book Only the Paranoid Survive that
ambiguity is easily forgiven by a busy mind
until failure occurs, or opportunity is lost, absent the struggle to
"discover what we think" by
writing it down. Of course writing
takes time, and complexity makes thinking through writing hard under
the rule: "If you can't write it down, you don't understand it."
The mental struggle to find the right words, phrasing, and support
reveals weak understanding. Error, conflict, crisis, and
calamity loom when misunderstanding is
not corrected before taking action. (see
Management Tasks, Responsibilities, Practices...,
Peter Drucker, reviewed November 30, 1993) Writing
engages both hands, eyes, and hearing faculties from mentally
saying words, as they are crafted. These physical and mental dynamics
of human biology strengthen both analysis and
innate memory by virtue of increased
cognitive resources applied to writing. Using alphabet
technology to expand and correct human thought before taking action
has proven to be an effective
Communication Metric that
lifts civilization by leveraging intelligence to make people
superhuman (see Havlock reviewed on November 8, 1999)
- Automated editing with a computer enables quickly changing the
organization of thoughts into alternate forms. This significantly
augments intelligence for crafting, expanding, and refining thoughts by
choosing the best form among
several choices quickly constructed with facile technology,
because people are good at exercising judgement for
matching patterns in the mind with patterns observed as objects
on a computer screen or on paper. Information technologies
for wordprocessing, email, and presentations (e.g., Powerpoint)
significantly improve publishing documents with better prose and
appearance, and so are important improvements to alphabet technology
for augmenting intelligence.
- Instant access to links has many benefits for verifying accuracy
and expanding span of attention that are missing from traditional
documents. Information technologies for wordprocessing and the
Internet make good use of electronic forms prepared interactively for
transactions that automatically post sales data. This is a significant
boost to productivity from applying the model of a
virtual office that reduces "paperwork."
- The flexible structure of
Knowledge Space increases command and
control of the work by expanding the
model. Instant access to links in a structure of
situational awareness of cause and effect based on context.
Automatic links and tools make "connecting the dots"
fast and easy with custom citations to original sources. This
reduces the level of diligence required to create
for verifying accuracy, discovering error, expanding span of
attention, and for understanding and preserving causation.
Deliberative analysis and
continually expand connections that
refine accuracy to reduce meaning drift.
Synergy from continual exposure to sources, when creating and
accessing links, augments intelligence with
increased cross-fertilization of ideas that increase
creativity. More verification
resolves ambiguity so that less writing yields more
communication and better productivity
by avoiding rework to fix mistakes.
- Automated tools for Context Management
augment intelligence with fast and supple
assembly of chronology that reveals historical and emerging patterns of
cause and effect for related context, and prompt, comprehensive
consideration of objectives and related subjects, both of which are
otherwise overlooked, until error occurs. Early discovery of impacts
avoid future mistakes, and disclosure of patterns aids
innovation and creativity. (see scope of
Reporting in NWO)
- Integrating time and information with
the Management Cycle
builds chronologies that connect cause and effect into a continuous
Knowledge Space for the story
of daily experience. Command and control
of organizational memory to construct and access accurate, relevant
that reasons based on chronology and context, i.e., the sequence of
time. Integrated functions for creating and manipulating complementary
data bases transform
remembering the gist of the story
into pointers that reveal accurate history to guide conduct based
on understanding the complete story relevant to the current context.
Better personal and organizational memory augments human thinking that
enables clear, concise, complete
Conventional writing uses wordprocessing, email, pen and paper
for criteria 1, 2,
and 3 that aid analysis and study. Paradoxically
writing is used
sparringly by management, yet results in mountains of
useless information that reduce productivity by overwhelming
span of attention. (see New World Order...) Since doing more yields less
productivity, the life cycle of alphabet technology has been optimized
for the underlying design to create information set 2,000 years ago.
Improving productivity therefore requires a new foundation that begins a
new "S" curve based on criteria 4, 5, and 6 that
expand the original linear model of alphabet technology. A modern design
adds a continuous intelligence process to routinely
construct chronology, context, and
connections in a
multi-dimensional, common storage space that converts information
into knowledge for saving lives, time, money (see NWO). Advance to a
culture of knowledge may therefore
prove to be another significant lift for civilization, comparable to the
At this time in the age of information, people mostly
rely on conversation and personal memory to "expedite" getting things
done. Conversation requires effective listening to understand and follow up.
