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S U M M A R Y


DIARY: March 4, 1996 07:04 PM Monday; Rod Welch

Received article on chip (technology) industry forcasting trends.

1...Summary/Objective
......"Faster is Better" Paradigm
2...Faster, Cheaper, More Reliable, User Friendly
......Computers and Leadership/Management Process
3...Information Processing Power Equated with Chip Performance
4...Artificial Intelligence Not Achievable in Next 20 Years
5...Information Highway, Work Environment
....Communication Management
....Management by Guess and Gossip
....Building the Job with Conversation
6...Faster Transmission is Better
7...Transmission is Only a Small Part of Communication
8...Internet is Useful But Oversold, Overhyped
9...Good Applications Come from Unexpected Sources
10...Killer Application Rising Computer Performance
11...Moore's Law - Gordon Moore, Chip Performance Doubles every 18 Months
12...Destruction of Chip Industry - Davidow
13...Forcasting Future Technology is Difficult
14..."Catagory" Evolution - Communication Manager
.....Communication Manager
15...How Does Intel Manage Change from Using Computers?
.....Asilomar Conference
.....Automated Notebook - Automted Thinking
........Automobile Leverages Muscles
........PC Leverages Capacity to Think, Remember and Communicate
16...Planning for the Future/Change
17...Automated Integration
18...Evolution of Technology to Emulate Human Thinking
19...Intelligence - Computer Chips
20...History of Chip Industry and Rise of Intel
21...Intel Developed First Microprocessor But Not Sure About Usefulness
22...Transistor Invented Shockley at Bell Labs Caused 50-year Dispute
23...Noyce Moore Left Shockley Started Fairchild Semiconductor
24...Traitorous 8 Abandoned Shockely Joined Noyce Moore Start Fairchild
25...Fairchild Semiconductor Noyce Moore Traitorous 8 Left Shockley
............Digital Computer Project Launched by Accident
............Experts Warned Against Digital Computers For the Birds
............Bush Visionary Design Rationale Intelligence Support
...............................As We May Think
............Shove All That Paper into Computer for Paperless Office
............Paperless Office Efficiencies Electronic Records Management
............Complementarity Records Indexing Links Yield Intelligence
............Paperless Office Requires Indexing Trails of Associations
............Indexing Links for Precision Access Computer Records
............Subjects Categorized with Mechanized Library Card Catelog
............Library Vast Sources Consulted Rarely Barely Nibbled
............History Only Accessible Professional Researchers Writers
............Record Nibbled by Few Diligent Search Finds One a Week
............Intellectual Capital Inheritance of Civilization
............Profit Invest Intellectual Capital Knowledge Management
............Knowledge Management Civilization Profits from Inheritance
............Precision Access Finding Selecting Knowledge Needle in Haystack
............Links Connect Trails of Associations to Understand History
............Trails of Associations Accuracy Quickly Find Relevant History
............Encyclopedia Organize Computer Data for Precision Access
............Electronic Filing Storage Fast Easy Access to Everything
............Paperless Office Everything on Computer Requires Organization
............Indexing Time Context Improves Traditional Keyword Search
............Context Management Integrates Time Context for Case Studies
............Case Studies Root Cause Analysis Benefits Paperless Office
............Delight Transforms Diligence into Fun Writing History
............Analyst Work Role Required New Way Working Paperless Office
............Professional Role Historian Constructs Useful Trails
............Paperless Office Everything Stored Requires New Work Role
....Goldstein Biography Assignment Moore College Engineering
....Give Goldstien the Money for First Digital Computer ENIAC
....Digital Computer Emerged from Confluence of Enabling Forces
....Enabling Forces Align Finance Development 1st Digital Computer
....Miniaturization Limited by Hand Assembly of Very Small Parts
....Photolithography Solved Problem of Hand Assembly Small Parts
26...Noyce Moore Started Intel
27...Intel Startup Noyce and Moore Left Fairchild
28...Microprocessor Resisted at Intel
29...Moore Microprocessor Resisted Maybe Useful for Managing Recipies
30...Intel Microprocessor 4004 Began Design for Japanease Calculator
31...Remembering is Forcast as Next Marketing Trend


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CONTACTS 

SUBJECTS
Business Climate                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    
Evaluate existing condition                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         
Market Potential                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    
Automation Trends, AI                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               
Paradigms: Faster is Better                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         
Chips Triumphant, Forbes ASAP, 960226                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               
History of PC Integrated Circuit IC Computer Hardware                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        
1209 -                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     
1209 -    ..
1210 - Summary/Objective                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  
1211 -                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     
121101 - Follow up ref SDS 20 0000, ref SDS 22 0000.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           
121102 -                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   
121103 - This article is about the history, status and projected changes in the                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            
121104 - computer chip industry.  It recounts the growth in performance and                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                
121105 - equates this in general with increased usefulness, relating a notion                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              
121106 - of "intelligence" by programming chips applied in various mechanical                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              
121107 - products to accomplish a measure of automatic performance, similar to                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             
121108 - having sprinklers water the lawn at night.  The uses of technology and                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            
121109 - future applications are reported to be best determined from how chip                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              
121110 - manufacturers apply their products, i.e., Intel, which supports the                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               
121111 - invitation for them to speak at Asilomar.   Vannevar Bush wrote an                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                
121112 - article in 1945, "As We May Think," shortly after development of the                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              
121113 - first digital computer.  He set the vision of computers helping people                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            
121114 - think, remember and communicate, essential to cope with a complex                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 
121115 - world of rising population and technology that compresses time and                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                
121116 - distance. ref SDS 0 L47F                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          
121117 -                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   
121118 -                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   
121120 -  ..
1212 -                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     
1213 -                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     
1214 - Analysis                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     
1215 -                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     
121501 - Received an article in Forbes ASAP magazine on page 53 of the Feb 26,                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             
121502 - 1996 issue.  It is mainly about the history and prospects of the                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  
121503 - computer chip industry.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           
121505 -  ..
121506 - Andy Grove is cited in this article as having "expertly guided Intel                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              
121507 - into a dominant position in the semiconductor market." ref OF 7.  An                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        
121508 - interview sidebar says many regard Grove as the best manager in all of                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            
121509 - technology. ref OF 7 5933 (see article on Gates, also, reviewed today.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      
121510 - ref SDS 27 3955).  This article cites a "top challenge as slower PC                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         
121511 - sales in 1996," ref OF 7, echoing concerns of investor analysts on                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          
121512 - 951022. ref SDS 20 3357                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     
121513 -                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   
121514 -     [Morris noticed Grove's reputation on 960401, and I cite Grove's                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          
121515 -     book published in 1996. ref SDS 33 3703]                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                
121517 -      ..
121518 -     [On 971222 Time Magazine awarded Grove its "Time Man of the Year"                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         
121519 -     for his management of Intel. ref SDS 46 0000]                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           
121521 -      ..
121522 -     [On 980307 reviewed Grove's book "Only the Paranoid Survive" which                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        
121523 -     indicates support for Communication Metrics. ref SDS 47 0001]                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           
121525 -  ..
121526 - Buyers of personal computers are said to "...know an amazing amount                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               
121527 - about the microprocessor and its use in the PC," since Packard Bell                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               
121528 - sales were down during last Christmas because they tried selling 75                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               
121529 - MHz computers and the market bought 100 Mhz.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      
121530 -                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   
121532 -       ..
121533 -      "Faster is Better" Paradigm                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 
121534 -      ---------------------------                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  
121535 -      This market result reflects the buyers hunch and hope that if                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                
121536 -      they can get a 100 Mhz machine for 2 or 3% more or even for the                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              
121537 -      same price as a 75 Mhz then they have achieved a better buy,                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 
121538 -      other things being equal, i.e., monitor, hard disk and                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       
121539 -      peripherals like multi-media.  These may be mainly first time                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                
121540 -      buyers who have no benchmark to assess the need for faster                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   
121541 -      processors.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  
121543 -       ..
121544 -      Buyers merely assume that faster is better for whatever computers                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            
121545 -      do.  Buyers are not yet making an assessment about the usefulness                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            
121546 -      of what they can do with the computer.  This year, 1996 and 1997                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             
121547 -      may indicate if first time buyers continue to feel the need to                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               
121548 -      upgrade.  That will show an assessment along the lines discussed                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             
121549 -      with Intel in September of last year, ref SDS 18 line 519 and                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          
121550 -      ref SDS 10 line 561.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   
121552 -       ..
121553 -      The underlying drive for home PC sales to support children in                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                
121554 -      their education is something that should continue to fuel the                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                
121555 -      market until most everyone has a PC, per ref SDS 18 line 519.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          
121556 -                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   
121558 -  ..
121559 - Faster, Cheaper, More Reliable, User Friendly                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    
121560 - 
121561 - The computer chip is cited by Brian Wilkie, general manager of                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    
121562 - Motorola's Advanced microcontroller division, as making products and                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              
121563 - production processes faster, cheaper, more reliable and user friendly,                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            
121564 - ref OF 7 line 53.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           
121565 -                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   
121567 -       ..
121568 -      Computers and Leadership/Management Process                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 
121569 -      
121570 -      How does this technology make the "management process" faster,                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               
121571 -      cheaper, more reliable and user friendly for leaders, which is                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               
121572 -      the basic question for PMI's Asilomar Conference this year? ref                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        
121573 -      OF 4 line 10.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                
121575 -       ..
121576 -      Interestingly, computer chips are not cited as being applied to                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              
121577 -      the management process, ref OF 7 line 67, except on p. 54 the                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          
121578 -      author suggests giving "salespeople laptops" ref OF 7 line 91,                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         
121579 -      which implies an application to a "process" that entails using                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               
121580 -      human intelligence.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          
121581 -                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   
121582 -          [See meeting with General Hatch at Fluor Daniel, which seems                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         
121583 -          to indicate organizations are trying this idea in hopes that                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             
121584 -          computers can be useful to the management process, ref SDS 34                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      
121585 -          5839.]                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   
121586 -      ..
121587 -      Making computers useful to managers requires identifying
121588 -      the "management process" and the elements that comprise that                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 
121589 -      process to see how the computer chip can improve it.  The basic                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              
121590 -      process is "plan, perform and report," per ref OF 1 line 200,                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          
121591 -      ref OF 2 line 202.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     
121593 -       ..
121594 -      At a lower level managers and leaders perform their work using a                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             
121595 -      process comprising a continual stream of "think, remember and                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                
121596 -      communicate." ref OF 1 line 498, which is the "continual learning                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      
121597 -      concept discussed at ref SDS 17 8301.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  
121599 -       ..
121600 -      What is it that managers think, remember and communication about?                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            
121602 -       ..
121603 -      They think, remember and communicate about the connections of                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                
121604 -      cause and effect (what lawyers call "causation") between the data                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            
121605 -      and information they generate and receive at one moment with what                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            
121606 -      has been received and generated previously, and its impact on                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                
121607 -      personal and organizational objectives.  How can the computer                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                
121608 -      chip make this faster, cheaper, more reliable and user friendly?                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             
121609 -                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   
121611 -  ..
121612 - Information Processing Power Equated with Chip Performance                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       
121613 - 
121614 - The author seems to share the belief of chip engineers and computer                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               
121615 - customers that more processing power produces more "information                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   
121616 - processing" that is useful to people. ref OF 7 4F9M    .                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    
121617 -                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   
121618 -    This article indicates that technologists feel, believe or                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     
121619 -    otherwise describe their work as processing information.  If this                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              
121620 -    is a mistaken perception, then it explains a lot of why technology                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             
121621 -    is not useful to the management process, because managers process                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              
121622 -    information.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   
121624 -     ..
121625 -    This is why Landauer's book is important in showing this issue                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 
121626 -    requires greater consideration, ref SDS 14 line 618.  Landauer's                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         
121627 -    paper on "Plato's Problem" seems to support the NWO paper                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      
121628 -    framework.  Thus, it is helpful to ask if computer chips "process"                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             
121629 -    information by formulating a foundational query of what it means,                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              
121630 -    reflecting the distinction between data, information, knowledge,                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               
121631 -    etc.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           
121633 -     ..
121634 -    [David Vannier later noted Intel's goal to convert data which                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              
121635 -    computers can produce by processing bytes/words, into information,                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             
121636 -    ref SDS 37 3503.  But, at this time, chips are not processing                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            
121637 -    information to produce knowledge, wisdom and vision, ref SDS 37                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          
121638 -    7723, except for SDS.]                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         
121639 -                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   
121640 -                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   
121641 -                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   
121642 -                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   
1217 -                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     

SUBJECTS
AI Fails Intelligence Knowledge Too Complex                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         
Faggin Fredrico Ted Hoff Stan Mazor Invented World's First Microproc                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        
1504 -                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     
150501 -  ..
150502 - Artificial Intelligence Not Achievable in Next 20 Years                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          
150503 - 
150504 - Feddrico Faggin, former Intel engineer who developed the first                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    
150505 - microprocessor, and now with Synaptics in San Jose, indicates the                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 
150506 - challenge of applying computers usefully to support human thinking,                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               
150507 - such as recognizing a human face. ref OF 9 YC8K                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             
150509 -  ..
