THE WELCH COMPANY
440 Davis Court #1602
San Francisco, CA 94111-2496
415 781 5700
S U M M A R Y
DIARY: July 10, 1995 00:26 AM Monday;
Reviewed book "The Trouble with Computers," by Tom Landauer.
2...Measuring Productivity Gains from Computers
.....Hypertext Studies Do Not Show Productivity Improvement
....."Fishey" Information Organization Developed by Bellcore
.....Subject Index Improves Productivity
.....Spatial filing where icons represent information categories,
3...Schedules, Calendars, To-Do Lists Hard to Automate
4...Disadvantage of Conventional Computer Calendars & Schedules
5...PCs Have Not Improved Management Productivity, Usefulness Difficult
6...Think, Remember and Communicate, Elusive Goal for Computers
7...Technology Difficult to Design for Leveraging Human Cognition
.....Willing to Fail in Order to Succeed - Edison
.....Usefulness Preempted by Usability (Ease of Use, Easy to Learn)
9...GUI Improves Productivity for Many Applications
10...Intuitive Design Leverages Experience Takes Time to Learn GUI Interface
11...Innovation Loop Makes Learning to Improve Productivity Difficult
12...Usability GUI User Friendly Easy to Learn Not Supported by Research
13...SDS Features that Improve Productivity
14...Programmers Don't Know What to Program
......How to Create Usefulness Lessons for Innovation
15...Waterfall Model - Primavera
16...Get It Right First Time and Time to Market Incorrect Criteria
17...User Interface/Usability - Testing is Needed
19...Deployment - Defined
20...Phase I - Replace/Support Human Physical Skills
21...Phase II - Improve Capacity to Think
22...Executives Don't Use Computers Because Computers Don't Help Thinking
.....Management is Complex
23...Thinking Needs to be Supported to Improve Management
24...Computers to Improve Management - Today We Do Not Know How to Do It
.....Ignorance, Fear, Denial - Disillusioned by Tech
26...Computer Power Fails to Raise Productivity
.....Usability v. Usefulness
.....TQM & Reengineering
27...Software Design for Management Decision/Support
28...Paperless Office Not Yet Accomplished Using Information Technology
.....Speech recognition is a long way off. Landauer says not next
.....Secretaries - New Role
29...User Friendly Does Not Establish Usability Better Productivity
30...Windows GUI, Menus - No Guarantee of Success of User Friendly
31...Effectance Makes Computers Attractive Even though Not Productive
32...People Like Computers for Effectance, Not for Productivity
33...Demand Sales Not Driven by Usefulness Productivity and Earnings
34...Market Evolution is Slow to Improve Productivity
35...Evolution by market selection of the fittest is fitful and slow, until
36...Selling What People Buy Rather than Usefulness
....Usefulness Critical Ingredient Making Computers Productive
....Goal: Find Aspects of Human Cognition for Technology to Leverage
37...User Centered Design UCD
38...Technology Drives Scientific Research
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0201 - University of Colorado
020101 - Mr. Thomas K. Landauer
SDS Marketing, Evaluations, Studies, Testing Productivity
Bibliography, general, Usability Engineering
Automated Management, Information Management (IT)
Trouble with Computers - Landauer, Tom
Technology Needs Testing for Usefulness and Productivity
SDS Design is Unique, Automated Management
Spreadsheets Wordprocessing Don't Improve
1909 - ..
1910 - Summary/Objective
191101 - Follow up ref SDS 34 0000.
191103 - After reading book reviews at ref SDS 34 9563, and calling Doctor Tom
191104 - Landauer, ref SDS 36 0000, I purchased Tom's book...
191106 - The Trouble with Computers
191108 - ..
191109 - Landauer says computers have not improved management productivity
191110 - because they are easy to use but not useful. ref SDS 0 1222 Better
191111 - management requires tools to help people think, ref SDS 0 3387, but it
191112 - is hard to figure out how to do this. ref SDS 0 3375.
191114 - [Dr. Landauer's paper on knowledge acquisition reviewed the
191115 - following year on 960518 sets out factors on "thinking" which are
191116 - supported by SDS. ref SDS 60 0550
191118 - ..
191119 - Buyers accept lack of usefulness in exchange for ease of use in order
191120 - to feel they are part of a larger cultural advance toward a better
191121 - future. Businesses buy personal computers hoping better productivity
191122 - justifies downsizing under TQM and Reengineering programs. Landauer
191123 - offers evidence that personal computers have not improved productivity
191124 - due to lack of usefulness, but people keep buying them in hopes
191125 - marketing promises will be fulfilled by newer products. ref SDS 0 3387
191127 - ..
191128 - Generally all of this supports POIMS themes on the need for automated
191129 - integration of time and information to produce the knowledge people
191130 - need, under usability software design, which Landauer calls User
191131 - Centered Design or UCD (similar to "usability engineering" reviewed at
191132 - ref SDS 21 0001). Landuaer does not seem to address the prospect that
191133 - automated tools that significantly raise productivity of the alphabet
191134 - to grow new knowledge, may require a transitional phase using
191135 - specialists, similar to Scribes, or Communication Managers.
191140 - ..
1914 - Progress
191501 - Measuring Productivity Gains from Computers
191503 - The preface makes the general observation that computers have not
191504 - measurably improved productivity. ref OF 6 CT9F
191506 - ..
191507 - Landauer presents methods for measuring productivity of computers,
191508 - which has been raised by Morris from time to time vis a vis SDS, e.g.,
191509 - on 950228. ref SDS 30 9483 Landauer provides some helpful examples
191510 - beginning on page 84. ref OF 20 0247
191512 - ..
191513 - It is not clear in the book how changes in the work force and demands
191514 - for "fairness" and environmental concerns have retarded productivity
191515 - because we are aiming to produce things other than "things." The
191516 - decision to produce "fairness" for example has an unlimited budget
191517 - that gets passed along to everything else, see analysis on 940722.
191518 - ref SDS 24 0482 Thus, the demand for unlimited health care has an
191519 - unlimited price tag. PG&E is spending a lot of money these days
191520 - worrying about kit foxes rather than on producing energy.
Hypertext, Productivity Not Improved
220401 - ..
220402 - Hypertext Studies Do Not Show Productivity Improvement
220404 - Landauer reports that only 2 of 9 studies had indicated that
220405 - hypertext is superior to conventional paper book technology as a
220406 - means for people to find and absorb information. ref OF 6 734O
220408 - One problem is that those who access a link may not find it
220409 - immediately beneficial and many hypertext systems do not enable
220410 - the person to return to the prior location. ref OF 22 H98F
220411 - Bellcore fixed this problem in their Superbook program,
220412 - ref OF 23 PUQV
220414 - [See later use in Intranets, ref SDS 62 line 166.]
220416 - ..
220417 - Inferiority for information finding was greatest for systems with
220418 - all the features of hypertext, ref OF 22 26Q0, citing experiment
220419 - by McKnight, Dillon, and Richardson (1991), which showed that
220420 - students were significantly faster and more accurate with the
220421 - paper form. When asked, they said they preferred it. see
220422 - ref OF 22 6G6H
220424 - ..
220425 - Landauer reports that Bellcore developed an application of
220426 - hypertext that was more successful. ref OF 22 2642
Categorization Organization Intelligence
Organization of Data on Computer Failed
Traceability to Original Sources Metric
360701 - ..