However, listening is limited by human biology, just like, seeing, running and
lifting. Accurate understanding relying on "listening" is therefore tenuous
and suspect, because the biology of of hearing and memory is fragile.
Limited span of attention is easily
overwhelmed, making listening and memory the weak link in management because
new realities of technology compress time and distance that compounds meaning drift due to increased frequency and
severity of information overload, leading to common complaints....
Doesn't anybody around here listen?
Listen to me!
Nobody ever listens to me!
You didn't listen! I distinctly remember saying...
...change the "title," not the "tidal" information.
...deliver 6 pounds of 10 penny nails, not 10 pounds of 6 penny
People either don't understand, and take the wrong
action; or, do understand, but forget to take action. Additionally, people can
understand in the moment, but interceding events cause meaning to drift away
before action can be taken, resulting in
that causes follow up to fail. More devastating is telling a slightly
different story, illustrated by the friendly "telephone game," that expands
and spreads error like a virus throughout an
organization, causing incorrect actions to multiply, commonly called bumbling.
These limitations of natural listening and learning
can be improved by technology that speeds up the historical process of
thinking through writing, called variously literacy, study,
analysis, intelligence, knowledge and organizational memory.
enhances traditional writing
to reveal critical details and
relationships, commonly called analysis, through a "double entry" check
of daily impressions from dialog and documents, that are linked back to
original sources and forward to future tasks. Peter Drucker notes that
analysis is a core responsibility of management, that is often ignored
due to limited time. Technology helps solve the time problem, and
the "audit trail" that aligns facts and reasoning significantly
enhances the quality of analysis to make leadership effective.
COMMAND AND CONTROL
COMMUNICATION, CONTEXT AND INTELLIGENCE
Management entails an evolving cast of people, organizations, projects,
subjects, and other variables that require constant decisions and
communication. Daily work produces a large, complex written and verbal record.
These dynamics present a growing challenge of comprehension and memory,
sometimes called the fog of war, because technology that compresses
time and distance compounds complexity that degrades order.
Proactive management maintains a
well ordered record to discover opportunities and problems in time to be
effective. This requires both....
- command of the work using accurate
and timely knowledge of cause and effect derived from
to relevant work history, and...
- control of the work converting experience
into the power of knowledge for accurate judgement of
Command and control using experience and judgement requires timely
notice to take action, which, if not performed,
causes delay, extra cost, and loss of life and property. Directing
the work has traditionally been based on
situational awareness (see NWO...) of conditions
in relation to objectives, requirements, and commitments (e.g.,
law, regulation, contracts, policy, custom, standards), and communicated
through meetings, calls, and documents.
Throughout history, beginning
with the rise of bureaucracy in the Roman Empire, command and control
offered the best chance to manage complexity. Order, structure and
communication that connect cause and effect leverage the power of people
through teamwork. Control maintaining order enables
predictability that is the foundation of good
management. However, events cascade out of control, when
there is not enough time to align communication with relevant experience.
Without tools for command and control of
organizational memory, people are overwhelmed
by information density using tools that compress time and distance
(e.g., email, meetings, calls). Without precision access to relevant history,
judgement is reduced to impulse - whatever pops into the mind at the moment.
Management degrades toward entropy, relying solely on momentary
memory, hunch and hope, because in the modern era...
communication is the biggest risk in enterprise
irreversability of time drives organization toward disorder under the
second law of thermodynamics. Meetings, calls, and documents traditionally
maintain order. However, these methods degrade order,
when people do not have time to think, because technology that
compresses time and
distance increases complexity beyond comprehension.
Without tools and practices for deliberation, faster information overwhelms
span of attention.
Faster information technology, therefore, requires adding
energy to "connect the dots" of cause and effect that yield
the power of knowledge for predicting the future, under the
locality principle (see review on March 12, 2004).
Tools and practices of Knowledge Management
provide intelligence support to
discover and maintain order that makes sense of complexity
using the 8-steps of Communication Metrics.
Command and control converts the jumble and chaos of hectic
meetings, calls, and documents into a
well ordered record
that "connects the dots" of
cause and effect into an audit trail by
triangulating seven (7) elements of order
(explained in the record on May 23, 1989)...