150510 - He is working on technologies to shrink the distance between man and                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              
150511 - machine. ref OF 9 5D4P                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      
150512 -                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   
150513 -    Faggin seems to recognize the challenge of human cognition, similar                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            
150514 -    to Landauer reviewed on 950710 concerning the limitations of                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   
150515 -    Windows and graphical user interface (GUI), ref SDS 14 3P6G, and                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         
150516 -    noting that programmers don't know what to program that makes                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  
150517 -    computers useful to people. ref SDS 14 3375                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              
150518 -                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   
150519 -                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   
150520 -                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   
150521 -                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   
150522 -                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   
150523 -                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   
1506 -                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     

SUBJECTS
Information Highway, Change & Buy In                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            
Moore's Law, Internet                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               
Guess Gossip Commedy of Errors Murphy's Law                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         
PC Market Dominated by Microsoft and Intel,                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         
NC Market Promoted by Oracle, Sun, Netscape                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         
History of PC Integrated Circuit IC Computer Hardware                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               
History of PC Software Application of Computer Hardware                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             
Email Does Not Improve Productivity, Degrades It                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        
2710 -                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     
271101 -  ..
271102 - Information Highway, Work Environment                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            
271103 - 
271104 - There is a sidebar that explains Texas Instruments (TI) is completing                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             
271105 - a 9 year project to design a new computer chip, a digital signal                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  
271106 - processor (DSP) called the C82, which will perform 1.5 billion                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    
271107 - operations per second, and will be used in things like desktop                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    
271108 - videoconferencing and 3D graphics equipment.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      
271110 -  ..
271111 - The article says TI uses technology to link more than 70 far flung                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                
271112 - designers in teams located in England and the US using the telephone,                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             
271113 - email and videoconferencing, ref OF 7 line 271.  This is called...                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          
271114 -                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   
271115 -                          placelessness                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            
271117 -     ..
271118 -    ...by economist William Knoke, author of                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       
271119 -                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   
271120 -                         Bold New World                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            
271121 -                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   
271122 -    ... is reported to contend that once you're "wired," it doesn't                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                
271123 -    matter whether coworkers are across the hall or the hemisphere. "It                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            
271124 -    no longer matters where someone is physically," Knoke says. "A team                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            
271125 -    can consist of an engineer in Germany, a programmer in India, a                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                
271126 -    marketing guru in California." ref OF 7 line 238.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        
271127 -                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   
271129 -     ..
271130 -    Communication Management                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      
271131 -    
271132 -    How do these teams manage communications, as cited later by General                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            
271133 -    Hatch at Fluor Daniel on 960410, ref SDS 34 5839, and overcome                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           
271134 -    problems of network downtime reported on 960501. ref SDS 36 619L                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         
271136 -     ..
271137 -    Turner will explain Communication Management at Asilomar for the                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               
271138 -    construction industry, per planning on 960125, ref SDS 24 6930, and                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      
271139 -    Morris will explain frustrations and problems, when communications                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             
271140 -    break down on projects, as related on 950705, ref SDS 13 2955, and                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       
271141 -    how psychologists improve communication, reported on 951101.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   
271142 -    ref SDS 21 5500                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          
271143 -                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   
271145 -     ..
271146 -    Management by Guess and Gossip                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                
271147 -    Building the Job with Conversation                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            
271148 -    
271149 -    This record indicates that TI's project must have been extremely                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               
271150 -    frustrating.  How much turnover in personnel occurred in these                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 
271151 -    teams?  How much re-work was needed?  How did TI maintain shared                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               
271152 -    meaning?  How did they discover what was meant and how it related                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              
271153 -    to what was actually done?                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     
271154 -                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   
271156 -  ..
271157 - Faster Transmission is Better                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    
271158 - Transmission is Only a Small Part of Communication                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               
271159 - 
271160 - There seems to be an implicit conclusion that since chip companies are                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            
271161 - trying to use email and the telephone to support design efforts in                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                
271162 - different locations, this is evidence that what is being produced is                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              
271163 - valuable for accomplishing "communications" within and between                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    
271164 - distributed teams.  Since projects have been performed in this manner                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             
271165 - for hundreds of years, the question is what value is being added by                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               
271166 - faster transmission of information via email, since that is about all                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             
271167 - that the computer chip is adding to the effort of managing.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       
271169 -  ..
271170 - Does "faster" mean better, any more than "big is better," which the PC                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            
271171 - industry has shown is incorrect relative to the mainframe.  If                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    
271172 - "communication" were faster, that would be an improvement in the same                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             
271173 - way that electronic spreadsheets improve upon manual caluclation.  But                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            
271174 - Drucker points out that transmitting information is not the same as                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               
271175 - "communication." see review on 931130, ref SDS 7 TP7F and especially                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        
271176 - at ref SDS 7 WO9M                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           
271178 -  ..
271179 - In all liklihood, email is detracting from the productivity because of                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            
271180 - the phenomena of people not reading email and writing incorrectly, and                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            
271181 - drawing incorrect conclusions from an increase in information.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    
271182 -                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   
271184 -  ..
271185 - Internet is Useful But Oversold, Overhyped                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       
271186 - Good Applications Come from Unexpected Sources                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   
271187 - 
271188 - Andy Grove seems to adopt the usefulness theory of PC as a function of                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            
271189 - how they are being used for on-line services, Web, email and desktop                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              
271190 - conferencing.  He notes that these applications were not forecasted,                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              
271191 - but rather appeared on the scene. ref OF 7 line 387.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        
271193 -  ..
271194 - Grove contrasts the flexibility and utility of a PC with the narrow                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               
271195 - use of the $500 internet access tool, being advanced by Oracle, Sun                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               
271196 - and others (LSI), ref OF 7 line 391.  He cites the Apple Newton as not                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      
271197 - having wide enough utility to attract widespread use.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             
271198 -                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   
271199 -     [...in another record today, See article on PC industry and the                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           
271200 -     Internet. ref SDS 27 0001                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               
271202 -      ..
271203 -     [On 970617 Fortune article cites Bill Gates support for Grove's                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           
271204 -     opinion about superior utility of PC v. NC (Teleputer).                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       
271205 -     ref SDS 44 9488                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         
271207 -  ..
271208 - Grove's endorsement of email/internet as useful, is echoed by his VP                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              
271209 - Corporate Business Development, Avram Miller. ref OF 7 0085  He gives                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       
271210 - an example of using the Internet or the PC in some fashion to watch a                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             
271211 - college team play something, while wearing 3D glasses, and asks                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   
271212 - readers to "...think of the business that could grow from this."                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  
271213 - ref OF 7 QPSV                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               
271215 -       ..
271216 -      Gates recognizes marketing inertia of Internet is excessive,                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 
271217 -      reported in another record today. ref SDS 27 2044                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      
271219 -  ..
271220 - Avram says using a PC in this way sounds "wild." ref OF 7 QPUS, and                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         
271221 - likens this to flying on an airplane.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             
271222 -                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   
271223 -      This is the wrong analogy.  Airplanes leverage muscles, PCs                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  
271224 -      leverage connections, ref SDS 37 line 198.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             
271225 -                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   
271226 -      [This later was reflected by Marcy's explanation that Intel plans                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        
271227 -      to show how to access the internet from a cab, ref SDS 29 line                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         
271228 -      370, and David's feeling that Intel has chosen a different path                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              
271229 -      from Welch, ref SDS 37 line 176.]                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      
271231 -  ..
271232 - Fedricco Faggin, builder of first microprocessor when at Intel, says                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              
271233 - in the next twenty years computer chips will support convergence of                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               
271234 - computers and communications, wireless, internet. ref OF 7 1558                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             
271235 -                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   
271236 -                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   
271237 -                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   
271238 -                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   
2713 -                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     

SUBJECTS
Moore's Law Gordon Moore Founder Intel Computer Microprocessor Speed                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                
Microprocessor Speed Doubles Every 18 Months Moore's Law Moore, Gordo                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               
Technology Routinize Cognitive Science Good Management Civilization P                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               
Moore, Gordon Founder Intel Computer Processing Performance Doubles E                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        
3006 -                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     
300701 -  ..
300702 - Killer Application Rising Computer Performance                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   
300703 - Moore's Law - Gordon Moore, Chip Performance Doubles every 18 Months                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             
300704 - 
300705 - This was formulated in 1965 for an article in Electronics Magazine by                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             
300706 - Gordon Moore, then with Fairchild Semiconductor, ref OF 7 UV5G, and                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         
300707 - who was a cofounder, ref OF 7 0479, and is set out as a graph in the                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        
300708 - article at ref OF 7 06Z4, showing industry performance has met Moore's                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      
300709 - forcast. see also ref OF 7 15Z6                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             
300711 -  ..
300712 - Moore's law reflects Gilder's "Law of the Microcosm," discussed on                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                
300713 - 940812, ref SDS 10 3385, and again on 950718. ref SDS 15 KZ55  On                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     
300714 - 950927 planned for Intel to present this idea for Asilomar Conference.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            
300715 - ref SDS 18 5412                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             
300717 -  ..
300718 - Moore's Law presents a challenge to find productive use for the rising                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            
300719 - performance of computer microprocessors.  The author's say in part...                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             
300720 -                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   
300721 -            Moore's Law is also driving another phenomenon.  As more                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               
300722 -            transistors are put onto a chip, it becomes tougher to                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 
300723 -            figure out what to do with all those transistors.  This                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                
300724 -            works to the advantage of application specialists who                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  
300725 -            understand graphics and multimedia... ref OF 7 JF6H                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              
300727 -             ..
300728 -            Page 70 Forbes ASAP February 26, 1996                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  
300730 -  ..
300731 - On 890523 SDS flexible structure applies computers to improve                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     
300732 - productivity with paperless office efficiencies of electronic records                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             
300733 - management requires more processing power to cope with rising                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     
300734 - complexity. ref SDS 3 P13O  On 910418 Intel planning to use faster                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          
300735 - computers for improving daily management with efficiencies of                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     
300736 - paperless office. ref SDS 6 2744  Intel expected software should play                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       
300737 - a major role by thinking through scenarios of management tasks and                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                
300738 - applying technology to increase speed and accuracy. ref SDS 6 UT7F  A                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       
300739 - major challenge is developing subject indexing to use information on                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              
300740 - the computer. ref SDS 6 5584                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                
300741 -                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   
300742 -      [...below, Vannevar Bush proposed in 1945 using computers for                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            
300743 -      paperless office efficiencies electronic records management,                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 
300744 -      ref SDS 0 H68K                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               
300746 -       ..
300747 -      [On 960326 planning for Intel to explain power of microcosm at                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           
300748 -      Asilomar Conference. ref SDS 32 1183, and use for introducing                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          
300749 -      David at Asilomar, ref SDS 40 line 86.]                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                
300751 -       ..
300752 -      [On 970603 met with Dave Vannier on Intel project to find uses                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           
300753 -      for faster, higher priced processors. ref SDS 43 7499                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  
300755 -       ..
300756 -      [On 970603 Intel planning to make faster computers so people have                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        
300757 -      a better experience using graphics playing games. ref SDS 43 R46H                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      
300759 -       ..
300760 -      [On 991025 Drucker writes article in Atlantic Monthly pointing                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           
300761 -      that dramatic gains in productivity have occurred throughout                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 
300762 -      history when a paradigm shift occurs, and cites evidence from                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                
300763 -      industrial revolution. ref SDS 52 4077                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 
300765 -       ..
300766 -      [On 030101 Moore's law forecasts reducing keystrokes to save time                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        
300767 -      and money by changing paradigm from information to knowledge.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                
300768 -      ref SDS 79 PM53                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        
300770 -  ..
300771 - Implications of eventual topping out of doubling of performance is                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                
300772 - explained at ref OF 7 line 1132.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            
300773 -                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   
300774 -                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   
300776 -  ..
300777 - Destruction of Chip Industry - Davidow                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           
300778 - 
300779 - Bill Davidow wrote a sidebar on changing methods in chip industry                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 
300780 - resulting in more contracting out of work, ref OF 7 line 890, called                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        
300781 - "going horizontal."                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               
300783 -  ..
300784 - On 940702 reviewed Davidow's book. ref SDS 9 0001                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           
300786 -  ..
300787 - His article expects the chip industry will become more like the                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   
300788 - construction industry that relies on a general contractor to manage a                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             
300789 - wide range of diverse vendors to create a product, ref OF 7 line 911.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       
300790 - This will increase the competitiveness of the industry and reduce                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 
300791 - margins, increasing the need for good management in maintaining                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   
300792 - earnings and business viability, similar to construction industry, ref                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      
300793 - SDS 12 line 213, per Drucker's ideas at ref SDS 25 line 304.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                
300794 -                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   
300795 -                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   
300796 -                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   
3008 -                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     

SUBJECTS
Evolution of Technology Requires SDS as 1st                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         
Change & Buy In                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 
Technological Impact on Practice of                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 
Business Climate                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    
Automated Notebook                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  
Automobile Leverages Muscles; Computer                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              
Intelligence Using Chips                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            
Intelligence, Military                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        
3810 -                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     
381101 -  ..
381102 - Forcasting Future Technology is Difficult                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        
381103 - 
381104 - Industry experts cannot look out 5 years into the future to forcast                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               
381105 - how computer chips will impact things, ref OF 7 line 107.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   
381106 -                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   
381107 -      Seems like we can say though what we would like computers to be                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              
381108 -      able to accomplish and then build something that accomplishes it.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            
381110 -       ..
381111 -      The first step is to ask Landauer's question to look for aspects                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             
381112 -      of work that can be automated, ref SDS 14 line 852.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    
381114 -       ..
381115 -      What is actually occurring is that the industry is creating                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  
381116 -      increased capacity without any clear objective except that                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   
381117 -      someone will figure out something worthwhile to do with it, and                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              
381118 -      they need sales to fuel the R&D.  So the industry sells whatever                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         
381119 -      is produced whether it is useful or not, feeding on the hunger of                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            
381120 -      the market for useful stuff that is easy to use, and credibility                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             
381121 -      that a big successful company can produce it.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                
381122 -                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   
381123 -                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   
381125 -  ..