360702 - "Fishey" Information Organization Developed by Bellcore
360703 - -------------------------------------------------------
360704 - Bellcore's research showed that information is identified in the
360705 - mind by a variety of different paths, ref OF 22 7922, and so
360706 - applied cross referencing under the name "Unlimited aliases."
360707 - ref OF 22 0682
360709 - ..
360710 - A method of indexing "key" words is described. ref OF 22 7285 It
360711 - addresses the problem of too many key words. Bellcore called this
360712 - method:
360714 - Fisheye
360716 - ..
360717 - On 940527 "fish-eye-methods" cited in an article. ref SDS 21 0866
360720 - ..
360721 - Subject Index Improves Productivity
360723 - It appears that Bellcore ultimately applied the SDS Subject Index
360724 - concept, but called it "Fisheye," ref OF 22 8302, an example is at
360725 - ref OF 22 8571. A study is reported showing this method improves
360726 - productivity. ref OF 22 4299
360728 - This may solve some of Morris' measurement questions on 950223.
360729 - ref SDS 29 5567
360731 - ..
360732 - [On 990615 NSF proposal will apply subject indexing on the
360733 - Internet. ref SDS 80 3844]
360736 - ..
360737 - Spatial filing where icons represent information categories,
360738 - ref OF 22 9166, and menus, did not work well, ref OF 22 8222, in
360739 - actual tests.
360741 - [On 960325 review of Landauer's paper "Plato's Problem" on
360742 - a matrix method of processing information to support
360743 - retrieval. ref SDS 56 3339;
360745 - ..
360746 - [On 960507 Intel is trying graphical icons. ref SDS 59
360747 - 1111]
360749 - ..
360750 - [Intranets are using hyperlinks. ref SDS 62 4432]
360752 - ..
360753 - This is important to SDS and the efficacy of "traceability"
360754 - within the meaning of Communication Metrics, because SDS
360755 - citations are similar to "hypertext," and if it turns out not
360756 - to improve productivity, then it diminishes the value of the
360757 - Welch ideas.
360759 - [Intranets are using hyperlinks. ref SDS 62 4432]
360761 - ..
360762 - One important distinction of SDS citations is that some are
360763 - created automatically to capture chronology. Others can be
360764 - created quickly at will to link ideas and show causation.
360765 - Multiple links can be made at a location, to reflect real world
360766 - relationships. SDS permits the User to quickly return to the
360767 - original location or any intermediate location to evaluate
360768 - context and/or proceed on a preferred track.
360770 - [On 950924 sent e-mail to Web about how to create Hypertext
360771 - links in e-mail, per ref SDS 44 0001]
360773 - ..
360774 - This means the cost of production may be significantly lower
360775 - than for conventional hypertext applications which were tested
360776 - by Landauer. Lower cost typically means better "productivity,"
360777 - provided, as Landauer notes, the task whose cost is lowered is
360778 - in fact "useful."
360780 - ..
360781 - A second distinguishing feature of SDS citations is that these
360782 - are personal, enabling individuals to construct, analyse and
360783 - preserve their understanding of relationships, rather than
360784 - depend on a centralized person or group to create and maintain
360785 - links, as with conventional hypertext.
360787 - ..
360788 - A third aspect of SDS citations is their purpose. Custom links
360789 - are intended initially to enable the author to discover
360790 - deviations from initial perceptions, i.e., to correct
360791 - misunderstanding before a mistake occurs and is multiplied by
360792 - subsequent events that costs money or wastes time. On 941211
360793 - an example is work on PG&E's CDWR project. ref SDS 27 7388
360794 - Another example is DNRC on 911009. ref SDS 8 3333
360796 - SDS development followed trial and error process Landauer
360797 - cites. ref OF 23 9368
Edison Willing to Fail 1000 Times
Product Development Trial and Error, Creativity Edison Willing to Fa
Integrate Critical Mass Traditional Work Practices Key Design KM
Salesman Don't Use Computers Purchasing Agents Don't Use Computers D
Computers Applied Frivolously
Usefulness Not Marketing Criteria
False Promises Computers Do Not Improve Management Productivity Requ
Competition Marketing Reduces Productivity Usefulness Reduced Market
Schedules on Computers Don't Work Very Well
Risks AI Efforts Failed
Testing Productivity Gains from Technology
Time Context Management, New Approach, Covey
Difficult Understand Counterintuitive
KM = I + T + S, 000425
Counterintuitive SDS Secret KM Design Counterintuitive, 000425
Convert Schedule to Diary Convert Information into Knowledge
Time Management Technology Supports Thinking
Counterintuitive More Writing Saves Time
Leadership Broader Vision Overcomes Fear of Change When Peopple Not
Technology Feared Prefer KM Social People Skills More Important
Computers Not for Management Mainly Communication Talking Listening
Schedule Programs Don't Work Very Well, Impractical
Integrated Schedule Diary Not Intuitive Diffiuclt to Understand to L
Usefulness Not a Design Criteria
Design SDS Unique, Automated Management Hard to Discover, Uncommon S
Enterprise Workflow Integrate Cost/Schedule/Communications, Design
Usefulness is Not Marketing Criteria
What Designs, Testing, Pilot Programs Under Way to Discover Useful T
Management is ART & Poetry 65
Luck Creativity Persistance Edison Willing to Fail 1000 Times to Suc
Landauer, Tom Improvement Reduces Productivity Enabling Forces Econo
Improvement Reduces Productivity Enabling Forces Economy Failing Car
693501 - ..
693502 - Schedules, Calendars, To-Do Lists Hard to Automate
693503 - Disadvantage of Conventional Computer Calendars & Schedules
693505 - Landauer says computers are not effective for keeping a personal
693506 - calendar. ref OF 20 JE5G He cites problems of the computer going
693507 - down, and that you cannot take the computer with you to support his
693508 - conclusion.
693510 - This view does not anticipate advantages of integrating time and
693511 - information that provides background and linked information, i.e.,
693512 - knowledge. People who have no experience with a Schedule that
693513 - provides the information needed to do the work, cannot "know" they
693514 - are drawn to use the schedule regularly. Without integrated time
693515 - and information, people must force themselves to look at the
693516 - Schedule, and the dynamics of daily activity retard the effort, so
693517 - usefulness is almost nil.
693519 - ..
693520 - Actually, Landauer's point about technological advances arising
693521 - from trial and error addresses this point, ref OF 23 9368.
693523 - ..
693524 - It took many, many iterations over many years to develop the SDS
693525 - design. Then it takes many more years to get it to the attention
693526 - of people so they can experience how it works, to discover the
693527 - counterintuitive notion that more writing saves time when deployed
693528 - in a particular manner, for the reasons set out on 951012.
693529 - ref SDS 48 LG3N and ref SDS 48 9066
693533 - ..
693534 - PCs Have Not Improved Management Productivity, Usefulness Difficult
693536 - Landauer says personal computers are applied frivolously, ref OF 20
693537 - 0785, as reported in the review of his book on 950617 that explains
693538 - better management requires technology to improve human thinking, but
693539 - this is hard to do, ref SDS 34 1852, for reasons he explains below.
693540 - ref SDS 0 3387
693542 - [On 950927 Intel needs "killer application" that uses computers
693543 - productively in order to sustain market growth. ref SDS 45 4408
693544 - and ref SDS 45 4839
693546 - ..
693547 - [On 951022 investors worried computers need killer application to
693548 - improve productivity, otherwise markets will decline. ref SDS 49
693549 - 3357
693551 - ..