- Writing tells the story
- Links connect cause effect among multiple stories
- Time and dates keep chronology of cause and effect in order
- Subjects identify granularity of contextual boundaries
- Record segments create Control Fields to manage time and context
- Line numbers shallow outline linear nodes lowest level of order
- Outlining headlines summarize and structure meaning
Timely, accurate understanding of
and connections enable
communication in meetings, calls, and documents to
leverage diverse skills and experience for getting things done
efficiently, i.e., quickly and accurately.
Without intelligence support for precision access, management, communication,
command, and control all implode. When cause and effect are not connected,
entropy rises; complex organizations that should increase productivity through
synergy of complementary operations, and efficiencies of scale, instead devolve
toward chaos, conflict, crisis, and calamity (see again review of
Schombert lectures reported
on March 12, 2004). Profit centers become cost cows.
Today information comes so fast in constant meetings, calls, and
documents (e.g., fax, email, specifications, procedures, advertising),
that capturing a comprehensive work history with connections
of cause and effect is impossible using information technologies (IT).
On November 11, 2002 Bill Gates with Microsoft Corporation noted a
growing pandemic piling up mountains of
useless information in computers with documents
that are not connected to objectives, requirements, and commitments
for guiding daily work. Authorities describe a
tsunami of information overload. (reported June 13, 1998)
A tsunami piling up
mountains of useless information
paralyzes productivity (see case study on October 3, 2001).
cannot find information on critical details,
pressure builds to just "pull the trigger" and
"wing it" by relying on momentary impulse
remembering the gist of the story, rather than check the record to
verify accuracy. When there is
not enough time to think
people are unable to organize, analyse, align and summarize the record, nor
is there enough time for feedback to issue timely notice.
Without intelligence support, limited time
forces people to get by on
driven by hunch and hope. Little deviations from reality
creep into the work. Mistakes on seemingly small, inconsequential details
spread and compound into crisis, conflict, and calamity
through continuous communication streams in meetings, calls and documents
that overlook error due to limited span of attention.
(see again meaning drift)
Under these conditions, command and control
degrades into guess and gossip where daily work becomes
an Alice in Wonderland of
continual bumbling, noted by Henry Kissinger, reviewed on June
9, 1994. Kissinger's view is supported in a study issued by
the US Air Force Institute of Technology (USAFIT) explaining
that when span of attention is overwhelmed by
the flow of information,
management degrades to entropy and the work fails.
POIMS technology supports the practice of Knowledge Management
of Communication Metrics for working intelligently
using deliberative analysis
that links controlling issues into trails of associations for
understanding of context, essential to effective command.
Complexity of context management requires
for synergy between complementary computer commands that
harmonize capturing events in written records,
and assembling chronologies to discover
causation in relation to objectives, requirements and commitments.
Context management of dynamic work history
makes the reasons for decisions, which are apparent at inception, also,
available much later when those not
involved (i.e., judge and jury), may well view conduct as
"unreasonable," if the reasons are not readily available.
Command and control of the record provides intelligence that
increases the chance of success by
discovering new ideas and persuading people on the best course of action.
Timely discovery of correlations, implications and nuance reduces mistakes and,
also, reduces damages through mitigation. When disputes arise, resolution
is aided by a connected record showing cause and effect based on context and
alignment with objectives and requirements. This body of knowledge
fosters common understandings on potential controversy before
Of course there is no single "solution" to the
work-a-day world of management. Results depend on people
whose interests and perspectives change over time. The
ability and experience of decision makers differ according to
venue. These variables create conflicting agendas
that make "success" a moving target.
Manager's must anticipate this evolution, and apply the best
mix of available resources in the manner of an artist reaching
to express a vision that is never fully formed. Personal and organizational
integrated management (POIMS)
is a simpler, more powerful way to perform this
art, and so improves the chances of success under the new realities
of a faster paced world in the 21st century.
There are two main objections to saving time and
improving earnings with computer aided management:
- Management is complex; good practices are
hard to use consistently day-to-day.
- Talking and cursory notes from meetings and calls may not
be good practice for getting things done correctly and on time,
but it always seems
fast and easy
in the moment; good management requires analysis, but analysis is a lot
harder than talking, and can be easily avoided by
saying that good management is
because there isn't enough time to
write notes twice
Since good management converting information from daily communication
into useful knowledge is hard work, it seems easier to formulate a
business model that generates enough revenue to buy off mistakes so that
executives can get by using meetings, calls and email, rather than
improve the work.