381126 - "Catagory" Evolution - Communication Manager                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     
381127 - --------------------------------------------                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      
381128 - The authors say under "listen to the technology" that the history of                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              
381129 - the chip industry is dynamic; catagories of products i.e., entire                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 
381130 - markets, disappear after the arrival of new technology.  They feel                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                
381131 - this volitility will increase in the years to come.  The only way to                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              
381132 - survive it is to see it coming (and there won't be much time), usually                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            
381133 - from the most unlikely direction.  Then, get your company ahead of the                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            
381134 - curve-or out of the way, ref OF 7 line 188.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 
381136 -  ..
381137 - Andy Grove says the most populuar current application of email and                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                
381138 - Internet, was not expected, ref OF 7 line 387.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              
381140 -  ..
381141 - The author notes that the same process leads to new catagories, ref OF                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      
381142 - 7 line 194.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       
381144 -      ..
381145 -     Communication Manager                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        
381146 -     
381147 -     This reflects the prospects that a new catagory of worker may be                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              
381148 -     needed to keep with the new catagory of the Information Highway.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              
381149 -                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   
381150 -     Some companies see it coming.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 
381151 -                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   
381153 -  ..
381154 - How Does Intel Manage Change from Using Computers?                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               
381155 - 
381156 - The author says the computer chip brings change, and the best place to                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            
381157 - look for ways to plan for the future and how to conduct our businesses                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            
381158 - --our lives--with any certainty, is in the chip business itself,                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  
381159 - because it was the first to experience the future shock of                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        
381160 - microelectronics, and it has coped the longest, ref OF 7 line 753.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          
381161 -                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   
381163 -      ..
381164 -     Asilomar Conference                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          
381165 -     Automated Notebook - Automted Thinking                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       
381166 -     
381167 -     This question would be a good introduction for Intel's                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        
381168 -     presentation, since David mentioned Intel has had to adapt to a                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               
381169 -     lot of change, ref SDS 18 line 434.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     
381170 -                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   
381171 -        [Used this at ref SDS 40 line 110.]                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              
381173 -      ..
381174 -     On 950927 David said the relationship between time and information                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            
381175 -     is a big problem at Intel, ref SDS 18 5002, and that Intel wanted                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       
381176 -     an "automated notebook" that integrates time and information in                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               
381177 -     1991. ref SDS 18 8943                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   
381179 -      ..
381180 -     Avram Miller, Intel's VP Corporate Business Development, says the                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             
381181 -     PC will remain the basic tool to apply computer chips, and will                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               
381182 -     become for individuals similar to the automobile in organizing                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                
381183 -     human lives. ref OF 7 0085                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              
381185 -         ..
381186 -        Automobile Leverages Muscles                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              
381187 -        PC Leverages Capacity to Think, Remember and Communicate                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  
381188 -        
381189 -        Miller's analogy of using the Internet to the automobile is                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                
381190 -        adequate in the sense that it illustrates the degree of                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    
381191 -        dependence on a utility.  One could make an analogy that the                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               
381192 -        automobile leverages our muscles to carry more groceries home                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              
381193 -        from the store, the PC can leverage our mind to think, remember                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            
381194 -        and communicate, see POIMS, ref OF 1 3742, and, also, NWO...,                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        
381195 -        ref OF 3 6824 and ref OF 3 2266, as developed in the record on                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 
381196 -        950428. ref SDS 12 NS4N                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              
381197 -                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   
381198 -            [On 960421 proposal to Intel. ref SDS 35 8079]                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               
381199 -                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   
381200 -                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   
381202 -  ..
381203 - Planning for the Future/Change                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   
381204 - 
381205 - The author says Moore's Law informs chip manufacturers how to prepare                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             
381206 - for change, ref OF 7 line 755, ref OF 7 line 866; yet the author does                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 
381207 - not really establish this point by citing a list of wild predictions                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              
381208 - from industry experts, and observing that anyone else's predictions                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               
381209 - are just as likely to come true, ref OF 7 line 1015.  It directly                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           
381210 - conflicts with Grove's observation that email and desktop conferencing                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            
381211 - were not predicted, and the earlier statement that experts cannot look                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            
381212 - out into the future, per above. ref SDS 0 L3WK                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    
381213 -                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   
381214 -     [The history of the PC shows that it resulted from a comedy of                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            
381215 -     errors, ref SDS 39 line 32.]                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            
381217 -  ..
381218 - As long as people will buy things that are not useful, why bother to                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              
381219 - sit around trying to think about how to make something useful, then                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               
381220 - figure out how to make it.  Just keep producing what you know how to                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              
381221 - produce:  chips.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  
381222 -                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   
381223 -                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   
381225 -  ..
381226 - Automated Integration                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            
381227 - 
381228 - Feddrico Faggin says people want computers that are like people, that                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             
381229 - share many of the featues of our brains--like the ability to learn                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                
381230 - from experience rather than needing to be told in exacting                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        
381231 - detail--without all the complications of emotions and biological                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  
381232 - requirements.  we want them to be able to interact with us naturally,                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             
381233 - through sight, sound and touch, ref OF 7 line 1069                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          
381234 -                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   
381236 -  ..
381237 - Evolution of Technology to Emulate Human Thinking                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                
381238 - 
381239 - Faggin says it is not possible to create processors that provide                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  
381240 - automated integration similar to human mental functioning, ref OF 7                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         
381241 - line 1075, but does not offer any clues about what path might lead to                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             
381242 - it.  What intermediate steps are necessary to discover how to build a                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             
381243 - computer that is more like a human brain, and who is working on these                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             
381244 - steps?                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            
381245 -                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   
381246 -     [This was considered with Intel for Asilomar, ref SDS 18 line 401,                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  
381247 -     per ref SDS 32 line 147, and with Turner and Buoncristiani, ref                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         
381248 -     SDS 22 line 828.]                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             
381249 -                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   
381250 -                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   
381252 -  ..
381253 - Intelligence - Computer Chips                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    
381254 - 
381255 - Brian Wilkie, with Motorola, describes "intelligence" as the following                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            
381256 - at ref OF 7 line 1107:                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      
381257 -                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   
381258 -       Telephone is electronic.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   
381260 -         ..
381261 -       Cell phone in your car has more user-friendly features than the                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            
381262 -        ones on most desks.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        
381264 -         ..
381265 -       Hotel door lock has an electronic key that can tell the room to                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            
381266 -        wait five minutes then turn off the lights.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                
381268 -         ..
381269 -        Designing, and manufacturing clothing can add "intelligence."                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              
381270 -        ..
381271 -        A few years from now kids could be wearing leather
381272 -        jackets with built-in displays."                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           
381274 -         ..
381275 -       Someone may come up with the smart golf tee. It would register                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             
381276 -        your swing as it comes down, then lean left or right to find                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               
381277 -        the sweet spot on your club."                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              
381279 -  ..
381280 - These are only "intelligence" in a very limited sense.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            
381282 -  ..
381283 - A more useful notion of "intelligence" at least for running an                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    
381284 - organization entails capturing how an article in a magazine relates to                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            
381285 - prior articles, other sources, like discussions, perceptions, current                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             
381286 - work processes, and scheduled tasks. Building a web of connected                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  
381287 - information that alerts the mind to options and implications that are                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             
381288 - otherwise overlooked by conventional considerations, is another form                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              
381289 - of intelligence.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  
381291 -  ..
381292 - Another form is connecting up current work tasks with their source so                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             
381293 - when action is taken it can be aligned with original objectives.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  
381295 -  ..
381296 - Another organizing what is considered so it is available later when                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               
381297 - needed, ref SDS 34 line 692.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                
381298 -                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   
381299 -                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   
381300 -                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   
3814 -                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     

SUBJECTS
Intel Resisted Microprocessor Vision Intel Leadership Clairvoyant Tr                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                
Fagin Fredrico Ted Hoff Stan Mazor Invented World's First Microproce                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        
4104 -                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     
410501 -  ..
410502 - History of Chip Industry and Rise of Intel                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       
410503 - Intel Developed First Microprocessor But Not Sure About Usefulness                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               
410504 - 
410505 - Texas Instrument's Jack Kilby co-invented the Integrated Cirucuit (IC)                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            
410506 - in 1958, ref OF 7 BE8N, with Robert Noyce of Fairchild. ref OF 7 B56L                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 
410507 -                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   
410508 -    [On 040213 Howard Aiken credited for inventing first compuer,                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              
410509 -    ref SDS 81 UP9J, and for observing resistance to new ideas that                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          
410510 -    avoids worrying about people stealing intellectual capital, because                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            
410511 -    if the idea is useful, you will have to ram it down people's                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   
410512 -    throats. ref SDS 81 N87M                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 
410514 -  ..
410515 - Glossary of technology terms is presented. ref OF 7 HO4G                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    
410517 -  ..
410518 - Computer timeline from abacus in 4th century BC, published by PBS.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                
410519 - ref OF 53 0001                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              
410520 -                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   
410521 -        This one can be edited.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    
410523 -  ..
410524 - Computer history timeline in table format, beginning 3000 BC.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     
410525 - ref OF 54 0001  This history presents extraneous editorial comments,                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        
410526 - perhaps intended for levity, but distracting.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     
410527 -                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   
410528 -              http://www.warbaby.com/FG_test/Timeline.html                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     
410530 -  ..
410531 - Computer history timeline beginning 750 BC...                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     
410532 -                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   
410533 -              http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Computing_timeline_500_BC-1949                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      
410535 -  ..
410536 - Timeline is also listed in more detail beginning in 1947 at...                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    
410537 -                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   
410538 -              http://www.islandnet.com/~kpolsson/comphist/                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     
410539 -                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   
410540 -        [On 040214 Howard Aiken developed first computer at Harvard                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            
410541 -        with IBM in 1943 for military calcualtions, ref SDS 81 UP9J,                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         
410542 -        but had a very hard time getting financial support. ref SDS 81                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       
410543 -        N87M                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       
410545 -         ..
410546 -        [On 050903 research on patents found Aiken quoted and other                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            
410547 -        examples of the challenge of selling new ideas, and others are                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             
410548 -        listed as well. ref SDS 87 ED74                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      
410550 -  ..
410551 - History of computers in narrative gives a broader explanation of work                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             
410552 - in England, including Newman and Turing. ref OF 45 0001                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     
410553 -                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   
410554 -              http://www.cs.usfca.edu/www.AlanTuring.net/turing_archive/pages/Reference%20Articles/BriefHistofComp.html#analog                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 
410556 -     ..
410557 -    "Computers" historically were clerks who performed, repetitive                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 
410558 -    tasks layed out by mathematicians. ref OF 45 JW6F  This fits the                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         
410559 -    model at the Ballistics Research Laboratory within the Aberdeen                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                
410560 -    Proving Grounds at the start of World War II. ref OF 51 FL3G                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             
410562 -     ..
410563 -    Women were "computers" who performed repetitive tasks for                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      
410564 -    calculating artillary firing tables. ref OF 51 FL3G                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      
410566 -     ..
410567 -    Analog and digital computers explained. ref OF 45 0K6K                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   
410568 -                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   
410570 -  ..
410571 - American military history, army historical series, 1989...                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        
410572 -                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   
410573 -              http://www.army.mil/cmh-pg/books/amh/amh-toc.htm                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 
410575 -  ..
410576 - John von Neumann contributed to computers and to defense work on the                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              
410577 - Manhattan project....                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             
410578 -                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   
410579 -              http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/John_von_Neumann                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    
410580 -                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   
410581 -    Von Neumann worked with Alan Turning when both were at Princton.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               
410582 -    ref OF 45 4S6L                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           
410584 -     ..
410585 -    Von Neumann is presented in great detail in chapter 4 of the book                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              
410586 -    "Tools for Thought" by Howard Rheingold...                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     
410587 -                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   
410588 -              http://www.rheingold.com/texts/tft/4.html                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        
410590 -     ..
410591 -    Goldstine meets von Neumann on the railway platform at Aberdeen,                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               
410592 -    with dialog of the discussion...                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               
410593 -                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   
410594 -              http://www.nap.edu/openbook/0309085470/html/11.html                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              
410595 -                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   
410596 -        Also reported in, ref OF 47 Q621                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     
410598 -     ..
410599 -    Goldstine interview recalls having met von Neumann before the war.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             
410600 -    ref OF 67 9H54                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           
410602 -     ..
410603 -    ENIAC was initially "programmed" to solve computational problems by                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            
410604 -    connecting wires and cables to configure switches. ref OF 67 654H                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        
410606 -     ..
410607 -    Other interviews are also helpful.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             
410608 -                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   
410609 -              http://libweb.princeton.edu/libraries/firestone/rbsc/finding_aids/mathoral/pm04.htm                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              
410610 -                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   
410611 -       50 Years of ENIAC - interview with Goldstine. ref OF 66 FW56                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          
410612 -                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   
410613 -              http://www.arl.army.mil/main/main/DownloadedInternetPages/CurrentPages/AboutARL/eniac.pdf                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        
410615 -  ..
410616 - Von Neumann architecture guides computer hardware design...                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       
410617 -                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   
410618 -              http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Von_Neumann_architecture#Von_Neumann_bottleneck                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     
410620 -  ..
410621 - Grace Hopper pioneered compiler technology that launched computer                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 
410622 - software...                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       
410623 -                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   
410624 -              http://inventors.about.com/library/inventors/blaiken_hopper.htm                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  
410626 -  ..
410627 - Software industry history evolution....                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           
410628 -                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   
410629 -              http://www.cs.colorado.edu/~kena/classes/5828/s99/comments/srinivasan/01-29-1999.html                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            
410630 -                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   
410631 -    British mathematician, Alan Turing, proposed a hypothetical                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    
410632 -    calculating machine which laid the groundwork for programmable                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 
410633 -    computers, and introduced considerations of artificial                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         
410634 -    intelligence, ref OF 59 0001, proposing a test for determining if a                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      
410635 -    computer can "think."                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          
410636 -                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   
410637 -              http://tdi.uregina.ca/~complit/comphist.htm                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      
410639 -     ..