693552 - [On 960518 reviewed Landauer's paper on LSA knowledge acquisition
693553 - which indicates the human mental process of thinking seems to be
693554 - supported by the SDS design. ref SDS 60 8811]
693556 - ..
693557 - [On 970603 Intel still needs "Killer App". ref SDS 68 7499 and
693558 - ref SDS 68 2701
693560 - ..
693561 - [On 980716 cited this analysis for Experts section in web site for
693562 - Communication Metrics. ref SDS 75 2703
693565 - ..
693566 - Think, Remember and Communicate, Elusive Goal for Computers
693567 - Technology Difficult to Design for Leveraging Human Cognition
693569 - Landauer says it is hard to design computers to do useful human tasks,
693570 - ref OF 20 C46N, also ref OF 20 1659, supporting the Byte article on a
693571 - "Paperless Office" reported 910418, ref SDS 5 8848. Leveraging human
693572 - cognition requires a better combination of usability and usefulness,
693573 - but technology to help people think, remember and communicate is very
693574 - difficult to design, (see below, ref SDS 0 8911), because cognition is
693575 - a complex process, ref OF 21 1399; and, again at ref OF 22 8349. (see
693576 - further discussion below. ref SDS 0 3387)
693578 - ..
693579 - This supports Jim Manzi's comment at Lotus Development reviewed on
693580 - 921014, ref SDS 13 0000, and occurs because management is a
693581 - complex art, as explained in POIMS, ref OF 1 6221, per discussion
693582 - with Ross at Yosemite on 950915. ref SDS 42 8554 It supports Bill
693583 - Davidou's thesis in his book, Virtual Corporation, reviewed on
693584 - 940729. ref SDS 25 0000
693586 - ..
693587 - Better management productivity requires integrating a critical
693588 - mass of tasks as listed on 930726. ref SDS 16 0000 It takes a
693589 - long time to identify what tasks work well together, per POIMS,
693590 - ref OF 1 8559, and ref OF 1 2688, as Landauer points out.
693591 - ref OF 23 9368
693593 - ..
693594 - On 890809 people want to learn in 20 minutes technology that
693595 - improves productivity, earnings and stock prices. ref SDS 2 5U6K
693597 - [On 951011 discussed Lotus Notes, ref SDS 46 8552, on 950927
693598 - discussed use of computers by managers at Intel ref SDS 45
693599 - 7732, on 951022 report investor worries that technology bubble
693600 - will burst because it is not productive. ref SDS 49 6565.]
693602 - ..
693603 - [On 970222 Larry Ellison and Bill Gates commented on goal for
693604 - computers to advance beyond wordprocessing and spreadsheets.
693605 - ref SDS 66 3967
693607 - ..
693608 - [On 970919 finding IT has not improved productivity because
693609 - tools people are willing to learn in 20 minutes do not improve
693610 - ref SDS 69 4739
693612 - ..
693613 - [On 980213 Denis Henmi had difficulty with email. ref SDS 65
693614 - 0841]
693616 - ..
693617 - [On 980613 reviewed article on computers not improving
693618 - productivity. ref SDS 74 2473]
693620 - ..
693621 - After you figure out how to apply automation to improve management
693622 - practices, then, like the alphabet, you have to spend 5,000 years
693623 - convincing people they can do a better job investing 12 short
693624 - years learning to use the new tool.
693627 - ..
693628 - Willing to Fail in Order to Succeed - Edison
693630 - Landauer realizes Edison's point that discovering better methods
693631 - requires a willingness to fail 1000 times in order to discover
693632 - what won't work, see ref OF 22 5F3I, which has been applied in
693633 - creating SDS the past 10 years, see record on 940722. ref SDS 24
693634 - 8994 This is the antithesis of conventional marketing and product
693635 - development goals to "Get it right the first time," cited below.
693636 - ref SDS 0 3848 Improving the ability to think, remember and
693637 - communicate requires insistence on building something that does
693638 - something useful, rather than something that is momentarily
693639 - attractive because it is easy to learn in 20 minutes. Since the
693640 - task of augmenting human intelligence is complex, it requires
693641 - persistence to test, modify, test modify, etc.
693643 - [On 041213 Edison combined skills of innovation for technical
693644 - competence with marketing and promotion skills, transcending
693645 - model of Moses and Aaron. ref SDS B8 DK8F
693647 - ..
693648 - [On 041213 Edison credited for using contemporaneous notes to
693649 - support plan, perform, report discovery process of the
693650 - scientific method. ref SDS B8 DK4N
693653 - ..
693654 - Usefulness Preempted by Usability (Ease of Use, Easy to Learn)
693656 - Computers are used frivolously because emphasis on ease of
693657 - learning and ease of use puts things into the market before true
693658 - "usefulness" is reached, as explained further below under User
693659 - Centered Design. ref SDS 0 6403 Market competition is driven to
693660 - improve appearance and convenience, rather than productivity and
693661 - usefulness. ref SDS 0 0722
693663 - ..
693664 - This aligns with Morris' concern on 890809 that integrated design
693665 - of SDS is useful for getting things done faster and easier, but
693666 - harder to learn in the beginning, like learning the alphabet and
693667 - rules of literacy take time to learn in order to save time and
693668 - money doing better work. ref SDS 3 2079
693670 - ..
693671 - [On 010924 Morris Jones feels SDS has been optimized for
693672 - efficient usability by continuing refinement through
693673 - synergy between design and development, and feedback from
693674 - experience using SDS by the developer. ref SDS A9 NK4J
693676 - ..
693677 - This seems to criticize "Usability Engineering," advocated in an
693678 - article reviewed on 940527, written by Landauer's colleague at
693679 - Bellcore. ref SDS 21 0866 Possibly it is conveying the idea of
693680 - focus on usability that fails to provide usefulness is incorrect.
693682 - [On 000130 knowledge management project evaluates ease of
693683 - use and usefulness problem. ref SDS 84 9492
693685 - ..
693686 - If people will buy frivolous stuff, why bother to make it useful
693687 - too. On the other hand if you build something for personal use,
693688 - then usefulness becomes critical, and there is constant
693689 - opportunity to improve it based on regular experience. Therefore
693690 - a good test of usefulness for management software is whether the
693691 - owner of the firm that makes a particular technology actually uses
693692 - it to save time and money every day.
693694 - ..
693695 - [...below evolution of technology to improve productivity
693696 - is fitful and slow until market forces turn competing on
693697 - usefulness for saving lives, time, and money, rather than
693698 - ease of use. ref SDS 0 0722
693700 - ..
693701 - [...below, Landauer explains User Centered Design for
693702 - computers to improve productivity as well as ease of use
693703 - by focusing on synergy between users and developers.
693704 - ref SDS 0 6403
693706 - ..
693707 - [On 950927 discussed this idea at Intel. ref SDS 45 4408
Speech Recognition Long Way in Future
Voice Data Entry
740501 - ..
740502 - Speech Recognition
740504 - Landauer seems to realize this may not be the boon everyone feels
740505 - that it is. ref OF 21 9630
740507 - He discussed it again at ref OF 22 0730, noting that speech
740508 - recognition is a long way off. Not next year, or the year after.
740510 - ..
740511 - So why not then focus on the positive benefits of keyboard entry
740512 - relative to speech, as a tool that employs more creative brain
740513 - power because it uses two hands and the eyes, rather than simply
740514 - the mouth and ears.
740516 - [On 980307 expanded this idea reviewing Andy Grove's book that
740517 - advocates copious writing reduces mistakes caused by ambiguity
740518 - of mental maps. ref SDS 73 LZ70
740520 - ..