On the other hand,
points out that favorable market conditions are only temporary.
says enterprise succeeds only by management continually improving to meet
changing business conditions. The most powerful
change impacting daily management is the accelerating pace of
information that overwhelms human mental biology. This new reality
requires new tools, skills, roles, practices
and processes that avoid mistakes, because
to fix mistakes causes delay and extra cost that destroy earnings.
Therefore, improvement through continual learning (i.e., using a continual
process of intelligence) is the only
formula for continual success. Analysis is a more common term for working
intelligently in business, and Drucker maintains that
analysis is the core competency for the practice of management.
Andy Grove, Chairman of Intel, concurs.
Grove maintains that, since
communication is the dominate activity of management, analysis by
copious notes and getting
feedback to verify understandings help avoid the
inherent ambiguity of mental maps that cause continual
bumbling in the fast paced, complex environment of the 21st century.
However, Grove says in his book,
Only the Paranoid Survive,
that trying to get executives to admit the magnitude of problems they face,
new realities have outdated work practices that formerly
brought success, is like....
Walking through the valley of death!
Overcoming ignorance, fear and denial that good management is essential
requires technology that makes
fun, fast, and effective. Using hands,
eyes and hearing to create a physical form of mental arrangements that can then
be crafted to align daily work with objectives, requirements and commitments
increases the chance that power will be effective. Landauer points out in his
The Trouble with Computers
that effectance converting ideas into action
drives human behavior. Like playing a piano, or turning stone into sculpture,
POIMS makes working intelligently
fun. Playing the music with balance and harmony
connects the dots of cause and effect for
discovering correlations, implications and nuance in time to bring success.
However, like the wheel, the alphabet and a messy substance called
"oil," acceptance of fundamental advance adding "intelligence" to daily
management is tentative. For
thousands of years, the contractor built the bridge, the
accountant did the books, the lawyer made the arguments
and the journalist wrote the story. It is a big leap across this
cultural divide, to suddenly adopt special
tools of the professions.
Can a complex world be organized in a
Does POIMS infringe on personal prerogative and style?
Like CPM and TQM, fears of heresy against convention can only be
overcome by experience using POIMS.
Management is Complex
Better productivity requires integrating a critical mass of
with new ways to organize information.
This initially seems complex because it exposes a process
that occurs without conscious effort: thinking.
Creating and applying objectives and relationships between
people, information, and time, mostly occurs automatically
beneath the conscious mind. These connections are charged
by emotion, but fade with time. This capacity to convert
information into knowledge has worked well for the slower
pace of life prior to the modern era. However, errors
increase, as the flow of information exceeds the capacity of human mental
biology to process new information.
In other words, new realities of modern technology,
which are helpful in many respects, have a residual effect of
"information overload" that overwhelms
limited span of attention.
When rushed, mistakes are hidden, because the
mind imposes order at the conscious level of awareness, so that
people can function in a hectic world. This causes Murphy's
Law. People at first are
by the organizing structure that manages context and details
needed to solve "Murphy," because the complexity of
mental metrics in human cognition
is normally hidden from the conscious mind. But, soon the
mind welcomes the chance to discover misconceptions and knowledge
overlooked by the automatic pilot that guides us through a
busy day. POIMS helps a mind shaped by evolution, deal
with a world shaped by the mind.
Some fear that new realities requiring organizational memory inhibit
management, where the Boss does what he wants, and deals with the
Why bother with all this linking, analysis and audit trail stuff?
I hate all these connections that waste time going on and on
cross-referencing til the cows home. It boggles the mind having to
worry about which link to open and being accountable for knowing
every little thing that saves time and money and lives. That's
a big responsibility! My people are responsible for
telling the truth
about what I need to know, so I am not responsible for knowing
anything, because, frankly, I don't have time to know everything.
I am intelligent enough. I know what I want; that's why I'm the boss.
Besides, I'm a good talker. I don't want to write everything down because
then I can't talk my way out of
accountability for mistakes,
and talk my way into credit when luck brings good fortune.