410640 -    Turing machine explained. ref OF 45 IL4M                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 
410642 -     ..
410643 -    Turing work with John von Neumann at Princeton in 1939.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        
410644 -    ref OF 45 4S6L                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           
410645 -                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   
410647 -     ..
410648 -    Mechanics of software evolution beginning with machine language                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                
410649 -    and assembly...                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                
410650 -                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   
410651 -              http://inventors.about.com/od/sstartinventions/a/software.htm                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    
410653 -     ..
410654 -    Programming history of developing languages...                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 
410655 -                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   
410656 -              http://www.geocities.com/SiliconValley/Peaks/3938/history.htm                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    
410658 -     ..
410659 -    Programming machine language, and assembler...                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 
410660 -                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   
410661 -              http://www.factmonster.com/ce6/sci/A0860535.html                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 
410663 -  ..
410664 - Operating systems history, including von Neumann architecture....                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 
410665 -                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   
410666 -              http://www.osdata.com/kind/history.htm                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           
410668 -  ..
410669 - Doug Engelbart's proposal for Augmenting Human Intellect, a Conceptual                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            
410670 - Framework, to the US Air Force, October 1962, SRI Project No. 3578;                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               
410671 - USAF contract AF49(538)-1024                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      
410672 -                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   
410673 -              http://sloan.stanford.edu/mousesite/EngelbartPapers/B5_F18_ConceptFrameworkInd.html                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              
410674 -                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   
410675 -    Another excellent source on Doug's early work at SRI, is presented                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             
410676 -    in chapter 9 of the book "Tools for Thought" by Howard Rheingold...                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            
410677 -                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   
410678 -              http://www.rheingold.com/texts/tft/9.html                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        
410680 -  ..
410681 - Moore's Law came from an article in 1965 in Electronics magazine by                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               
410682 - Gordon Moore, who cofounded Fairchild Semiconductor. ref OF 7 B693                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          
410683 - Moore and Noyce later founded Intel. ref OF 7 0844                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          
410685 -         ..
410686 -        Microprocessors have a steady march through generation after                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               
410687 -        generation of improvements, in the process pulling along all                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               
410688 -        electronics, but especially the personal computer, in its wake.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            
410689 -        Moore's Law states that the computer chip performance doubles                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              
410690 -        every 18 months. ref OF 7 B844                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       
410691 -                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   
410692 -          [On 960612 history of PC industry comedy of errors.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  
410693 -          ref SDS 39 2222                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    
410695 -           ..
410696 -          [On 010210 history of wordprocessing is covered. ref SDS 66                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    
410697 -          IR6N                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     
410699 -           ..
410700 -          On 991025 Peter Drucker cites industrial revolution for                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  
410701 -          examples of earlier technologies with accelerated improvement                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            
410702 -          in cost/performance. ref SDS 52 4077                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               
410703 -                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   
410705 -  ..
410706 - Transistor Invented Shockley at Bell Labs Caused 50-year Dispute                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 
410707 - 
410708 - History is recounted from 1947 with the invention of transistors in                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               
410709 - Bell Labs. ref OF 7 EX9M  During the 1950s and 60s, the demand for                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          
410710 - transisters grew substantially. ref OF 7 E681                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               
410712 -  ..
410713 - William Shockly won a nobel prize for helping invent the transister at                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            
410714 - Bell Labs, using semiconductors, and he later launched a new company                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              
410715 - to design and build these new devices. ref OF 7 E587                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        
410716 -                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   
410717 -       Shockley made significant contributions during WWII. ref OF 20                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        
410718 -       8Q5I                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        
410720 -        ..
410721 -       Tunneling was a technique for passing electrons through a                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   
410722 -       semiconductor. ref OF 20 4T6I                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         
410724 -        ..
410725 -       Transistor was a major technology breakthrough by condensing                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                
410726 -       thousands of switches to perform complex functions, which could                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             
410727 -       be used for building blocks to accomplish more complex functions                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            
410728 -       due to economies of scale.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  
410730 -        ..
410731 -       In 1945 Shockley proposed that Bardeen and Brattain work on a                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               
410732 -       design for a field-effect transistor; but the team was unable to                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            
410733 -       succeed with this design. ref OF 20 ZR5M  Another source                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              
410734 -       supports Shockley's initial idea for field-effect transistors.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              
410735 -       ref OF 21 0001                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        
410736 -                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   
410737 -            Field Effect Transistor is common technology still in use                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              
410738 -            today. ref OF 21 5Y5L                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            
410740 -             ..
410741 -            Picture of transistor. ref OF 21 01AT                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            
410743 -        ..
410744 -       An account on John Bardeen says that in 1947 Shockely assigned                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              
410745 -       Bardeen and Brattain to work on Shockley's idea for an                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      
410746 -       amplifier, and since amplifies are transistors, this sounds like                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            
410747 -       Shockley directing the work in 1947. ref OF 20 1I6Q                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   
410749 -        ..
410750 -       In 1947, John Bardeen and Walter Brattain, working at Bell                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  
410751 -       Telephone Laboratories, were trying to understand the nature of                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             
410752 -       the electrons at the interface between a metal and a                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        
410753 -       semiconductor.  They realized that by making two point contacts                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             
410754 -       very close to one another, they could make a three terminal                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 
410755 -       device - the first "point contact" transistor. ref OF 18 3H6G                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         
410757 -        ..
410758 -       Bardeen and Brattain developed a point contact transistor that                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              
410759 -       capatalized on electrical current flowing along the surface of a                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            
410760 -       semiconductor, in this case germanium. ref OF 20 1I6Q  Shockley                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       
410761 -       later developed a junction transistor that operated with current                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            
410762 -       flowing directly through the semiconductor. ref OF 20 E000                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            
410764 -        ..
410765 -       Shockley was in charge of semiconductor research, and assembled                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             
410766 -       a top team of scientists after WWII in 1945, and for the purpose                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            
410767 -       of inventing a solid state replacement for the vacuum tube.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 
410768 -       ref OF 20 0001                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        
410769 -                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   
410770 -          "I cannot overemphasize the rapport of this group.  We would                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             
410771 -          meet together to discuss important steps almost on the spur                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              
410772 -          of the moment of an afternoon.  We would discuss things                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  
410773 -          freely.  I think many of us had ideas in these discussion                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                
410774 -          groups, one person's remarks suggesting an idea to another.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              
410775 -          We went to the heart of many things during the existence of                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              
410776 -          this group, and always when we go to the place where                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     
410777 -          something needed to be done, experimental or theoretical,                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                
410778 -          there was never any question as to who was the appropriate                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               
410779 -          man in the group to do it." - Walter Brattain, ref OF 20 JR8L                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      
410781 -        ..
410782 -       Bardeen and Bratain invented in December 1947 point contact                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 
410783 -       transistor, the first solid state transistor using semiconductor                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            
410784 -       materials, ref OF 20 DPXS  But solid point transistors were not                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       
410785 -       reliable. ref OF 20 EV9N                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              
410787 -        ..
410788 -       Shockley wanted sole credit for inventing the first transistor.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             
410789 -       ref OF 20 D219                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        
410791 -        ..
410792 -       Shockley publicly credited Bardeen and Brattain for inventing                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               
410793 -       the first transistor. ref OF 20 QU4I                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  
410794 -                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   
410795 -           [...see below similar dispute over credit for developing                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            
410796 -           ENIAC. ref SDS 0 6R6K                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   
410798 -            ..
410799 -           [...see below, similar disputes at Intel over credit for                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            
410800 -           developing the first microprocessor. ref SDS 26 X53J                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              
410802 -        ..
410803 -       Shockely invents junction transistor, ref OF 20 PQXQ, and keeps                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       
410804 -       this secret from Bardeen, and Brattain. ref OF 20 0P7G  This                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          
410805 -       technology required very pure crystal of semiconductor,                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     
410806 -       germanium, and this was developed by Teal. ref OF 20 E26O                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             
410808 -        ..
410809 -       Transistors were used in radios, telephone switching.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       
410810 -       ref OF 20 Q96M                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        
410812 -  ..
410813 - IBM history is shown at...                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        
410814 -                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   
410815 -              http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/IBM                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 
410816 -                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   
410817 -    Built on Navy contract for the Mark 1, to become the world's                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   
410818 -    leader in mainframe computers using transistors.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               
410820 -     ..
410821 -    Developed software programming based on punch cards from                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       
410822 -    Hollerith's cencus counter method, that came from textile mills,                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               
410823 -    which used mechanical clocks, music boxes, pianos.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             
410825 -     ..
410826 -    Computers began to support text in order to accept programming.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                
410828 -     ..
410829 -    Text editors evolved into word processing.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     
410831 -     ..
410832 -    IBM company archives report history.....                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       
410833 -                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   
410834 -              http://inventors.about.com/gi/dynamic/offsite.htm?site=http://www%2D1.ibm.com/ibm/history/                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       
410836 -     ..
410837 -    IBM significant advances in computer technology...                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             
410838 -                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   
410839 -              http://inventors.about.com/gi/dynamic/offsite.htm?site=http://www.research.ibm.com/know/top.html                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 
410841 -     ..
410842 -    IBM entered the PC business in 1981....                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        
410843 -                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   
410844 -              http://inventors.about.com/library/weekly/aa031599.htm                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           
410845 -                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   
410847 -  ..
410848 - Noyce Moore Left Shockley Started Fairchild Semiconductor                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        
410849 - Traitorous 8 Abandoned Shockely Joined Noyce Moore Start Fairchild                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               
410850 - Fairchild Semiconductor Noyce Moore Traitorous 8 Left Shockley                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   
410851 - 
410852 - Moore and Noyce, along with six others, left Shockley to start                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    
410853 - Fairchild semiconductor, a subsidiary of Fairchild Camera. ref OF 7                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         
410854 - B56L                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              
410855 -                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   
410856 -    Traitorous 8 tried to get Shockley removed from management, and                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                
410857 -    when that failed they left the company. ref OF 20 6UPV                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   
410858 -                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   
410859 -        Gordon Moore biography, ref OF 17 0001, relates challenges                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           
410860 -        working with Shockley, that led to starting Fairchild.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     
410861 -        ref OF 17 YQPQ                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       
410863 -     ..
410864 -    Article in Computerworld 990519, Noyce, Moore, and the gang of                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 
410865 -    eight wanted to make transistors on silicon instead of germanium                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               
410866 -    because silicon would withstand higher temperatures. ref OF 32 YG6F                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      
410868 -     ..
410869 -    Fairchild Camera offered $3,500 in seed money. ref OF 32 F59H                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            
410870 -                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   
410871 -        Silicon transistor first device manufactured by Fairchild                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  
410872 -        semiconductor, which came from Shockley's objectives, and                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  
410873 -        experience at Bell Labs, per Gordon Moore's interview.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     
410874 -        ref OF 17 PRVR                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       
410876 -         ..
410877 -        Photolighography first used for silicon transistor at                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      
410878 -        Fairchild. ref OF 17 VG4H                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            
410880 -     ..
410881 -    Jean Hoerni writing in his notebook came up with counterintuitive                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              
410882 -    ideas for photolithography process to build the first mesa                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     
410883 -    transistors, per Gordon Moore interview. ref OF 17 PSQX                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  
410885 -     ..
410886 -    Planar process developed by Jean Hoerni in 1958, one of the                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    
410887 -    Traitorous Eight, who came to Fairchild with Noyce and Moore, was a                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            
410888 -    significant step in making better transistors. ref OF 32 YL9N  The                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       
410889 -    plannar process was a fabrication method that chemically fused an                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              
410890 -    insultating layer, which permitted integrating circuits with                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   
410891 -    transistor components built into the semiconductor. ref OF 30 0N5O                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       
410892 -    A biography on Gordon Moore credits Hoerni's work on the plannar                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               
410893 -    process as critical to Noyce developing an IC by increasing                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    
410894 -    reliability of transistors, ref OF 24 ED7N, with photolithography                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        
410895 -    batch fabrication method, further explained below. ref SDS 0 8H6G                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              
410897 -     ..
410898 -    Transistor technology is explained in an article...                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            
410899 -                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   
410900 -                The History of the Integrated Circuit                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              
410901 -                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   
410902 -            http://nobelprize.org/physics/educational/integrated_circuit/history/                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              
410904 -     ..
410905 -    The integrated circuit is nothing more than a very advanced                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    
410906 -    electric circuit.  An electric circuit is made from different                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  
410907 -    electrical components such as transistors, resistors, capacitors                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               
410908 -    and diodes, that are connected to each other in different ways.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                
410909 -    These components have different behaviors. ref OF 13 GY5M                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                
410911 -     ..
410912 -    Of the components mentioned above, the transistor is the most                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  
410913 -    important one for the development of modern computers.  Before the                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             
410914 -    transistor, engineers had to use vacuum tubes.  Just as the                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    
410915 -    transistor, the vacuum tube can switch electricity on or off, or                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               
410916 -    amplify a current.  So why was the vacuum tube replaced by the                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 
410917 -    transistor? There are several reasons. ref OF 13 L08N                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    
410919 -     ..
410920 -    The transistor acts like a switch.  It can turn electricity on or                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              
410921 -    off, or it can amplify current.  It is used for example in                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     
410922 -    computers to store information, or in stereo amplifiers to make the                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            
410923 -    sound signal stronger. ref OF 13 WY6K                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    
410924 -                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   
410925 -        Nobelprize.org                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             
410927 -         ..