740521 - [On 990121 reviewed book on correlation between hands and
740522 - brain on creativity issue. ref SDS 76 6490
GUI Does Not Improve Productivity
Interface SDS Enables Intelligence KM Fast Easy Learn Unique
800501 - ..
800502 - GUI Improves Productivity for Many Applications
800504 - Graphical user interface (GUI) was developed during the 1960s by
800505 - Stanford Research Center (SRI), in Menlo Park, and later at Xerox in
800506 - Palo Alto. ref OF 21 QQUX
800508 - ..
800509 - Windows, icons, menus and a mouse are key features of GUI.
800511 - [On 000223 Doug Engelbart developed mouse, linking, Windows
800512 - concepts, email wordprocessing and helped launch the Internet.
800513 - ref SDS 85 9076
800515 - ..
800516 - [On 001114 Doug Engelbart honored for work at SRI in the 1960s
800517 - developing GUI capabilities. ref SDS 95 SU3L
800519 - ..
800520 - Windows let users run multiple programs simultaneously in a flexible,
800521 - independent manner. The computer screen is called a desktop, and
800522 - contains small pictures that represent programs, like pictures painted
800523 - on a wall of a cave. The "mouse" is a roving pointer on the computer
800524 - screen controlled with a separate device moved by hand next to the
800525 - keyboard. The control device has two buttons that can be clicked to
800526 - execute tasks, like pressing the Enter key. Users can move the
800527 - "mouse" to any position on the computer screen by moving the control
800528 - device on the desk. Moving the pointer onto an icon and clicking
800529 - launches a program. Menus open lists of tasks that can be executed in
800530 - a program. This is a fast, easy way to make choices about launching
800531 - programs and executing tasks. ref OF 21 QQTR
800533 - ..
800534 - The ability to have multiple applications available for integrated
800535 - work, like having several groups of documents on a desk, enables more
800536 - efficient, productive work, than a computer that only permits working
800537 - on one thing at a time.
800539 - ..
800540 - Tests doing basic text editing and spreadsheet operations show 40 to
800541 - 70 percent improvements, which supports faith in GUI for yielding
800542 - productivity gains. ref OF 21 QV8N
800546 - ..
800547 - Intuitive Design Leverages Experience Takes Time to Learn GUI Interface
800548 - Innovation Loop Makes Learning to Improve Productivity Difficult
800549 - Usability GUI User Friendly Easy to Learn Not Supported by Research
800551 - Users and programmers passionately believe GUI makes learning to use a
800552 - computer fast and easy, based on intuition. GUI has become associated
800553 - with usability that enables intuitive learning which is fast and easy.
800554 - ref OF 21 JI8H
800556 - [On 020110 Morris reports statistics showing that most people
800557 - use only 5% of features in MS Word and Outlook. ref SDS B2 CK4K
800559 - ..
800560 - [On 021108 Bill Gates reports Microsoft customers use only a
800561 - small part of the program commands because menus are hard to
800562 - remember and take time to navigate; planning new project to
800563 - integrate commands so people can use more power. ref SDS B4
800564 - EFBE
800566 - ..
800567 - Usability for converting information into knowledge requires new
800568 - capability that improves productivity for saving lives, time and
800569 - money. This requires computer power for managing complexity, as
800570 - explained below, ref SDS 0 4144 Complexity can only be managed by
800571 - integration, explained in POIMS, ref OF 1 11G5, which takes more time
800572 - to learn. An innovation loop resists investing time for learning in
800573 - order to avoid the risk that new technology will not improve anything,
800574 - noted by Morris on 890809, cited above on "usefulness." ref SDS 0 M14N
800575 - This places greater emphasis on ease of use, which reduces usefulness,
800576 - per above. ref SDS 0 0585
800578 - [On 970919 research shows computers reduce management
800579 - productivity. ref SDS 69 4739
800581 - ..
800582 - User Interface for technology that supports intelligence has more
800583 - to learn than GUI interface for information and games, reported on
800584 - 911121. ref SDS 9 4088
800586 - ..
800587 - Pride and image prevent successful people from asking for help to
800588 - learn a new way of working for improving productivity. ref SDS 9
800589 - B16L
800591 - [On 980307 Grove says successful people deny magnitude of the
800592 - problems they face from new realties that makes past practices
800593 - that brought success no longer effective. ref SDS 73 1660
800595 - ..
800596 - [On 990521 social pressures prevent people from learning to
800597 - improve the work for saving time and money. ref SDS 79 1233
800599 - ..
800600 - [On 001130 Jack Park reports SDS has interface for making the
800601 - structure of knowledge into effective tools for users.
800602 - ref SDS 97 1O4L
800604 - ..
800605 - Sales ads claim GUI makes learning to use a computer fast and easy.
800606 - ref OF 22 0511
800608 - ..
800609 - Landauer points out belief GUI is "user friendly" that makes learning
800610 - to use a computer fast and easy by relying on intuition, ref OF 22
800611 - I56K, is simplistic and false. ref OF 21 RF9H
800613 - This aligns with the record on 911121 explaining difficulty
800614 - learning to link SDS records. ref SDS 9 4088
800616 - ..
800617 - GUI can be easy to use for limited choices and well structured tasks
800618 - that are commonly known to the culture, like typing a letter and doing
800619 - a spreadsheet. Icons, however, have no meaning until users gain
800620 - experience that associates functionality with image. Menus require
800621 - experience because tasks can be described many different ways and a
800622 - description can have a great many meanings. ref OF 22 N65F
800624 - ..
800625 - [On 010914 Eric Armstrong explains graphical representation helps
800626 - for simple context, but not effective for managing complexity.
800627 - ref SDS A8 UU8N
800629 - ..
800630 - [On 990329 Steven Pinker explains in his book "How the Mind Works"
800631 - that there are 100 trillion ways for humans to form explanations,
800632 - and so the way someone chooses to explain a particular task may
800633 - not be readily recognized by people until they gain experience to
800634 - associate the explanation with actual cause and effect from using
800635 - functionality. ref SDS 78 ZN6G
800637 - ..
800638 - Menus are helpful for intuitively navigating tasks, as with icons,
800639 - after people gain experience that associates function with menu
800640 - descriptions, like remembering the name of a street, when it shows up
800641 - on a sign along the highway, and seeing surrounding environs that
800642 - awaken mental pointers which then prompt memory. Like navigating
800643 - streets, infrequent routes are soon forgotten, resulting in people
800644 - getting lost with consequent loss of productivity.
800646 - [On 020110 Morris reports statistics showing that most people use
800647 - only 5% of features in MS Word and Outlook. ref SDS B2 CK4K
800649 - ..
800650 - [On 021108 Bill Gates reports Microsoft customers use only a small
800651 - part of the program commands because menus are hard to remember
800652 - and take time to navigate; planning new project to integrate
800653 - commands so people can use more power. ref SDS B4 EFBE
800655 - ..
800656 - [On 021212 learning curve challenge for transformation from
800657 - information to a culture of knowledge enabled by SDS. ref SDS B5
800658 - 7M3J
800660 - ..
800661 - [On 021214 5% commands most users learn only small part of
800662 - Microsoft programs menus complicated; people use familiar
800663 - commands and cannot remember where commands are located that
800664 - are not needed frequently. ref SDS B6 JX5F
Automated Integration applying SDS/POIMS
Command & Control of Record Determines
Advantages SDS, Communication Metrics
Organizational Memory History Experience Repository Experience Knowled
Capture Record of Events Diary History Experience Organizational Memo
Capturing Record Improves Knowledge Management
Organizational Memory History Experience Diary Intelligence Causation
Good Management Defined Intelligence Memory Organization Analysis Ali
Thinking Through Writing Write Story to Construct Meaning Consistent
991301 - ..