All I need to succeed is to be a good talker and
So, goes the argument that converts a powerful
asset for "connecting the dots" to accurately
understand cause and effect, and, provide
instant access to relevant context, when needed,
into a liability of unwanted responsibility and burden
to open every link all at once. The paradoxical
perspective that instant access
to relevant "intelligence" for expanding span of attention to avoid mistakes
by verifying accuracy and understanding context that saves time, money and
lives is a liability, reflects paralyzing fear of accountability that
encourages people to work hard at getting by with
that imposes arbitrary authority to avoid organizational memory
in hopes of avoiding accountability, even when mandated by
government requirements, as in the case of the
Federal Acquisition Regulations (FAR) requiring
traditional documentation of work history for decision support.
Ignorance and fear that turn a powerful asset into debilitating liability
spawn equally powerful social dynamics of
denial that argues good management
is unnecessary overkill. Holding that technology to make good
management fast and easy is "unnecessary,"
poses a dilemma from the implication that people are actually
seeking technology to make bad management
successful, which is an impossible dream. Bad management requires doing
nothing by relying solely on innate memory, which is inoordinately fungible
over time. (see meaning drift)
Reliance on remembering only the gist of things and on common sense
that together guide spontaneous communication in meetings, calls and email
is a strong solution at the
personal level, because talking is a powerful
method for building personal relationships. Organizations, however,
good relations balanced with investing time for accurate understanding that
aligns communication with objectives, requirements and commitments and enables
timely discovery of correlations, implications and nuance that are not evident
during events, but for the exercise of linking back to original sources.
Too often on the Information Highway of today
this balance is lost, because communication
occurs at the personal level and so is entirely under the control of
individual people whose personal interests conflict with needs
for organizational memory.
At the individual level, good talking skills enable good
relations with people that bring recognition,
maintain good standing, win promotion for higher pay and avoid
accountability for mistakes that occur later when communication turns out
not to be aligned. This presents an inherent conflict because individual
communication in meetings, calls and email places a premium
on entertainment (see distinctions between literacy and
history of writing on November 8, 1999) that succeeds in-the-moment based on
style and image
However, organizations need accountability as the core and essence of
the impact of communication is deferred, occurring days, months sometimes
years later, and therefore the success of communication for an organization
depends on accurate understanding of work history, i.e., organizational
memory, for effective decisions that enable complementary action and avoid
mistakes, loss, conflict, crisis and calamity.
Obviously, a morass of errors implied by feel
good management leaves the organization in ruins (i.e., productivity
falls, followed by loss, crisis, conflict and calamity, as earnings
and stock prices fall - see
Enron reported on February 4, 2002).
The incipient demands of increasing information caused by faster
technology pose a growing danger that nobody truly "knows" what the boss
wants, including the boss, because nobody has command of evolving context.
Impulse is not knowledge. So, just as traffic
rules evolved in earlier times for efficient use of a complex
roadway system, POIMS is the navigator for a faster, more
complex Information Highway of the future. Personal and Organizational
Integrated Memory and Management (POIMS) balances this
natural tension between personal perspective and organizational requirements,
by making it faster and easier to work intelligently so mistakes are reduced
and opportunities are recognized in time to take action.
Managers, however, properly fear, based on experience using
conventional methods, that investing time to organize, analyse and check
alignment for discovering mistakes and opportunity takes too much time. Fear,
caused by ignorance due to lack of experience using tools designed for
POIMS technology, causes denial that adding "intelligence" to information
saves time and money. Mistakes, delay
and losses are accepted on the grounds there is not enough time for
writing notes twice to analyse communications.
Resistance to augmenting intelligence by strengthening literacy is largely
caused by fear of investing time for learning new skills. Since these new
skills primarily entail pressing buttons on a computer, people are not worried
about arduous physical tasks. Rather, there is enormous fear of frustration
from learning new hand-eye-memory coordination to press buttons on a keyboard
and click a few spots on a computer screen that accomplish the 8-steps of Communication Metrics. These skills for Knowledge
Management add new dimensions of chronology, context, and connection that
significantly enhance the power of 2-dimensional literacy applied with
information technology (IT), which people begin learning in infancy, continue
in the first years of formal education, and are commonly implemented with pen
and paper, and with software for email, wordprocessing and spreadsheets.