410928 -        The transistor is a three terminal, solid state electronic                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 
410929 -        device.  In a three terminal device we can control electric                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                
410930 -        current or voltage between two of the terminals by applying an                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             
410931 -        electric current or voltage to the third terminal.  This three                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             
410932 -        terminal character of the transistor is what allows us to make                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             
410933 -        an amplifier for electrical signals, like the one in our radio.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            
410934 -        With the three-terminal transistor we can also make an electric                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            
410935 -        switch, which can be controlled by another electrical switch.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              
410936 -        By cascading these switches (switches that control switches                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                
410937 -        that control switches, etc.) we can build up very complicated                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              
410938 -        logic circuits.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            
410939 -                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   
410940 -            http://nobelprize.org/physics/educational/transistor/history/                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      
410942 -          ..
410943 -         Vacuum Tubes                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              
410945 -          ..
410946 -         The transistor was not the first three terminal device.  The                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              
410947 -         vacuum tube triode preceded the transistor by nearly 50 years.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            
410948 -         Vacuum tubes played an important role in the emergence of home                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            
410949 -         electronics and in the scientific discoveries and technical                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               
410950 -         innovations which are the foundation for our modern electronic                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            
410951 -         technology. ref OF 18 DU6F                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          
410953 -          ..
410954 -         Vacuum tubes extended Edison's work using switches to turn a                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              
410955 -         light bulb on and off by using the light bulb to turn a                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   
410956 -         switch on and off to control the flow of electrical current.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              
410957 -         ref OF 26 0001                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      
410958 -                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   
410959 -             http://www.answers.com/topic/vacuum-tube?linktext=vacuum%20tubes                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  
410961 -          ..
410962 -         Logic gates, also, called flip flop technology applied vacuum                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             
410963 -         tubes that turn switches on and off to control electrical                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 
410964 -         current. ref OF 55 0001  Eccles and Jordon advanced logic gate                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      
410965 -         technology in 1919. ref OF 55 EH6M  Logic gates store computer                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      
410966 -         memory. ref OF 55 N63J                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              
410967 -                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   
410968 -                   http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/William_Eccles                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 
410970 -          ..
410971 -         Claude Shannon developed theoretical basis for applying                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   
410972 -         electrical circuits configured with logic gates to perform                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                
410973 -         boolean logic.  He worked on the Differential Analyzer                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    
410974 -         developed by Vannevar Bush in the early 1930s, which required                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             
410975 -         days of setup time, and days to run a calculation. ref OF 57                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        
410976 -         NP4K and ref OF 58 ZI8O                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             
410977 -                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   
410978 -             [...Differential Analyzer was at Moore School of                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  
410979 -             Engineering subcontracted by the Army during WWII for                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 
410980 -             caluclating ballistics tables, and then was replaced by                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               
410981 -             Mauchly's design implemented by Echert that launched the                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              
410982 -             digital computer, later called the Von Neuman                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         
410983 -             architecture. ref SDS 0 ZD49                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          
410985 -                     ..
410986 -                    http://www.kerryr.net/pioneers/shannon.htm                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 
410988 -                     ..
410989 -                    http://www.thocp.net/biographies/shannon_claude.htm                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        
410991 -          ..
410992 -         This account presents Shannon's work applying mathematics to                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              
410993 -         model information and communication, including a theory of                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                
410994 -         entropy, which may relate to Communication Metrics.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       
410995 -                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   
410996 -                    http://www.nyu.edu/pages/linguistics/courses/v610003/shan.html                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             
410997 -                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   
410998 -               [On 040312 the idea of "knowledge is power" is derived                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          
410999 -               from "information theory" based on the locality                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     
411000 -               principal of physics that explains causality and time.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              
411001 -               ref SDS 82 L22S                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               
411003 -                ..
411004 -               [On 041213 logic gate (flip-flop) circuits are explained                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        
411005 -               for computer memory. ref SDS 85 OP7H                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          
411007 -                ..
411008 -               [On 041213 Tesla credited for logic gate technology.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            
411009 -               ref SDS 85 093O                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               
411011 -          ..
411012 -         Tesla got the first patent for a vacuum tube. ref OF 26 JJ5O                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        
411013 -                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   
411014 -               [On 041213 Nikola Tesla developed vacuum technology,                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            
411015 -               leading to application in radios and other wireless                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 
411016 -               communications. ref SDS 85 EF5J                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               
411018 -                ..
411019 -               [On 050903 research on patents found Aiken quoted and                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           
411020 -               other examples of the challenge of selling new ideas,                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               
411021 -               and others are listed as well. ref SDS 87 ED74                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                
411023 -          ..
411024 -         Early Computers Used Vacuum Tubes                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         
411026 -          ..
411027 -         The vacuum tubes tended to leak, and the metal that emitted                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               
411028 -         electrons in the vacuum tubes burned out.  The tubes also                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 
411029 -         required so much power that big and complicated circuits were                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             
411030 -         too large and took too much energy to run.  In the late                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   
411031 -         1940's, big computers were built with over 10,000 vacuum tubes                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            
411032 -         and occupied over 93 square meters of space. ref OF 18 C09O                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         
411034 -          ..
411035 -         The problems with vacuum tubes lead scientists and engineers                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              
411036 -         to think of other ways to make three terminal devices.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    
411037 -         Instead of using electrons in vacuum, scientists began to                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 
411038 -         consider how one might control electrons in solid materials,                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              
411039 -         like metals and semiconductors. ref OF 18 K14N                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      
411041 -          ..
411042 -         Limits of individual transistors                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          
411044 -          ..
411045 -         For many years, transistors were made as individual electronic                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            
411046 -         components and were connected to other electronic components                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              
411047 -         (resistors, capacitors, inductors, diodes, etc.) on boards to                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             
411048 -         make an electronic circuit.  They were much smaller than                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  
411049 -         vacuum tubes and consumed much less power.  Electronic                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    
411050 -         circuits could be made more complex, with more transistors                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                
411051 -         switching faster than tubes. ref OF 18 434I                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         
411053 -          ..
411054 -         But there was a limit on how small you could make each                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    
411055 -         transistor, since after it was made it had to be connected to                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             
411056 -         wires and other electronics.  The transistors were already at                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             
411057 -         the limit of what steady hands and tiny tweezers could handle.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            
411058 -         So, scientists wanted to make a whole circuit -- the                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      
411059 -         transistors, the wires, everything else they needed -- in a                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               
411060 -         single blow.  If they could create a miniature circuit in just                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            
411061 -         one step, all the parts could be made much smaller.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       
411062 -         ref OF 20 9562                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      
411064 -          ..
411065 -         However, it did not take long before the limits of this                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   
411066 -         circuit construction technique were reached.  Circuits based                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              
411067 -         on individual transistors became too large and too difficult                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              
411068 -         to assemble.  There were simply too many electronic components                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            
411069 -         to deal with.  The transistor circuits were faster than vacuum                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            
411070 -         tube circuits, and there were noticeable problems due to time                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             
411071 -         delays for electric signals to propagate a long distance in                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               
411072 -         these large circuits.  To make the circuits even faster, one                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              
411073 -         needed to pack the transistors closer and closer together.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                
411074 -         ref OF 18 4G5I                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      
411076 -     ..
411077 -    Jack Kilby at Texas Instruments is credited for inventing the first                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            
411078 -    integrated circuit in the summer of 1958 that constructed                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      
411079 -    transisters and other components directly in a computer chip,                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  
411080 -    rather than build then separately and connect them with wires.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 
411081 -    ref OF 13 EB5F                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           
411083 -     ..
411084 -    Robert Noyce at Fairchild Semiconductor also developed an                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      
411085 -    integrated circuit in 1957, his work improved on the Kilby design                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              
411086 -    by adding connections between components into the solid state                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  
411087 -    semiconductior. ref OF 13 OK7I  Another article on Gordon Moore's                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        
411088 -    biography credits Noyce for inveting ICs with connection wiring.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               
411089 -    ref OF 24 TU8O                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           
411091 -     ..
411092 -    Noyce got a patent, because of superior detail in the application                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              
411093 -    filing. ref OF 20 OM5J                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   
411094 -                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   
411095 -        What about adding connection wiring, and ability to                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        
411096 -        manufacture with photolithography?                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         
411098 -     ..
411099 -    When engineers tried to build complex circuits using the vacuum                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                
411100 -    tube, they encountered limitations.  The first digital computer                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                
411101 -    ENIAC, for example, was huge, weighing over thirty tons, and                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   
411102 -    consumed 200 kilowatts of electrical power.  It had over 18,000                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                
411103 -    vacuum tubes that constantly burned out, making it very unreliable.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            
411104 -    ref OF 13 Q24G                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           
411105 -                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   
411106 -        ENIAC developed by military during WWII to calculate complex                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               
411107 -        ballistic trajectories. ref OF 56 0001 and ref OF 56 O055                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      
411108 -                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   
411109 -              http://www.thocp.net/hardware/eniac.htm                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          
411111 -         ..
411112 -        Scientific and logistics support for the US military in 1939                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               
411113 -        was the Ballistics Research Laboratory within the Ordance                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  
411114 -        Department for the US Army which was located at the Aberdeen                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               
411115 -        Proving Grounds in Maryland.  This group had acquired a                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    
411116 -        Differential Analyser that helped calculate ballistics firing                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              
411117 -        tables. ref OF 56 OPVS  Besides long start-up times for setting                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      
411118 -        up a calculation by connecting cables to configure switches,                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               
411119 -        noted in the Shannon biography, ref SDS 0 J46H, the equipment                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              
411120 -        frequently failed, requiring calculations to be started over.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              
411121 -        ref OF 56 OPXU                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       
411123 -         ..
411124 -        Ballistics tables and factors to calculate. ref OF 61 U348                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           
411126 -         ..
411127 -        Firing Tables a weapon might have 1,800 trajectories, and took                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             
411128 -        30 - 40 hours to calculate a single trajectory. ref OF 60 QP6L                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       
411130 -         ..
411131 -        The army contracted with the Moore School of Engineering at the                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            
411132 -        University of Pennsylvania for calculating support using a                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 
411133 -        larger, more reliable Differential Analyser than was available                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             
411134 -        at the Aberdeen Proving Grounds facilities. ref OF 56 O097                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           
411135 -        This contract led to collaboration and eventual financial                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  
411136 -        support from the Army for making improvements to the                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       
411137 -        Differential Analyser, developed originally by Vannevar Bush at                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            
411138 -        MIT, per above, ref SDS 0 J46H, and this work was managed by                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               
411139 -        the Dean and professors at the Moore School of Engineering.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                
411140 -        ref OF 56 O105  As requirements escalated with America's entry                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       
411141 -        into the war in 1942, personnel greatly expanded at the                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    
411142 -        Aberdeen Proving Grounds.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  
411143 -                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   
411144 -            Goldstine taught a course in exterior ballistics at the                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                
411145 -            University of Chicago because Doctor Bliss, who had                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    
411146 -            developed the course, and for whom Goldstine was a research                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            
411147 -            assistant, got a heart attack and could not teach for                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  
411148 -            awhile. ref OF 66 FX31                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           
411150 -             ..
411151 -            Goldstine was concsripted into the Army Air Corps and sent                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             
411152 -            to Sacramento, where he got orders changing his assignment                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             
411153 -            to Aberdeen. ref OF 66 FX42 and ref OF 66 FX89                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             
411155 -             ..
411156 -            Lieutenant Goldstine received a PhD in mathematics from the                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            
411157 -            University of Chicago, and on induction into the military                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              
411158 -            he was assigned by Captain Gillon for on-site liason and                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               
411159 -            supervison of the Army's work at the Moore School of                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   
411160 -            Engineering.  This placed Goldstein in regular contact with                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            
411161 -            a group of talented engineers.  Despite improved results                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               
411162 -            with the Differential Analyser, work was falling behind                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                
411163 -            increased demands for ballistics calculations to meet war                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              
411164 -            requirements.  Mauchley prepared an outline for an                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     
411165 -            electronic calculator.  He worked with Eckert to refine the                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            
411166 -            plan, and then presented their ideas to Goldstine.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     
411167 -            ref OF 51 B68K                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   
411169 -             ..
411170 -            Goldstine and Captain Gillon just clicked. ref OF 66 FY36                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        
411172 -             ..
411173 -            Goldstine had 100 plus women computers calculating firing                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              
411174 -            tables at Moore College of Engineering BRL annex.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      
411175 -            ref OF 66 FI4K                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   
411177 -             ..
411178 -            Goldstine's work at Moore College had nothing to do with                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               
411179 -            building a computer; he was hiring and training women                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  
411180 -            computers to prepare firing tables. ref OF 67 5L72                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               
411182 -             ..
411183 -            Von Neumann meeting Goldstine and learning about ENIAC                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 
411184 -            electronic computer was an accident at the railway station                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             
411185 -            near Aberdeen Proving Grounds in Maryland at mid-night,                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                
411186 -            waiting for trains going in opposite directions.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       
411187 -            ref OF 47 QQTX                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   
411189 -             ..
411190 -            Goldstine's wife, Adele, was part of a 6 women group formed                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            
411191 -            to teach new people how to perform the calculations.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   
411192 -            ref OF 67 ZW84                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   
411193 -                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   
411194 -                Smithsonian                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        
411195 -                National Museum of American History                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                
411196 -                Lemelson Center for the Study of Invention and                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     
411197 -                Innovation                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         
411199 -                 ..
411200 -                Computer Oral History Collection, 1969-1973, 1977                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  
411201 -                Jean J. Bartik and Frances E. (Betty) Snyder Holberton                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             
411202 -                Interview, April 27, 1973, Archives Center,                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        
411204 -                 ..