991302 - SDS Features that Improve Productivity
991304 - The record on 930726 lists manual practices and methods replaced by
991305 - SDS. ref SDS 16 0001
991307 - ..
991308 - SDS is a new way of working explained on 950204. ref SDS 28 4995
991310 - ..
991311 - [On 000425 Knowledge Management is a secret of SDS. ref SDS 90
991312 - 0480
991314 - ..
991315 - [On 001130 Jack Park reports SDS has interface for making the
991316 - structure of knowledge into effective tools for users.
991317 - ref SDS 97 1O4L
991319 - ..
991320 - [On 001219 steps using SDS for new way of thinking and working.
991321 - ref SDS 99 QT6F
991323 - ..
991324 - SDS functionality is listed on the Internet. ref OF 2 ZM4M
991326 - [...below, Landuaer proposes developing "useful" tools
991327 - based on user centered design. ref SDS 0 6403
991329 - ..
991330 - Following functions could not be done before SDS, and add value to
991331 - conventional work practice...
991333 - [On 000830 SDS unique features are IP assets. ref SDS 93
991334 - IW5G
991336 - 1. Integrate Time, Information, People, Documents to position
991337 - information in a contextual Knowledge Space that maintains
991338 - original meaning, while growing correlations and implications
991339 - of cause and effect, i.e., knowledge.
991341 - ..
991342 - 2. Automatically links activities, showing causation
991344 - ..
991345 - 3. Create custom citations with automated tools
991347 - ..
991348 - 4. Maintain citations dynamically
991350 - ..
991351 - 5. Controlled visibility links summary to details
991353 - ..
991354 - 6. Instant access to cited material.
991356 - ..
991357 - 7. Create and apply subjects in an organic hierarchy, automates
991358 - traditional 3 x 5 card system
991360 - ..
991361 - 8. Cross reference and multi-reference (segment) information
991363 - ..
991364 - 9. Assemble reports in different ways, multiple paths to
991365 - information.
991367 - ..
991368 - 10. Integrate personal analysis and external sources
991370 - ..
991371 - 11. Automates management cycle: plan, perform, report.
991373 - ..
991374 - 12. Command and Control of the record captures history,
991375 - experience, organizational memory, knowledge repository
991376 - ..
991377 - 13. Lifts capacity to think, remember and communicate
991379 - ..
991380 - 14. Expedites reading and writing, explained on 950204.
991381 - ref SDS 28 4995 and ref SDS 28 7499
991383 - ..
991384 - [On 911205 discussion with Wayne Wetzel shows
991385 - implementation for executive support. ref SDS 11 8402
991387 - ..
991388 - [On 010614 reviewed SDS support for literacy. ref SDS A5
991389 - HD6O
Creativity Experience Synergy Using Developing Accelerates Usefulnes
Pilot Test Solves Innovation Loop Resisted Fear Accountability
Experience SDS Understand Architecture Computers to Design KM, 00053
Programmers Don't Know What to Program That Can Improve Management P
Experience Using SDS Technology Constantly Recyled into Design and C
Useful Design Discovered by Synergy Between Use and SDS Development
Design by Synergy of Programmer Using SDS and Programming SDS
Faith Needed to Try SDS New Way of Working People Need Life Experien
Software Engineers Don't Know How to Design Programs that Enable Com
Laundauer, Tom Engineers Don't Know What to Program for Improving Da
AD1301 - ..
AD1302 - Programmers Don't Know What to Program
AD1304 - Landauer says on page 169 that most computer applications are created
AD1305 - by programmers who know little about the work that is going to be done
AD1306 - with the aid of their program. ref OF 21 ZB5I
AD1308 - ..
AD1309 - Below, Landauer notes computers must help people think in order to
AD1310 - improve management productivity, but human thinking processes are not
AD1311 - well enough understood. ref SDS 0 3387 This aligns with Intel's
AD1312 - report on 910418 that in order for software engineers to program
AD1313 - computers to improve management, somebody has to think through the way
AD1314 - people work. ref SDS 5 UT7F
AD1316 - [On 910810 Morris noted that SDS has a unique design that
AD1317 - improves management. ref SDS 7 7793
AD1319 - ..
AD1320 - [On 911123 Morris reported that SDS enables the Welch Management
AD1321 - Method that is different from the way other people work.
AD1322 - ref SDS 10 0477
AD1324 - ..
AD1325 - [On 950223 people need experience like Rod in order to understand
AD1326 - what to program and to have faith that adding analysis improves
AD1327 - management. ref SDS 29 3003
AD1329 - ..
AD1330 - [On 950927 Intel gave up trying to improve management
AD1331 - productivity with computers. ref SDS 45 7732
AD1333 - ..
AD1334 - [On 951011 Morris confirmed programmers don't know what to
AD1335 - program to make management productive. ref SDS 47 1341
AD1337 - ..
AD1338 - [On 951221 article on IT management practice recommends working
AD1339 - with prototype so programmers can discover and understand what to
AD1340 - program. ref SDS 50 FJ6J
AD1342 - ..
AD1343 - [On 000106 Morris feels programmers need feedback from using
AD1344 - technology in order to develop effective management software.
AD1345 - ref SDS 83 8V4F
AD1347 - ..
AD1348 - [On 000425 KM is a secret of SDS. ref SDS 90 0480
AD1350 - ..
AD1351 - [On 000615 AI engineers working through SRI reported not enough
AD1352 - is known about knowledge to program computers for a knowledge
AD1353 - repository. ref SDS 91 6271
AD1355 - ..
AD1356 - [On 000723 history developing SDS reviewed. ref SDS 92 2583
AD1358 - ..
AD1359 - [On 001121 offered SDS to AI team at SRI for gaining experience
AD1360 - doing KM to discover how to program computers for improving
AD1361 - management. ref SDS 96 XU8I
AD1363 - ..
AD1364 - [On 010313 explained synergy needed between doing KM and creating
AD1365 - useful technology. ref SDS A2 C35N
AD1367 - ..
AD1368 - [On 010924 Morris feels SDS is unique because nobody else has
AD1369 - discovered the value of using technology to capture, organize,
AD1370 - analyse and apply organizational memory. ref SDS A9 XT5F
AD1372 - ..
AD1373 - Landauer points out that programmers rarely have any contact with
AD1374 - users; they almost never test the system with real users before
AD1375 - release.
AD1377 - ..
AD1378 - This, however, does not explain why engineers cannot design software
AD1379 - to improve management, since programmers have direct experience doing
AD1380 - all of the tasks that need to be improved. Programmers communicate
AD1381 - and think like everyone. The reason computers do not improve
AD1382 - management is that the architecture of human intelligence is difficult
AD1383 - to understand. As Landauer suggests, engineers don't know enough
AD1384 - about the process of growing new knowledge.
AD1386 - ..
AD1387 - Once a program is fielded, programmers get information about bugs that
AD1388 - cause mal-functions or crash the system but little information about
AD1389 - what aspects of the system help or hinder users in doing their work,
AD1390 - which is the critical factor in maintaining sales and growing an
AD1391 - industry.
AD1394 - ..