People are generally familiar with documentation, filing, cross-referencing,
and footnotes for accuracy (alignment), but use occurs infrequently because
most communication day-to-day is spontaneous stream-of-conscious discussion,
and email. As a result, nobody has reason to think about an integrated process
of thinking through writing. The fact that
alphabet technology has been stable for thousands of years, and there is never
presentation in school of connectionist theory explaining the power of
knowledge, makes any mention of leveraging intelligence by enhancing alphabet
technology seem odd, alien, foreign, and funny. These cultural conditiones
makes mere mention of "alphabet technology" a shocking experience of fear and
an expanded set of tools for literacy takes a
few days to a few weeks, about like learning to drive a car. This investment
necessarily delays getting things done while "re-tooling" from information
to a culture of knowledge. Investing time to transform fundamental
skills using alphabet technology
that have been ingrained for 30, 40, or 50 years is strongly
resisted because human mental biology avers delaying
action, as noted earlier.
cultural dynamics drive denial that improvement is needed, as
reported on May 27, 1999.
Compare, for example, learning new integrated skills of hand-eye coordination
pressing buttons on a computer for
with investing weeks and months learning to drive a car. Motivation
learning to drive comes from experience that shows driving works better
than walking and running for going places and carrying things, i.e.,
benefits are self-evident. Additionally,
driving is a cultural imperative because everyone
drives to school, to the store, to work, to the ball game. Peer pressure and
desire for recognition as a rite of passage from childhood to adulthood further
encourage learning to drive. Young adults are therefore highly focused on
learning to drive, devoting large blocks of time for practice; some study
driver education in school for several months.
People, as well, readily recognize that POIMS technology defines a unique
and powerful spreadsheet for knowledge
self-evident benefits. Navigating through organizational memory
to find the right information at the right time saves everyone time and money.
the analogy quickly breaks down. Even though benefits are self-evident,
since POIMS is a new capability, the larger culture must necessarily
continue to reward old skills for information technology. This presents
a Hobson's choice between investing time to improve, or getting
by with existing skills. As a result, unlike driving a car, cultural
imperatives and peer pressure work against learning
new skills that are different from what everybody is doing, i.e,, working
alien on the job,
is not a common practice in business.
conform with prescribed and accepted practices
in order to make a living present powerful cultural forces against
improvement; or, more precisely, against being the first to try new tools and
methods, and opting instead to wait for others to experiment and verify that
proposed change is in fact an improvement.
Additionally, working intelligently
delivers deferred rewards by preventing mistakes downstream, days, weeks,
months and years in the future, whereas driving a car brings immediate rewards.
Finally, people on the job have a lot of meetings, calls and email
that reduce the time for learning new skills; and, further, this learning must
supplant existing skills for doing the same tasks, which is very demanding in
the following sense. Learning to drive a car is entirely separate from
using other skills for getting things done. However, learning new skills
for getting things done on the job is always at war with the old skills.
Think of it this way. When things go bad while learning to drive,
mom is always there to drive you home, drive you and your friends
to the movies, etc. But, when a glitch occurs using new tools on the job,
there is no one to solve the problem, so that things can get done.
Avoiding this risk, encourages people to
revert back to old skills that are comfortable, rather than
incur the frustration
and potential harm of delay in getting things done.
Andy Grove summarizes attitudes that eschew re-tooling skills on the job
by observing in his book, Only the Paranoid Survive,
that people like to work on
familiar things in
These conditions lead to tools that are fast and easy to learn and are
entertaining in order to motivate learning. A common standard is that people
must be able to
learn business software in 20 minutes
in order to be
successful. Since good management takes more than 20 minutes to learn,
business software that people like because it is easy to learn
often does more harm than good; however, as Landauer
points out, the sense of
people experience from learning something
in 20 minutes drives sales. Bridging the gap between these two (2) worlds of
software that is fast and easy and entertaining, and investing
more than 20 minutes for learning tools that are productive, requires
As a result, transformation to a new way of working in the new realities of
the 21st century requires a new work role
to align communication that complements the traditional work of
accountants to align daily finances. Adding a new professional role reduces
the burden on everybody to learn new skills, while improving performance and
productivity to grow earnings.