411205 -                Page 28                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            
411206 -                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   
411207 -                     http://invention.smithsonian.org/downloads/fa_cohc_tr_bart730427.pdf                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      
411209 -                 ..
411210 -                Jean J Bartnik...                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  
411212 -                 ..
411213 -                So I knew her, in fact, my introduction to her was                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 
411214 -                very interesting to me. Because we were sent over for                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              
411215 -                the training course and I came from a small teachers'                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              
411216 -                college and women were not allowed to smoke. And if                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                
411217 -                you smoked you had to go off to the greenhouse or some                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             
411218 -                place, sneak around and smoke. And so I was a kind of                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              
411219 -                naive farm girl from Missouri and I came in the class                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              
411220 -                and Adele Goldstine walked in and had her hair in an                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               
411221 -                upsweep with a cigarette hanging out of one side of                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                
411222 -                her mouth and she walked over as the lecturer, threw                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               
411223 -                her leg over the table edge and began to lecture with                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              
411224 -                this cigarette in her mouth.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       
411226 -                 ..
411227 -                Well, I thought this was one of the most exotic women                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              
411228 -                I had ever met.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    
411229 -                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   
411230 -                ... Adele Goldstine, from the first, struck me as a                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                
411231 -                very sharp, exotic, exciting kind of a woman.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      
411233 -             ..
411234 -            Adele Goldstine lauched the craft of computer programming,                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             
411235 -            according to Herman Goldstine. ref OF 51 FL3G, and                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               
411236 -            ref OF 67 ZW57  Adele also wrote the official project                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            
411237 -            report on development of ENIAC, with instructions for use                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              
411238 -            and maintenance. ref OF 67 ZX35                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  
411240 -             ..
411241 -            Mauchly's wife, Mary, was part of this core teaching team,                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             
411242 -            which could have been a way for Goldstine to meet Mauchly.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             
411243 -            ref OF 67 ZW84 and ref OF 60 OM9H                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          
411245 -             ..
411246 -            Eventually, Goldstine's BRL group assigned a company of                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                
411247 -            WAACS to help with calculating firing tables. ref OF 67                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          
411248 -            239F                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   
411250 -             ..
411251 -            Goldstine reports that Eckert and Mauchly were around the                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              
411252 -            Differential Analyzer alot, and that Eckert made                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       
411253 -            improvements, which gave Goldstine confidence that Mauchly                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             
411254 -            and Eckert understood computers. ref OF 67 Y49N                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  
411256 -             ..
411257 -            Adele Goldstine diary explains war years working on ENIAC                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              
411258 -            and addresses credit for invention that later became major                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             
411259 -            dispute. ref OF 67 WY63                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          
411261 -             ..
411262 -            Programming ENIAC was all by connecting jumper cables and                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              
411263 -            wires to configure switches.  Wiring a computer program                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                
411264 -            could take days to set up a problem ref OF 67 654H                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               
411265 -                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   
411267 -             ..
411268 -            Digital Computer Project Launched by Accident                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         
411269 -            Experts Warned Against Digital Computers For the Birds                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                
411270 -            
411271 -            Goldstine learned about the Mauchly memo from a grad                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   
411272 -            student. ref OF 61 UJ4L                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          
411274 -             ..
411275 -            ENIAC 18,000 vacuum tubes was very high risk for failure,                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              
411276 -            recognized by Goldstine. ref OF 47 Q621                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          
411278 -             ..
411279 -            Experts at IBM, MIT, et al, said Mauchly's proposal for                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                
411280 -            using electrical circuits to perform digital calcuation                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                
411281 -            would not work -- it "was for the birds" -- and urged Army                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             
411282 -            to stick with annalog design, which was very popular at                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                
411283 -            that time. ref OF 68 MD63                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        
411285 -             ..
411286 -            Governemnt research organizations NDRC, and later OSRD,                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                
411287 -            both headed by Vannevar Bush, who had been Dean of                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     
411288 -            Engineering at MIT, when Shannon worked on the Differential                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            
411289 -            Analyzer as a graduate student in 1935, and which Bush had                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             
411290 -            developed at MIT, per above, ref SDS 0 J46H, concurred with                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            
411291 -            the MIT assesment issuing a report that was not favorable                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              
411292 -            on developing digital computing. ref OF 68 ME43                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  
411293 -                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   
411294 -               [On 970522 Uncle Jim relates experinece in Pentagon                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             
411295 -               experts assigned to assess new ideas overwhelmed by                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 
411296 -               prevailing paradigms, limited time causes cursory                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   
411297 -               review. ref SDS 41 FZ4N                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       
411299 -                ..
411300 -               [On 001027 experts told Doug Engelbart in the 1970s that                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        
411301 -               technology he had developed for linking would never                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 
411302 -               work, and would not be useful. ref SDS 61 5D5L                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                
411304 -                ..
411305 -               [On 020131 improvement at DOD resisted by culture of                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            
411306 -               denial. ref SDS 73 G15V  Rumsfeld says to be persistant,                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      
411307 -               build circle of advocates. ref SDS 73 6L5K                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    
411309 -                ..
411310 -               [On 040622 experts Knowledge Management professional                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            
411311 -               organization says technology to leverage intelligence by                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            
411312 -               writings things down, and linking things up will never                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              
411313 -               work, urge reliance on conversation. ref SDS 83 CE7J                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          
411315 -                ..
411316 -               [On 051113 NWO updated with citation that experts feel                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          
411317 -               good ideas are "for the birds." ref SDS 88 GI6M                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               
411319 -             ..
411320 -            Dispute between Mauchly and Atanasof on design for ENIAC.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              
411321 -            ref OF 47 Q466 and ref OF 47 Q583                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          
411323 -             ..
411324 -            Dispute between Mauchly and Goldstine on invention and                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 
411325 -            credit for design of next generation computer after ENIAC.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             
411326 -            ref OF 47 QQYR and ref OF 47 Q703                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          
411328 -             ..
411329 -            Mauchly, Echert, Goldstine, von Neumann worked as a team to                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            
411330 -            design next generation computer. ref OF 47 Q437                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  
411332 -             ..
411333 -            EDVAC next generation computer "first-draft" dispute                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   
411334 -            because von Neumann drafted the docutment, and Goldstine                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               
411335 -            put von Neumann's name on it and made distribution, but                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                
411336 -            others made wider distribution. ref OF 47 Q786                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   
411337 -                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   
411338 -                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   
411339 -                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   
411340 -                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   
411341 -                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   
4114 -                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     

SUBJECTS
Bush Vannevar Visionary SDS Design Rationale Intelligence Support At                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        
6203 -                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     
620401 -             ..
620402 -            Bush Visionary Design Rationale Intelligence Support                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  
620403 -            
620404 -            After the war, in July 1945 Vannevar Bush published an                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 
620405 -            article in Atlantic Monthly.  He presented lessons learned                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             
620406 -            from managing research and development for winning World                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               
620407 -            War II. ref SDS 0 YG3K  The article...                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 
620409 -                                ..
620410 -                               As We May Think                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    
620411 -                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   
620412 -              http://ccat.sas.upenn.edu/~jod/texts/vannevar.bush.html                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          
620414 -             ..
620415 -            ...presents a vision for technology to help people think,                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              
620416 -            remember, and communicate that occurs in daily management                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              
620417 -            solving complex problems. ref OF 70 0001  On 941007 Peter                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        
620418 -            Wasilko cited correlations between Bush's 1945 article and                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             
620419 -            POIMS. ref SDS 11 UP4K  Today, is the first chance to                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            
620420 -            review Bush's seminal article, while researching                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       
620421 -            transformation to a culture of knowledge, per above.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   
620422 -            ref SDS 0 0001                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         
620424 -                  ..
620425 -                 [On 991222 Engelbart seems to extend the 1945 vision                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          
620426 -                 in the Bush article. ref SDS 53 3977                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        
620428 -             ..
620429 -            Shove All That Paper into Computer for Paperless Office                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               
620430 -            Paperless Office Efficiencies Electronic Records Management                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           
620431 -            
620432 -            In 1965 Gordon Moore reported the speed of microprocessors                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             
620433 -            doubles every 18 months. ref SDS 0 4004  By 1996 people are                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            
620434 -            worried about how to deploy better computers productively.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             
620435 -            Nobody can think of anything that needs to be improved,                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                
620436 -            except pictures and games. ref SDS 0 UM85                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              
620437 -                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   
620438 -               [On 970607 Intel making money selling faster processors                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         
620439 -               to give customers a better experience playing games.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                
620440 -               ref SDS 43 4486                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               
620442 -                ..
620443 -               [On 080127 letter to Morris Jones recommends reviewing                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          
620444 -               this record on Vannevar Bush vision for using computers                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             
620445 -               to perform electronic records management, that sets a                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               
620446 -               good agenda for advancing from information to Knowledge                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             
620447 -               Management. ref SDS 94 ON3X                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   
620449 -             ..
620450 -            Bush proposed in 1945 using computers to help people                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   
620451 -            "think" in order to cope with expanding complexity in the                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              
620452 -            "record" of daily experience attending meetings, making                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                
620453 -            calls, reading and writing documents that overwhelm mental                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             
620454 -            biology. ref OF 70 1G67                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          
620456 -                ..
620457 -               [On 000327 Engelbart defines knowledge work, ref SDS 58                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   
620458 -               3971, correlates well with Bush's expression of the                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 
620459 -               "record." ref OF 70 1G67                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      
620461 -             ..
620462 -            Bush described in 1945 a "mechanized file and library to                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               
620463 -            store daily working information, ref OF 70 3C47, with                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            
620464 -            indexing for precision access (see below, ref SDS 0 GX59),                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             
620465 -            Half-a-century later using computers for a library function                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            
620466 -            has been called a "paperless office" and "virtual office"                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              
620467 -            reported on 910418, ref SDS 6 8848, and earlier on 880726                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        
620468 -            PIM software began to implement the Bush vision.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       
620469 -            ref SDS 2 MH8N  In 1985 SDS began to integrate personal and                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      
620470 -            organizational memory and management using computers to                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                
620471 -            cope with complexity; by 890523 this solution was described                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            
620472 -            as "flexible structure" with granularity for command and                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               
620473 -            control of the microcosm. ref SDS 3 P13O  Computers to                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           
620474 -            manage expanding information aligns with Drucker's view                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                
620475 -            that proactive management applies the power of knowledge,                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              
620476 -            reviewed on 931130. ref SDS 8 XM9G  Computers for efficient                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      
620477 -            storage and records management of daily communications and                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             
620478 -            business activity has also been called a knowledge                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     
620479 -            "repository," distinguished from data base that tracks                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 
620480 -            accounting, payroll, inventory, personnel records, etc.  On                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            
620481 -            950927 Intel gave up trying to use computers for management                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            
620482 -            support. ref SDS 18 7732  IBM presented computer tools to                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        
620483 -            improve management with a general library function to store                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            
620484 -            and quickly find critical details, reported 951011.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    
620485 -            ref SDS 19 8392                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  
620486 -                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   
620487 -               [On 970525 repository of experience using computers and                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         
620488 -               the Internet. ref SDS 42 4700                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 
620490 -                ..
620491 -               [On 971021 repository project office described in                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               
620492 -               article on using computers. ref SDS 45 5884,                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  
620494 -                ..
620495 -               [On 991222 reviewed Doug Engelbart 1992 paper citing a                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          
620496 -               1962 proposal, ref SDS 53 7H5H, based on the Bush 1945                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        
620497 -               article, ref SDS 53 XS6N, and calling for computers to                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        
620498 -               provide a knowledge repository. ref SDS 53 KI49                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               
620500 -                ..
620501 -               [On 000327 Doug Engelbart's explanation of "knowledge"                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          
620502 -               work from a paper in 1972 proposes computers store for                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              
620503 -               retrieval daily working information from meetings,                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  
620504 -               calls, specifications, reports, contracts, everything                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               
620505 -               needed to get things done quickly and accurately.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   
620506 -               ref SDS 58 3971                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               
620508 -                ..
620509 -               [On 000615 engineers gave up because they discovered                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            
620510 -               there wasn't enough knowledge to create effective tools                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             
620511 -               for a Knowledge Management Repository. ref SDS 59 6271                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        
620513 -                ..
620514 -               [On 001130 IBM gave up trying to convert Lotus Notes                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            
620515 -               into Knowledge Management because there wasn't enough                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               
620516 -               knowledge to perform the work. ref SDS 62 F26K                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                
620518 -                ..
620519 -               [On 010114 Knowledge Management expert reports change                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           
620520 -               from "repository" and "library" models for capturing and                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            
620521 -               relying on the record accuratley, to instead working by                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             
620522 -               conversation from memory. ref SDS 65 EK3I                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     
620524 -                ..
620525 -               [On 011102 Larry Prusak paper on origins of Knowledge                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           
620526 -               Management, and Steve Denning "expert" propose ignoring                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             
620527 -               the record, and rely on storytelling with conversation                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              
620528 -               to learn implicit knowledge from people recalling past                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              
620529 -               experience, e.g., fixing the plumbing with conversation                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             
620530 -               rather than plans and specifications, ref SDS 72 H461;                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        
620531 -               copy machines repaired by conversation because talking                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              
620532 -               is faster and easier than finding and reading                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       
620533 -               specifications. ref SDS 72 HD8M                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               
620535 -                ..
620536 -               [On 020610 SDS design integrates time and information;                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          
620537 -               improves literacy that leverages intelligence to think,                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             
620538 -               remember, and communicate. ref SDS 75 HA4H                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    
620540 -                ..
620541 -               [On 020708 example of productivity increased performing                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         
620542 -               common tasks with computers using SDS for improving                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 
620543 -               human memory. ref SDS 76 MZ6O                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 
620545 -                ..