AD1395 - How to Create Usefulness Lessons for Innovation
AD1397 - SDS was created by a non-programmer to accomplish tasks useful to
AD1398 - the practice of management. Experience using the program was
AD1399 - constantly recycled into code revisions so after 13 years, the
AD1400 - functionality is well settled as a body of integrated tools that
AD1401 - directly help an executive do what is needed: think, remember
AD1402 - and communicate. [See "Edison" and "Usefulness Preempted...,"
AD1403 - ref SDS 0 0582,
AD1405 - [On 010924 Morris Jones relates why SDS improves management
AD1406 - when others have failed. ref SDS A9 NK4J
AD1409 - ..
AD1410 - Waterfall Model - Primavera
AD1412 - Landuaer describes software development as a set of requirements that
AD1413 - feed a tumbling torrent of planning and programming that plunges into
AD1414 - chaos just before coming to rest. ref OF 21 7814
AD1416 - This sounds like what happened to Primavera, ref SDS 32 2355.
Usefulness Not Marketing Criteria
Get It Right First Time Suppresses Innovation
Testing Productivity Gains from Technology
Pilot Test Experiment New Methods, Who Pays
Pilot Test to Discover Technology Useful to Managers
AN0901 - ..
AN0902 - Get It Right First Time and Time to Market Incorrect Criteria
AN0903 - User Interface/Usability - Testing is Needed
AN0905 - The author seems to indicate, though does not specifically state, that
AN0906 - especially in recent years, the primary focus of product development
AN0907 - is on User interface, with an assumption that functionality is useful.
AN0908 - He cites a "get it right the first time" goal as inhibiting adequate
AN0909 - testing, common in other industries, ref OF 21 DO5K, and essential to
AN0910 - discover useful advances, per above. ref SDS 0 0582
AN0912 - [Below lack of testing cited again. ref SDS 0 0722]
AN0914 - ..
AN0915 - [On 000105 OOCL's mission is to "get it right the first time,"
AN0916 - ref SDS 82 4505]
AN0918 - ..
AN0919 - The issue of how well a program improves "productivity" relative to
AN0920 - existing means is not given consideration or testing. The assumption
AN0921 - is that if we produce it, and it is easy to learn, people will buy it
AN0922 - because they want the latest thing that runs on their computer, since
AN0923 - they assume anything on the computer is an improvement.
AN0925 - [On 951228 discussed with Morris at Chips. ref SDS 52 3883]
AN0927 - ..
AN0928 - [On 960828 report that technology industry uses pilot test
AN0929 - projects. ref SDS 65 2284]
AN0931 - ..
AN0932 - Real productivity comes from integrating tasks, similar to the way
AN0933 - the mind draws on a wide array of knowledge all at once to address
AN0934 - an issue, per Jeromy Campbell's book "The Improbable Machine,"
AN0935 - reviewed on 900303.
AN0938 - ..
AN0939 - Features Fallacy
AN0941 - Landauer describes this at ref OF 22 E2WA, which is adding features
AN0942 - that do not add value to the software. He describes how the market
AN0943 - place causes vendors to add unneeded features which is part of the
AN0944 - problem Primavera reported on 950412. ref SDS 32 GF45
AN0946 - ..
AN0947 - He cites requests by customers and suggestions by reviewers.
AN0949 - Seems to me customer requests should be considered in designing
AN0950 - software. Otherwise how can the problem be solved of producing
AN0951 - software by programmers who only know programming. This is the
AN0952 - trial and error method Landauer seems to recommend.
Deployment Strategies for Internet/Intranet
Computers Applied Frivolously
Productivity Computers Can Replace Managers
Computers Do Some Things Well, Physical
People Want Computers to Help Them Think,
Computers Should Help Aspects of Cognition
Hard Create Automated Management Discover
Management Productivity Can Only Be
Microcosm Human Mind Managed by SDS,
Ergonomics Impact Productivity
Computers Reduce Management Focus on Analysis Because Attracted by Le
Technology Dilemma Unintended Consequences Information Overload
B51501 - ..
B51502 - Deployment - Defined
B51504 - Landauer cites on page 174.... ref OF 21 1521
B51506 - Decision to purchase or develop a computer system,
B51508 - Structures of the organization
B51510 - ..
B51511 - Way the computer is used,
B51513 - How it fits into the flow of the work of an organization,
B51514 - Roles it is assigned,
B51515 - Ways it interacts with parts and people in the work process.
B51516 - Who will use it
B51517 - ..
B51518 - Selection criteria Training Motivation Supervision
B51520 - ..
B51521 - Maintenance
B51524 - ..
B51525 - These are the productivity issues that have not received attention
B51526 - from management gurus and business commentators.
B51528 - ..
B51529 - Investigating, acquisition, system setup, pilot testing, configuration
B51530 - revisions to accomplish productivity, learning and performing system
B51531 - setup and maintenance tasks that are peripheral to management, greatly
B51532 - reduce productivity advantages of technology.
B51534 - ..
B51535 - People who want to accomplish all of this in 20 minutes to an hour are
B51536 - prevented from discovering benefits of technology.
B51538 - [On 960502 Richard Armstrong cited this issue from experience
B51539 - using technology in the military. ref SDS 58 7Y5G
B51541 - [On 010511 example of wasting time. ref SDS A4 0001
B51543 - ..
B51544 - No one seems to recognize that ergonomics using computers in relation
B51545 - to office and equipment layout, is, also, a big factor in
B51546 - productivity.
B51550 - ..
B51551 - Phase I - Replace/Support Human Physical Skills
B51553 - These tasks have been done well by computers. ref OF 21 IS3O
B51555 - In a way, this position could be seen as conflicting with Landauer's
B51556 - position that.....
B51559 - ..
B51560 - Phase II - Improve Capacity to Think
B51561 - Executives Don't Use Computers Because Computers Don't Help Thinking
B51563 - Landauer indicates that people want computers to help run their
B51564 - businesses, ref OF 20 8338, but computers need a better combination of
B51565 - usability and usefulness, primarily aimed at helping people think,
B51566 - ref SDS 0 8911, but this is very difficult, because cognition is a
B51567 - complex process, ref OF 21 1399; and, again at ref OF 22 8349.
B51569 - ..
B51570 - An example is PIM technology reviewed on 880726. ref SDS 1 D47I On
B51571 - 910418 Intel described in an article published by Byte magazine hopes
B51572 - for computers to improve daily management. ref SDS 5 2744 In the same
B51573 - article Intel notes that software engineers need to think through
B51574 - scenarios for programming computers to make management productive.
B51575 - ref SDS 5 UT7F
B51577 - ..
B51578 - On 910810 Morris said SDS has technical breakthroughs in software
B51579 - design. ref SDS 7 7793 On 911123 Morris advised SDS enables a new way
B51580 - of working, which he described as the Welch Management Method.
B51581 - ref SDS 10 0477
B51583 - ..
B51584 - As a result, computers have not improved productivity, and are applied
B51585 - frivolously, see above, ref SDS 0 1222, because only SDS has a design
B51586 - that improves management, and few people use SDS.
B51588 - [On 950927 Intel gave up trying to get computers to improve
B51589 - management.
B51591 - ..
B51592 - [On 951011 Morris reported engineers don't know how to program
B51593 - computers to improve management; the SDS design is hard to
B51594 - grasp. ref SDS 47 1341
B51596 - ..