Despite published management standards mandating
traceability to original sources
to maintain alignment (often incorporated into express
procedures to show compliance with good
management practices in order to obtain work), and despite
incorporating published standards and regulations (e.g.,
into contracts, and despite
call for copious notes to avoid mistakes caused by the
ambiguity of mental maps, and despite
call for analysis, and despite
call for a diary to sharpen understanding, executives feel good management is
overkill, because conversation is
fast and easy.
approval of budgets for adding an "intelligence" role, by strengthening, for
example, the Communication or Public Relations Department,
because explaining "intelligence" and calculating cost savings in 30 seconds
or 25 words, typically allowed for considering ideas to improve earnings, is
not easy, even when the government has published a study showing
cost savings from return on investment (ROI) is in the
range of 10:1 and even when government regulations require organizational
memory, as with the
Federal Acquisition Regulations (FAR)
trying to explain the benefits of adding an "intelligence" role to
implement POIMS, exposes fears about personal competence. Often the Boss
is ignorant of studies showing
information overload impacts everyone, and that "intelligence" saves time and
money, (see, for example,
CBS News 60 Minutes broadcast on April 12, 1998).
Ignorance about "information overload" is abetted by the powerful intelligence
process in the human mined that automatically converts information into useful
knowledge. Since intelligence seems to take no
time, it therefore seems to be free. The tradition of not paying for
intelligence in business understandably breeds denial that people need help for
working intelligently, leading to the charge that adding this role is
unnecessary overkill, and that problems are caused by staff who don't tell the
truth, who do not work hard enough, nor with the diligence, discipline and
communication skill that the Boss uses each day.
As a result, lack of knowledge leads to the reply....
If we need intelligence, we will hire smarter people!
We'll advertise for people with good communication skills!
The fundamental error is fear that creating organizational
memory that enables precision access navigating in Knowledge Space entails "writing notes twice." Far
from duplication, the 8-steps for Communication Metrics add "intelligence"
once to "connect the dots" that discover mistakes and opportunities
overlooked when information is hurriedly and partially scribbled during events.
Ignorance of sound advice from Drucker, Covey and Grove breeds fear that there
is not enough time to capture organizational memory, and consequent denial that
good management saves time and money, because, in the moment, experts,
standards and regulations requiring people to work intelligently are all
ignored as overkill.
The forces of ignorance, fear and denial
make asking about adding intelligence
support to avoid mistakes and discover opportunities through a system of
seem like admission of incompetence that can be remedied through traditional
means of hiring someone to replace the person proposing a new role, who would
be competent to accomplish Communication Metrics without support.
Even though hiring someone else increases congestion that compounds information
overload, the fear that this remedy would be chosen, rather than use
tools, roles and practices for working intelligently under emerging
new realities, creates a perception that threatens personal
job security. This does not feel good, and so is a big incentive
to forget about improving earnings by adding "intelligence" to management.
Since the cost to fix mistakes caused by lack of "intelligence" usually
occurs in the future, and, since talking and hearing seem effective at the
moment, then, because limited span of attention
and the discursive character of conversation conceal errors and incomplete
consideration, and, further, because emotion, skillful speech, commanding
demeanor and hierarchy suppress awareness that dialog does
not align with objectives and requirements, then people are, therefore,
encouraged to avoid adding an "intelligence" role to
improve daily work, and instead rely on
confidence to talk their way
into credit, and talk their way out of accountability by blaming
Murphy's Law for mistakes, delay, extra cost, loss,
crisis and calamity. This makes everybody feel good, until
earnings go down, and stock prices fall, because too many people are having
too many problems.
(see report on December 7, 2000)
These powerful cultural dynamics make it difficult for people to discover
that POIMS technology makes it cost effective to
invest intellectual capital
that lifts the capacity to think, remember and communicate, and which, in turn,
saves time, improves the work, productivity, earnings and stock prices.
Overcoming the powerful allure of
Feel Good management on the one hand,
and, also, overcoming the fear of accountability, in order to enable people
to discover that "intelligence" saves time and money, requires strong
Leadership is More Than
Giving Orders and Persuasive Speech
Some observers fear that POIMS replaces leadership
with bureaucratic reports.
This is incorrect. POIMS is a technology to ensure effective listening by
following up to get things done correctly and on time. Effective
listening makes leadership effective.
Such concerns, however, are deeply rooted in traditional reliance
on telling people what to do and persuading them to do it. People
feel that realtime communication through
persuasive information based on style and image
in-the-moment, as occurs in speech, email, publications and television
is precisely how they make a living.
Suggesting that investing time for
improves leadership, seems counterintuitive. They are right!
Mere analysis is not enough. The mind is an integrator.