620546 -               [On 060317 Aeorspace Company cites Lotus Notes for                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              
620547 -               performing documentation and records managmeent with                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                
620548 -               computers. ref SDS 90 JS3I and ref SDS 90 IT6Y                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          
620549 -                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   
620550 -                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   
620551 -                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   
6206 -                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     

SUBJECTS
Paperless Office Efficiencies Electronic Records Management Producti                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        
9103 -                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     
910401 -             ..
910402 -            Complementarity Records Indexing Links Yield Intelligence                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             
910403 -            Paperless Office Requires Indexing Trails of Associations                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             
910404 -            Indexing Links for Precision Access Computer Records                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  
910405 -            Subjects Categorized with Mechanized Library Card Catelog                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             
910406 -            
910407 -            Bush recognized in 1945 at the dawn of digital computers                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               
910408 -            that a paperless office requires precision access using 3                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              
910409 -            complementary functions to improve productivity...                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     
910410 -                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   
910411 -                1.  Records management - common storage, ref SDS 0 H68K                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            
910412 -                2.  Index - organic structure context, ref SDS 0 PG5L                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              
910413 -                3.  Trails of associations - linking, ref SDS 0 HE6L                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               
910415 -                       ..
910416 -                      [On 070126 case study everybody gave up on 3                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             
910417 -                      elements of Knowledge Management. ref SDS 92 QH8L                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      
910419 -             ..
910420 -            The Bush proposal to manage the record based on time,                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  
910421 -            indexing, and associations, fits the SDS design using                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  
910422 -            flexible structure to integrate chronology, context, and                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               
910423 -            connection, explained on 890523. ref SDS 3 UP9S                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  
910425 -                       ..
910426 -                      [On 980613 article reports paperless office                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              
910427 -                      efficiencies of electronic records management                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                
910428 -                      have not been realized by creating and storing                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               
910429 -                      information on computers; people overwhelmed by                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              
910430 -                      information density because only SDS has tools                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               
910431 -                      that convert information into knowledge.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     
910432 -                      ref SDS 49 0526                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        
910434 -                       ..
910435 -                      [On 001130 Jack Park identifies 3 elements of                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            
910436 -                      Knowledge Management in SDS using time and                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   
910437 -                      context to make sense of the record by connecting                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            
910438 -                      cause and effect across time and distance.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   
910439 -                      ref SDS 63 H17O                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        
910441 -                       ..
910442 -                      [On 011102 Larry Prusak at IBM says Knowledge                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            
910443 -                      Management tries to implement "paperless office"                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             
910444 -                      efficiencies of electronic records management                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                
910445 -                      because merely storing information on computers                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              
910446 -                      overwhelms human mental biology and so degrades                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              
910447 -                      productivity without complementary support for                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               
910448 -                      context and connections - aligns with the Bush                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               
910449 -                      vision for "trails of associations." ref SDS 71                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        
910450 -                      M24F                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         
910452 -                       ..
910453 -                      [On 080127 letter to Morris Jones recommends                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             
910454 -                      reviewing this record on Vannevar Bush vision for                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            
910455 -                      using computers to perform electronic records                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                
910456 -                      management, that sets a good agenda for advancing                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            
910457 -                      from information to Knowledge Management.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    
910458 -                      ref SDS 94 ON3X                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        
910460 -             ..
910461 -            Experience over the ensuing 50 years has shown that a 4th                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              
910462 -            factor is essential for computers to augment intelligence.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             
910463 -                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   
910464 -                4.  Efficient usability - see POIMS. ref OF 1 6M5H                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           
910465 -                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   
910466 -                      [On 020531 efficient usability reviewed during                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           
910467 -                      meeting with Mike Poremba. ref SDS 74 5M3G                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             
910469 -                       ..
910470 -                      [On 040921 some give up improving management                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             
910471 -                      because constructing an accurate record is hard                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              
910472 -                      work without SDS technology using complemtarity                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              
910473 -                      and efficient usability. ref SDS 84 PG6T                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               
910474 -                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   
910475 -                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   
910476 -                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   
9105 -                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     

SUBJECTS
Library Consulted Rarely Nibbled History Only Accessible Professiona                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        
9403 -                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     
940401 -             ..
940402 -            Library Vast Sources Consulted Rarely Barely Nibbled                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  
940403 -            History Only Accessible Professional Researchers Writers                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              
940404 -            Record Nibbled by Few Diligent Search Finds One a Week                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                
940405 -            
940406 -            Efficient storage of the record on compressed computers for                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            
940407 -            electronic records management does not improve productivity                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            
940408 -            except for a few professional researchers and writers who                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              
940409 -            can afford to invest time using ancient methods for finding                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            
940410 -            correlations, implications and nuance among the vast                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   
940411 -            volumes of documents.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  
940413 -  ..
940414 - Bush noted in 1945...                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         
940415 -                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   
940416 -                Mere compression, of course, is not enough; one needs                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              
940417 -                not only to make and store a record but also to be able                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            
940418 -                to consult it, and this aspect of the matter comes                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 
940419 -                later.  Even the modern great library is not generally                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             
940420 -                consulted; it is nibbled by a few. ref OF 70 1RWX                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            
940421 -                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   
940422 -                    [...below case studies - indexing must assemble                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            
940423 -                    chronology into trails of association that make                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                
940424 -                    sense of complexity connecting dots of cause and                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               
940425 -                    effect. ref SDS 0 368K                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         
940427 -             ..
940428 -            Intellectual Capital Inheritance of Civilization                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      
940429 -            Profit Invest Intellectual Capital Knowledge Management                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               
940430 -            Knowledge Management Civilization Profits from Inheritance                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            
940431 -            Precision Access Finding Selecting Knowledge Needle in Haystack                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       
940432 -            
940433 - Bush continues in 1945 article As We May Think...                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             
940434 -                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   
940435 -                So much for the manipulation of ideas and their                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    
940436 -                insertion into the record.  Thus far we seem to be                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 
940437 -                worse off than before - for we can enormously extend                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               
940438 -                the record; yet even in its present bulk we can hardly                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             
940439 -                consult it.  This is a much larger matter than merely                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              
940440 -                the extraction of data for the purposes of scientific                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              
940441 -                research; it involves the entire process by which man                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              
940442 -                profits by his inheritance of acquired knowledge.  The                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             
940443 -                prime action of use is selection, and here we are                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  
940444 -                halting indeed.  There may be millions of fine                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     
940445 -                thoughts, and the account of the experience on which                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               
940446 -                they are based, all encased within stone walls of                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  
940447 -                acceptable architectural form; but if the scholar can                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              
940448 -                get at only one a week by diligent search, his                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     
940449 -                syntheses are not likely to keep up with the current                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               
940450 -                scene. ref OF 70 1G67                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        
940452 -             ..
940453 -            Envisioning precision access as the enabling force to lift                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             
940454 -            civilization by multiplying rewards for routinely investing                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            
940455 -            intellectual capital is a very big idea envisioned in 1945                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             
940456 -            when people were still connecting cables and wires to                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  
940457 -            program a computer problem. ref OF 67 654H                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       
940459 -             ..
940460 -            Vannear Bush proposed in general terms an organic structure                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            
940461 -            of context to categorize subjects that make sense of                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   
940462 -            complex problems by searching an index to find information                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             
940463 -            with precision access. ref OF 70 TZ7P  Bush recognized that                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      
940464 -            a paperless office storing information on computers is only                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            
940465 -            useful if people can find it in time to be effective.  He                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              
940466 -            expected this would require more robust indexing of content                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            
940467 -            than occurs with traditional library card catelog methods                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              
940468 -            that index only at the document level. ref OF 70 6Z54                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            
940469 -                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   
940470 -                    [On 050516 index and search documents on computers                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         
940471 -                    seems slow, and fails to finding everything.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   
940472 -                    ref SDS 86 BQ68                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          
940474 -                     ..
940475 -                    [On 070126 search becomes "Holy Grail" for computer                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        
940476 -                    productivity using Google technology to index                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  
940477 -                    content of documents for keywords with logical                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 
940478 -                    operators. ref SDS 92 B366                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               
940480 -                     ..
940481 -                    [On 070126 paperless office to capture daily                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               
940482 -                    working information and store on the computer, with                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            
940483 -                    complementary support using robust indexing and                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                
940484 -                    trails of associations for precison access became                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              
940485 -                    "Knowledge Management," and was abandoned;                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     
940486 -                    mainstream enterprise could only accomplish the                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                
940487 -                    first step storing information on computers;                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   
940488 -                    requirements for complementary indexing and linking                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            
940489 -                    to make information productive proved too difficult                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            
940490 -                    to design and deploy, probably because emphasis on                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             
940491 -                    appearance conflicts with need for structure.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  
940492 -                    ref SDS 92 QH8L                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          
940494 -             ..
940495 -            SDS context management explained on 880628 uses granular                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               
940496 -            indexing of organic subject structures applied to low                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  
940497 -            levels in the microcosm of history with Control Fields that                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            
940498 -            identify flexible record sugments, along with granular                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 
940499 -            addressability to manage expanding complexity. ref SDS 1                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         
940500 -            BI3G  The challenge of context management was reported on                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              
940501 -            880628. ref SDS 1 OL6H  On 890523 intelligence support                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           
940502 -            requires complementarity between capturing the record,                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 
940503 -            subject indexing, and links increase understanding with                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                
940504 -            precision access, ref SDS 3 T15F; benefits of granular                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           
940505 -            indexing were explained, ref SDS 3 OS4H; with examples of                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        
940506 -            common organic subject structures, ref SDS 3 428F, which                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         
940507 -            shows context management is very complex, difficult work                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               
940508 -            without efficient tools implementing "paperless office"                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                
940509 -            capabilities. ref SDS 3 LV59                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     
940511 -             ..
940512 -            On 910418 Byte magazine reported that the Bush vision of                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               
940513 -            subject indexing to make the paperless office productive is                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            
940514 -            very difficult to accomplish. ref SDS 6 8848                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     
940515 -                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   
940516 -               [On 991222 categorizing was proposed by Doug Engelbart                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          
940517 -               in a 1992 paper, ref SDS 53 EO6M, citing a 1962 SRI                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           
940518 -               proposal, ref SDS 53 7H5H, based on the Bush 1945                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             
940519 -               article, ref SDS 53 XS6N, called for computers to                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             
940520 -               organize information for quickly finding details using a                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            
940521 -               3 x 5 card system. ref SDS 53 UD7F                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            
940523 -                ..
940524 -               [On 991231 research on W3C standards for HTML describes                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         
940525 -               meta commands to specify key words for a search engine                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              
940526 -               to find web page documents on the Internet. ref SDS 54                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        
940527 -               YS86                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                
940529 -                ..
940530 -               [On 000221 subject indexing described as "ontology" was                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         
940531 -               characterized as a "Pandora's Box" of complexity.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   
940532 -               ref SDS 55 L58O                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               
940534 -                ..
940535 -               [On 010420 categorizing with "metadata" assigns words                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           
940536 -               and phrases to web pages on the Internet; semantic                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  
940537 -               indexing helps people find documents that have been                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 
940538 -               assigned metadata, ref SDS 67 X44G, using a controlled                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        
940539 -               vocabulary for a community of practice. ref SDS 67 0161                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       
940541 -                ..
940542 -               [On 020822 people feeling pain trying metadata with                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             
940543 -               Lotus Notes to organize the record and find critical                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                
940544 -               details when needed; trying Grove, Groove and Sharepoint                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            
940545 -               weblogs and portals with metadata on the Internet.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  
940546 -               ref SDS 77 Q99G                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               
940548 -                ..
940549 -               [On 021031 article reports people giving up on metadata                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         
940550 -               to organize the record and find information; indexing                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               
940551 -               words is fast and easy. ref SDS 78 VX4J                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       
940552 -                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   
940554 -             ..
940555 -            Links Connect Trails of Associations to Understand History                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            
940556 -            Trails of Associations Accuracy Quickly Find Relevant History                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         
940557 -            
940558 -            Bush further recognized the mind works by association in a                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             
940559 -            web of trails, ref OF 70 R56L; but, working quickly forces                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       
940560 -            faded memories to rely on assumption remembering only the                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              
940561 -            gist of the story.  Failure to check the record causes                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 
940562 -            endless mistakes - continual bumbling.  POIMS makes similar                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            
940563 -            points. ref OF 1 3385  Bush envisioned computers can                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             
940564 -            strengthen mental biology by constructing links into trails                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            
940565 -            of associations that empower people to work quickly and                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                
940566 -            remember accurately using precision access to the "record"                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             
940567 -            rather than rely on assumption. ref OF 70 R56L  This fits                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        
940568 -            the cognitive science model of human thought using                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     
940569 -            "intelligence" to construct "meaning" from experience by                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               
940570 -            connecting cause and effect. reviewed on 900303.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       
940571 -            ref SDS 4 3002  In 1945, Bush recognized from many years                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         
940572 -            directing US R&D during World War II, ref SDS 0 YG3K, that                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         
940573 -            regulations, laws, and standards requiring an "audit trail"                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            
940574 -            documenting "traceability to original sources" in order to                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             
940575 -            avoid mistakes by expanding span of attenion are mostly                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                
940576 -            ignored, because alignment is hard to accomplish without                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               
940577 -            tools, reviewed on 950721. ref SDS 16 1740                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       
940579 -             ..