B51597 - The aims of Enterprise Management which require technology that helps
B51598 - people think, reviewed on 940522 are hard to accomplish, ref SDS 20
B51599 - 0453, because human thinking is based on experience and not logic,
B51600 - explained by Jeromy Campbell reviewed on 900303. ref SDS 4 4284
B51602 - [...same meeting, Dave Vannier reports executives gave up on
B51603 - using computers for management. ref SDS 45 7732]
B51605 - ..
B51606 - [On 990213 Knowledge Management new name for using computers to
B51607 - manage. ref SDS 77 7696]
B51609 - ..
B51610 - [On 000320 Colloquium at Stanford discussion argued managers do
B51611 - not use computers because computers do not support the tasks
B51612 - managers perform. ref SDS 86 1248]
B51614 - ..
B51615 - [On 000327 Doug Engelbart describes scope of knowledge work
B51616 - that requires computers to help people think. ref SDS 89 3971
B51618 - ..
B51619 - Management is Complex
B51621 - The challenge with respect to "management productivity" is that it
B51622 - involves a lot of disparate skills people learn over a long period
B51623 - that they don't know they have. To improve them with automation
B51624 - requires that people learn how to do differently all the things
B51625 - they already know, plus learn a few new things they never thought
B51626 - of because until computers there was no way to accomplish
B51627 - "automated integration" of time, information, people, documents
B51628 - and subjects.
B51630 - ..
B51631 - This means we need both technology, POIMS, and a new management
B51632 - science, Communication Metrics, ref SDS 31 2108, that says how
B51633 - technology can help managers. It is hard to accomplish, but like
B51634 - penetrating the secrets of the atom, it packs a big punch.
B51636 - [see power of Microcosm, ref SDS 37 3291.
B51638 - ..
B51639 - [On 950915 discussion with Ross about need to improve critical
B51640 - mass of tasks in order to improve management ref SDS 42 8554]
B51642 - ..
B51643 - The other argument is that there is no choice. To move ahead we
B51644 - need better knowledge tools that improve use of the alphabet to
B51645 - grow new knowledge.
Management Decisions Should
Effectance, Computers Make People
Computers Believed Make Managers More
Decision Making Improved by Computers, Hope
Leading Vendors Can't Improve Management So
BD0901 - ..
BD0902 - Thinking Needs to be Supported to Improve Management
BD0903 - Computers to Improve Management - Today We Do Not Know How to Do It
BD0905 - Landauer cites Stephen Roach as contending American managers are
BD0906 - hooked on computers, not for improvement of manufacturing processes or
BD0907 - for cost reduction in operations but in excessive hope that they will
BD0908 - improve management decisions. ref OF 21 844L Landauer indicates that
BD0909 - legal, medical, governmental, and business management could, in
BD0910 - principle, be supported by computers. But today we don't know how to
BD0911 - do it. ref OF 22 1E5K
BD0913 - ..
BD0914 - Above, Landauer notes that computers have failed because they do not
BD0915 - support the core function of management... "thinking." ref SDS 0 3387
BD0917 - ..
BD0918 - Computers can only support human thinking if they are deployed in
BD0919 - the right way, i.e., if they accomplish a particular set of
BD0920 - functions that are integrated, hence: automated integration of
BD0921 - POIMS criteria. ref OF 1 2688
BD0923 - [On 910418 Intel describes hope for computers to improve daily
BD0924 - management. ref SDS 5 2744]
BD0926 - ..
BD0927 - [On 950927 meeting with Intel describes core hope and need
BD0928 - manager's have for support by technology, to improve decision
BD0929 - making; ref SDS 45 2899,
BD0931 - ..
BD0932 - [...same meeting, Dave Vannier reports executives gave up on
BD0933 - using computers for management. ref SDS 45 7732]
BD0935 - ..
BD0936 - [On 951229 General Hatch notes it is difficult to get computers
BD0937 - to support management. ref SDS 53 2V9K
BD0939 - ..
BD0940 - [On 960410 IBM was unable to provide "intelligence" for USACE.
BD0941 - ref SDS 57 5577
BD0943 - ..
BD0944 - [On 960629 Netscape White Papers on Internet/Intranet explains
BD0945 - hopes for computers to improve management. ref SDS 63 8830.]
BD0947 - ..
BD0948 - [On 970919 article IT has reduced productivity, CEOs have been
BD0949 - misled. ref SDS 69 4739
BD0951 - ..
BD0952 - [On 000320 Colloquium at Stanford discussion argued managers do
BD0953 - not use computers because computers do not support the tasks
BD0954 - managers perform. ref SDS 86 1248]
BD0956 - ..
BD0957 - [On 010622 article on AI "Cyc" project quotes founder, Lenat as
BD0958 - arguing that purpose of AI is to make people superhuman, in the
BD0959 - way that writing did 3,000 years ago. ref SDS A6 N668
BD0961 - ..
BD0962 - Ignorance, Fear, Denial - Disillusioned by Tech
BD0964 - However, managers expect that leading vendors offer the products
BD0965 - that accomplish this goal because they are "leading vendors."
BD0967 - ..
BD0968 - Managers, like most people, don't know nor have time to consider
BD0969 - the functions that are needed and how they should be integrated,
BD0971 - ..
BD0972 - Managers expect that leading vendors have figured this out, i.e.,
BD0973 - the marketplace. This ignores the fact that leading vendors rose
BD0974 - to prominence because they offered excellent products that perform
BD0975 - only clerical and mathematical functions. It further ignores the
BD0976 - fact that "management" is complex, ref SDS 0 4144, ref SDS 42
BD0977 - 8554.
BD0979 - ..
BD0980 - But procurement is based on faith in leading vendors and hope that
BD0981 - technology will support "management," without really thinking
BD0982 - about what it takes to do this. ref SDS 26 8209. When these hopes
BD0983 - are unfulfilled, managers fear that nobody else can help them,
BD0984 - until the next leading vendor comes out with an upgrade. Then the
BD0985 - cycle starts over. See also discussion with Ross on 940411, per
BD0986 - ref SDS 17 8849.
BD0988 - ..
BD0989 - Landauer's arguments and data show why managers are conflicted in
BD0990 - their acquisition and deployment of automated solutions,
BD0992 - [On 950915 procurement is based on price not what will improve
BD0993 - productivity. ref SDS 42 4920, and ref SDS 42 4930.
BD0995 - ..
BD0996 - On 911205 discussed difficulties using computers for management
BD0997 - with Wayne Wetzel. ref SDS 11 8830.
BD0999 - ..
BD1000 - On 950223 Morris reported research presented during a seminar in
BD1001 - New Orleans showed that the Welch management method implemented by
BD1002 - the SDS design improves management, ref SDS 29 5931, but he
BD1003 - worried that using computers for saving time and money takes a lot
BD1004 - of "faith." ref SDS 29 3003
BD1006 - [On 951011 managers what workers to learn new skills when the
BD1007 - plant is upgraded, but managers don't want to learn new
BD1008 - skills to apply technology to their work. ref SDS 47 3867
BD1010 - ...and Cal Tech seminar ref SDS 14 line 435.
BD1012 - ...University of Santa Clara on a study, ref SDS 48 line 241.
Information Highway Pandora's Box, Risk of
Murphy's Law, Avoiding Mistakes
BH0501 - ..
BH0502 - Information Overload
BH0504 - Getting too much information that overwhelms attention span and
BH0505 - ability to read, absorb and apply information is discussed on page
BH0506 - 175, ref OF 21 1562, and again, citing Drucker on page 184.