Thinking through writing must be integrated with
the Management Cycle in order to
get better results.
Speech is a dominate cultural force. Military leaders, politicians,
movies, music, meetings all rely heavily on speech. Business
must sell; selling requires salesmanship, i.e., a "smooth
talker." Thus, most interpersonal communication is through
talking. Writings that cause disappointment are
resolved by "talking it out" with the boss, vendor or client,
and if that fails, then by telling the story in court. This
gives the illusion that better "talking" improves management.
But, since management controls the future, convincing speech that is not
aligned with requirements, objectives and commitments causes
harm a week, a month a year later, because critical
details overwhelm span of attention and just
"fall through the cracks." The solution to avoid deferred
harm that grows into crisis and catastrophe is
intelligence that aligns
conversation with original sources to verify accuracy.
However, investing time for deliberation to improve accuracy
is constantly at war with the ease and immediacy of speech, hence
the notion of
diligence to save lives, time, and money.
Speech is spontaneous, and sound, like light,
as seen even in other species. Leaders from the earliest times
have barked orders that were backed by force, creating a strong
genetic impulse to speak to cause others to act, which is a
primary aim of managers. In recent times persuasion has replaced
force as the animating characteristic of leadership.
People promoted into management are good communicators.
Communication that counts most, is telling people what to do, and
persuading them to do it, which today includes being a good
listener. Those who cannot do this lack "people" skills. Those
who can, however, often lose the balance between leading and
figuring out where to lead; so, like the Pied Piper, they sound
good enough to lead people down the wrong path. Finding the right
path through a thicket of competing issues and conflicting
information is the central challenge of the modern era.
Feel Good management
ignores organizational objectives and
factual history to indulge impulse in the hope that
whatever happens can be "talked out." Some cry out: "Don't put me
behind a computer, I make my living by talking. I have the gift!"
This feeling, founded in genetics and culture, is of a simpler
time when needed actions were clear. With few choices and little
information, leadership by spontaneous communication
works well. Indeed, it has brought us to today.
But today is different; there is a new reality.
The management environment is no longer shaped solely by the elements;
the mind has changed the equation. There are many more choices and much more
information than the tradition of spontaneous leadership evolved to serve. This
complexity is at war with the mind's desire to summarize; we embed mistakes and
then blame Murphy's Law when they mysteriously rise
This does not argue for less speech, but for more support.
Sometimes we forget that our heroes in the movies are
speaking very finely crafted lines that require considerable
effort and rehearsal to impart the correct impression of spontaneity.
give moving, but carefully written, speeches, in order to
avoid mistakes. POIMS empowers managers to do the same,
so when they speak, it is both effective and properly directed
to ensure we go down the right path.
As the new millennium dawns, the world we have made will
grow less amenable to the tools we have inherited for
"knowledge" work. Personal and Organizational Integrated
Management and Memory (POIMS) transcends this dilemma with technology
that harmoniously integrates
primary forces of management so that each supports the other...
The practice of management is driven by communication that brings a constant
stream of information in meetings, calls and documents. This necessarily makes
managers the most prolific of all "knowledge workers," based on Peter Drucker's
analysis is the primary responsibility for understanding, planning and
directing the work.
People therefore need a flexible structure
collaborate, coordinate, expedite and empower creativity. POIMS leverages
that connects people to their knowledge and
ideas; it connects planning, performing and reporting into a
single, dynamic process; it connects the present to the past and
future. This leverages intellectual capital to lift the ability
to think, remember and communicate, and so portends a new era of
progress in the coming knowledge revolution of the 21st century.
This paper drew support from Jeremy Campbell's book on the
human mind, "The Improbable Machine," Simon & Schuster,
1989. Gio Wiederhold's article "Mediators in the Architecture
of Future Information Systems," Computer, March 1992
pp 38-49, added to indications that automated management
should leverage human acuity, rather than try to replace it.
Morris Jones, V.P. Chips & Technologies, facilitated the creation of a
prototype to test and develop automation concepts; Welch clients made it
possible to test and guide development under "live" conditions. PMI and others
provided research on the need for a better solution. My mentors, Bill Lord and
Pat Welch, provided the chance to absorb the exigencies of "management" at an
early enough age to mature with the surging technological wave of the 1980s.
My wife, Millie, made it possible for POIMS to come into being.