940580 -            Using an accurate record of prior related work, i.e.,                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  
940581 -            history, knowledge, experience, to expedite getting things                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             
940582 -            done seems to escape most everyone as counterintuitive.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                
940583 -            Because conversation (and today email) relying on                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      
940584 -            assumption is mind numbingly easy, people feel "paperwork"                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             
940585 -            - keeping records, documenting alignment, writing things                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               
940586 -            down, linking things up, making trails of associations                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 
940587 -            within contextual frames proposed by Bush to find critical                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             
940588 -            details, check the record to discover cause and effect - is                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            
940589 -            a nusiance, unnecessary overkill, to be avoided at all                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 
940590 -            costs.  Transcending this dilemma makes the Bush article an                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            
940591 -            oasis of lucidity beyond reach until people experience the                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             
940592 -            intelligence process of using the "record" to plan,                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    
940593 -            perform, and report on daily work, called out in POIMS.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                
940594 -            ref OF 1 6649                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    
940595 -                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   
940596 -                 [On 960321 cognitive science and psychology paper by                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          
940597 -                 Laundauer, et al., seems to support the idea of using                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             
940598 -                 technology to aid human thinking by tracking trails of                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            
940599 -                 associations to understand "meaning" in a complex,                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                
940600 -                 dynamcially, expanding record of daily work.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      
940601 -                 ref SDS 30 RM5H                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             
940603 -                  ..
940604 -                 [On 960322 expanding complexity requires tools for                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            
940605 -                 command control of the record proposed by Bush in 1945                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            
940606 -                 developed in subject index using organic structures of                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            
940607 -                 context to balance summary for perspective with                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   
940608 -                 precision access to details that control the work.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                
940609 -                 ref SDS 31 7749  Communication Metrics practices use                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        
940610 -                 tools that leverage intelligence for managing                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     
940611 -                 complexity. ref SDS 31 JY3L                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 
940613 -                  ..
940614 -                 [On 991222 SRI's proposal to DOD in 1962, prepared by                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         
940615 -                 Doug Engelbart, cites large parts of Bush's 1945                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  
940616 -                 article verbatim, ref SDS 53 XS6N, and requests                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             
940617 -                 funding to develop capability for linking back to                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 
940618 -                 original sources. ref SDS 53 UD9J                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           
940620 -                  ..
940621 -                 [On 000307 research at SRI on OHS/DKR project found                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           
940622 -                 that good management is a lot of hard work that people                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            
940623 -                 hate doing without tools for working intelligently.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               
940624 -                 ref SDS 57 767G                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             
940626 -                  ..
940627 -                 [On 010907 working intelligently to reduce mistakes,                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          
940628 -                 save lives, time, and money has to be balanced against                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            
940629 -                 requirements for confidentiality, and requests for                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                
940630 -                 suppression not supported by rational basis.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      
940631 -                 ref SDS 70 HJ4G                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             
940633 -                  ..
940634 -                 [On 080206 Morris asks how SDS enables creating so                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            
940635 -                 many links with precision access in email when other                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              
940636 -                 technologies that everybody else uses prevent creating                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            
940637 -                 any links. ref SDS 95 R67J                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  
940638 -                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   
940640 -             ..
940641 -            Encyclopedia Organize Computer Data for Precision Access                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              
940642 -            Electronic Filing Storage Fast Easy Access to Everything                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              
940643 -            Paperless Office Everything on Computer Requires Organization                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         
940644 -            
940645 -            Bush envisioned in 1945 that technology would augment                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  
940646 -            personal and organizational memory for knowledge work based                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            
940647 -            on a "paperless office" model using electronic records                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 
940648 -            management, per above, ref SDS 0 H68K, for an efficient                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                
940649 -            library and encyclopedia.  At that time he said...                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     
940651 -                 ..
940652 -                Consider a future device for individual use, which is a                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            
940653 -                sort of mechanized private file and library. ... stores                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            
940654 -                all his books, records, and communications, and which                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              
940655 -                ...may be consulted with exceeding speed and                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       
940656 -                flexibility.  It is an enlarged intimate supplement to                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             
940657 -                his memory. ref OF 70 3C47                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   
940659 -  ..
940660 - Bush describing paperless office "supplement to memory" correlates to                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             
940661 - aiding intelligence with accurate personal and organizational memory                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              
940662 - explained in POIMS, ref OF 1 1101, since research on 900319 found that                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      
940663 - accurate memory is the foundation of human reasoning, ref SDS 5 1323,                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       
940664 - i.e., intelligence, that "connects the dots" of cause and effect.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 
940666 -                  ..
940667 -                 [On 040113 executives, engineers, marketing                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   
940668 -                 visionaries lose sight of purpose for knowledge                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   
940669 -                 management, because leveraging intelligence to                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    
940670 -                 "connect the dots" for understanding cause and effect                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             
940671 -                 in a complex record remains a mysterious biological                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               
940672 -                 process; people cannot remember what knowledge                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    
940673 -                 management is trying to accomplish. ref SDS 80 VK4N                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         
940674 -                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   
940676 -             ..
940677 -            Indexing Time Context Improves Traditional Keyword Search                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             
940678 -            Context Management Integrates Time Context for Case Studies                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           
940679 -            Case Studies Root Cause Analysis Benefits Paperless Office                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            
940680 -            
940681 - Bush continues in As We May Think...                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          
940682 -                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   
940683 -                Wholly new forms of encyclopedias with associative                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 
940684 -                trails running through them...  The lawyer has at his                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              
940685 -                touch the associated opinions and decisions of his                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 
940686 -                whole experience, and of the experience of friends and                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             
940687 -                authorities.  The patent attorney has on call the                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  
940688 -                millions of issued patents, with familiar trails to                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                
940689 -                every point of his client's interest.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              
940691 -                 ..
940692 -                The physician, puzzled by its patient's reactions,                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 
940693 -                strikes the trail established in studying an earlier                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               
940694 -                similar case, and runs rapidly through analogous case                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              
940695 -                histories, with side references to the classics for the                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            
940696 -                pertinent anatomy and histology.  The chemist,                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     
940697 -                struggling with the synthesis of an organic compound,                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              
940698 -                has all the chemical literature before him in his                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  
940699 -                laboratory, with trails following the analogies of                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 
940700 -                compounds, and side trails to their physical and                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   
940701 -                chemical behavior. ref OF 70 A756                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            
940703 -  ..
940704 - "Case studies" replace assumption to accurately apply experience.  The                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            
940705 - Bush vision in 1945 using computer indexing to assemble lessons                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   
940706 - learned logically advances information management to a new way of                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 
940707 - working.  A practice of knowlege management applies experience culled                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             
940708 - instantly from the record of history and assembled chronologically                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                
940709 - with everything in the right place to connect cause and effect within                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             
940710 - contextual frames.  Bush recognized in 1945 that traditional indexing                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             
940711 - keywords, like in a library or filing cabinet, is not sufficient, per                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             
940712 - above. ref SDS 0 NF9J  Robust indexing with cross-referencing and                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 
940713 - comprehensive trails of associations (today called "links") integrates                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            
940714 - time and context to automatically assemble case studies for                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       
940715 - understanding cause and effect assessed by the weight of evidence                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 
940716 - across space and time.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            
940718 -  ..
940719 - Bush anticipated SDS design that integrates chronology, context, and                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              
940720 - connection, explained in POIMS, ref OF 1 8555, that enables                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 
940721 - intelligence support, explained in NWO. ref OF 3 A56M   This applies                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        
940722 - granular division of time, with granuar indexing and addressability,                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              
940723 - also explained in POIMS. ref OF 1 KH8J                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      
940724 -                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   
940725 -                 [On 000227 case study technology support requested by                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         
940726 -                 Eric Armstrong trying to develop Knowledge Management                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             
940727 -                 capability for OHS/DKR project team meeting at SRI                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                
940728 -                 under Doug Engelbart. ref SDS 56 0937                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       
940730 -                  ..
940731 -                 [On 061018 example of "case studies" for medical work,                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        
940732 -                 ref SDS 91 0001; NWO gives an example of case study                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         
940733 -                 for medical practice, ref OF 3 PXWX, envisioned by                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          
940734 -                 Bush in 1945, per above. ref SDS 0 RT3I                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           
940736 -                  ..
940737 -                 [On 070126 case study shows people have given up on                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           
940738 -                 Knowledge Management technology for paperless office                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              
940739 -                 because adding "metadata" to index documents is not                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               
940740 -                 sufficient to make case studies fast and easy.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    
940741 -                 ref SDS 92 QH8L                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             
940743 -                  ..
940744 -                 [On 071212 encountering vast complexity of granular                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           
940745 -                 indexing that represents a mere fraction of trails                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                
940746 -                 associating life experience in the human mind seems at                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            
940747 -                 first overwhelming. ref SDS 93 ZJ3H                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         
940748 -                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   
940750 -  ..
940751 - Bush continues in As We May Think...                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          
940753 -             ..
940754 -            Delight Transforms Diligence into Fun Writing History                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 
940755 -            Analyst Work Role Required New Way Working Paperless Office                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           
940756 -            Professional Role Historian Constructs Useful Trails                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  
940757 -            Paperless Office Everything Stored Requires New Work Role                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             
940758 -            
940759 -            The Bush 1945 article in Atlantic Monthly, per above,                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  
940760 -            ref SDS 0 L47F, further recognized requirements for a new                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              
940761 -            professional role synthesizing the ancient scribe with the                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             
940762 -            modern librarian, historian, and accountant.  A new role is                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            
940763 -            essential for transformation to a culture of knowledge.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                
940764 -            Trained experts using specially designed tools capture and                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             
940765 -            organize the vast record of daily work that accumulates                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                
940766 -            over months and years.  "Connecting the dots" of cause and                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             
940767 -            effect transforms information into the power of knowledge                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              
940768 -            that lifts performance of everyone, like a pilot who helps                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             
940769 -            all the passengers get from New York to San Francisco in a                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             
940770 -            few hours, without having to learn a lot of complicated                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                
940771 -            work practices.  Experts using intelligence support tools                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              
940772 -            can draw case studies, per above, ref SDS 0 368K, that                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 
940773 -            reveal correlations, implications, and nuance that are                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 
940774 -            usually overlooked until disaster strikes.  Bush says in                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               
940775 -            part...                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                
940776 -                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   
940777 -                The historian, with a vast chronological account of a                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              
940778 -                people, parallels it with a skip trail which stops only                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            
940779 -                at the salient items, and can follow at any time                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   
940780 -                contemporary trails which lead all over civilization at                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            
940781 -                a particular epoch.  There is a new profession of trail                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            
940782 -                blazers, those who find delight in the task of                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     
940783 -                establishing useful trails through the enormous mass of                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            
940784 -                the common record.  The inheritance from the master                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                
940785 -                becomes, not only his additions to the world's record,                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             
940786 -                but for his disciples the entire scaffolding by which                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              
940787 -                they were erected. ref OF 70 VH7L                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            
940789 -             ..
940790 -            Delight creating trails, noted by Bush, connect cause and                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              
940791 -            effect into the power of knowledge that controls the                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   
940792 -            future.  Tools that make working intelligently fast, easy,                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             
940793 -            and fun transform diligence into delight saving lives,                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 
940794 -            time, and money, explained in POIMS. ref OF 1 6M5H                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               
940795 -                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   
940796 -                 [On 010425 "utopia" - Morris Jones describes having                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           
940797 -                 everything in the right place at the right time.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  
940798 -                 ref SDS 68 EP7F                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             
940800 -                  ..
940801 -                 [On 010517 Pat Lincoln explained objectives for                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               
940802 -                 "scalable knowledge" that empowers many people to                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 
940803 -                 benefit from trails of associations created by only a                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             
940804 -                 few. ref SDS 69 4Q5I                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        
940806 -             ..
940807 -            Bush forsaw in 1945 the rudiments of a modern PC configured                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            
940808 -            to perform work using "paperless office" efficiencies of                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               
940809 -            electronic records management. ref OF 70 3C56, including                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         
940810 -            efficient usability, ref OF 70 TZ7P, by applying both hands                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      
940811 -            to execute commands that optimize left and right brain                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 
940812 -            power, (see POIMS, ref OF 1 6M5H), for command and control                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       
940813 -            of the record. ref OF 1 1113  In 1985, SDS began                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 
940814 -            implementing "paperless office" capability for electronic                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              
940815 -            records management with subject indexing, explained on                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 
940816 -            880628. ref SDS 1 9142  SDS applies 7 elements of "flexible                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      
940817 -            structure" listed on 890523 that improves reading and                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  
940818 -            writing for better command and control to make sense of                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                
940819 -            complexity in the record of daily work. ref SDS 3 TP8O                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           
940821 -                  ..
940822 -                 [On 001025 Doug Engelbart issued OHS Launch Plan                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              
940823 -                 calling for Knowledge Integrator that may be a new way                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            
940824 -                 of working applying the historian role proposed by                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                
940825 -                 Bush. ref SDS 60 8094                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       
940827 -                  ..
940828 -                 [On 001204 Doug Engelbart proposed "high performance                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          
940829 -                 support teams to provide professional role using                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  
940830 -                 technology for augmenting intelligence with personal                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              
940831 -                 and organizational memory. ref SDS 64 8O4L                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  
940833 -  ..
940834 - Bush concludes in As We May Think...                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          
940835 -                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   
940836 -            Encyclopedia -- Bush anticipates opportunity for integrated                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            
940837 -            memory tools, ref OF 70 A756, that empower people to                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             
940838 -            construct a daily record of personal and organizational                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                
940839 -            memory as a dynamic "encyclopedia" for getting things done                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             
940840 -            quickly and accurately, as set out in POIMS. ref OF 1 4662                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       
940841 -                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   
940842 -                 [On 040622 Jack Park offers expansive, practical                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              
940843 -                 theory for using technology to make sense of                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      
940844 -                 complexity in the mold of the Bush formulation in                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 
940845 -                 1945. ref SDS 83 FM5W                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       
940847 -             ..
940848 -            Chronology, context, and connection descr