BH0507 - ref OF 22 BW7O However, neither reference seems to recognize the
BH0508 - extent to which this condition is growing and causes hidden mistakes,
BH0509 - Murphy's Law, due to the "Information Highway explained in....
BH0511 - POIMS................................. ref OF 1 6221
BH0512 - POIMS................................. ref OF 1 049O
Promises of Technology that Failed
Usefulness Not Marketing Criteria
Useful Technology Can be Used A Lot
Reengineering Management, Requires Tools and
TQM Supported by Communication Metrics
Think, Remember, Communicate, Lift Innate
TQM Objectives, 930204
BQ1101 - ..
BQ1102 - Computer Power Fails to Raise Productivity
BQ1104 - Landauer does a good job of explaining that merely increasing computer
BQ1105 - power (faster processing, larger data bases, better video) does not
BQ1106 - directly improve productivity, because much of human life is unrelated
BQ1107 - to how fast calculations can be made, ref OF 20 8338.
BQ1109 - [See discussion with Intel at ref SDS 45 4408.]
BQ1111 - ..
BQ1112 - [On 001206 reviewed usefulness v. computer power. ref SDS 98
BQ1113 - EY5G
BQ1115 - ..
BQ1116 - Usability v. Usefulness
BQ1118 - He spends a lot of time explaining the difficulty getting
BQ1119 - computers to do useful things, and then recognizes that
BQ1120 - accomplishing this feat renders them difficult to use. Better
BQ1121 - productivity requires using tools that are useful. If there is
BQ1122 - low usability, regardless of how useful, then productivity will
BQ1123 - not be improved. So if the alphabet is very useful, but takes 12
BQ1124 - years to learn, its chances for success in the market are low.
BQ1126 - ..
BQ1127 - Similarly, if there is high usability, but low usefulness, then
BQ1128 - regardless of how many people are using the tool it will not add
BQ1129 - to overall productivity, but rather will reduce productivity,
BQ1130 - since people are spending time on something that has a low return.
BQ1131 - ..
BQ1132 - This supports Jim Manzi's point in 1990 that personal
BQ1133 - computers have not improved business productivity, ref SDS 13
BQ1134 - 8399.
BQ1137 - ..
BQ1138 - TQM & Reengineering
BQ1140 - Landauer offers analysis explaining of why "reengineering" schemes
BQ1141 - to reduce middle management and clerical support in hopes that
BQ1142 - personal computers would enable fewer managers to do more work,
BQ1143 - have generally not succeeded, is explained beginning on page 325.
BQ1144 - ref OF 24 EY6O
BQ1146 - [On 950909 article in August 1995 issue of Wired magazine
BQ1147 - supports Landauer's analysis that reengineering has generally
BQ1148 - not improved productivity, earnings and stock prices.
BQ1149 - ref SDS 39 7499
BQ1152 - ..
BQ1153 - Software Design for Management Decision/Support
BQ1155 - Landauer explains the challenge of helping people think citing
BQ1156 - references to literature on cognition, and stating....
BQ1158 - The mental processes of composing memos and documents, of making
BQ1159 - medical and business decisions, of negotiating and persuading, of
BQ1160 - formulating plans, and communicating ideas will not soon be
BQ1161 - captured and imprisoned in a machine. No one really knows how
BQ1162 - humans do these mysterious things. Humans have amazing memories
BQ1163 - from which details can be recalled in response to any hint about
BQ1164 - any part of the original experience. ref OF 21 1399
BQ1166 - ..
BQ1167 - Landauer says that effective information systems for managers will
BQ1168 - have have to be based on new understanding of how managers make good
BQ1169 - decisions, knowledge of what kinds of information presented how and
BQ1170 - when, how shared with whom, and how acted upon helps best, ref OF 21
BQ1171 - 1575
BQ1174 - ..
BQ1175 - Communication Metrics
BQ1177 - Landauer's explanation for using technology to strengthen the
BQ1178 - process of thinking and making decisions is the essence of
BQ1179 - "communication metrics" as a management science. A key initial
BQ1180 - point is recognizing the distinction between information and
BQ1181 - knowledge. A key second point is grasping the meaning and value
BQ1182 - of investing intellectual capital. From this flow the ideas of
BQ1183 - "automated integration" and "connectedness."
Paperless Office Failed
Add Value to Existing Staff
BX0701 - ..
BX0702 - Paperless Office Not Yet Accomplished Using Information Technology
BX0704 - Landauer explains why information technology has not advanced beyond
BX0705 - traditional practice managing documents to enable efficiencies of a
BX0706 - "paperless office." ref OF 22 0089
BX0708 - ..
BX0709 - On 910418 similar analysis was presented in an article in Byte
BX0710 - magazine. ref SDS 5 8848
BX0712 - [On 950927 Intel's dreams of a paperless office failed because
BX0713 - developing technology for improving management productivity is
BX0714 - too difficult. ref SDS 45 7732
BX0716 - ..
BX0717 - Apple's "Knowledge Navigator" reviewed on page 189 is as an
BX0718 - example of a "vision for the future" which is being sold as a
BX0719 - current capability to "think." ref OF 22 0189
BX0721 - ..
BX0722 - This is the antithesis of SDS, which is aimed at leveraging human
BX0723 - capacity to think, remember and communicate.
BX0725 - ..
BX0726 - Speech recognition is a long way off. Landauer says not next
BX0727 - year, nor the year after. ref OF 22 0730
BX0729 - ..
BX0730 - So why not then focus on the positive, ergonomic benefits of
BX0731 - keyboard entry relative to speech, as a creative tool employing
BX0732 - more brain power because it uses two hands and the eyes, rather
BX0733 - than simply the mouth and ears.
BX0736 - ..
BX0737 - Secretaries - New Role
BX0739 - Landuaer explains efforts to improve management productivity by
BX0740 - transferring to managers the task of data entry for printed
BX0741 - communications (memos, correspondence, reports), rather than using
BX0742 - secretaries, with the result that support staffing has been drawn
BX0743 - down, ref OF 20 2312, but other functions are diminished.
BX0745 - ..
BX0746 - This was discussed with John Kahl at Raychem the other day on
BX0747 - 950726. ref SDS 38 3002
BX0750 - ..
BX0751 - Communication Engineer
BX0753 - Communication Metrics proposes "reengineering" by giving support
BX0754 - folks new skills to use SDS that improve the value of both
BX0755 - executive/manager and secretary. Someone has to create the record
BX0756 - and keep the schedule, test understandings for accuracy and
BX0757 - consistency. This is a good role for secretaries, rather than
BX0758 - merely entering data. Examples are shown by discussion with Wayne
BX0759 - Wetzel at DNRC on 911205, ref SDS 11 8402 and later on 920128.
BX0760 - ref SDS 12 3354
BX0762 - Applied this idea with Millie's application to Shaklee.
BX0763 - ref SDS 33 0001
Promises of Technology that Failed
User Interface, Graphical
Windows User Interface
User Interface, Menus, Mouse, Speech
C50801 - ..
C50802 - User Friendly Does Not Establish Usability Better Productivity
C50803 - Windows GUI, Menus - No Guarantee of Success of User Friendly
C50805 - Landauer cites research showing that graphical user interface (GUI)
C50806 - technology does not guarantee user friendly, easy to learn, usability
C50807 - nor better productivity, which have become articles of faith in the
C50808 - current market place, because GUI has become fashionable. ref OF 22
C50809 - I56K
C50811 - ..
C50812 - This supports Wiederhold's article on 940603. ref SDS 22 T16K
C50814 - GUI does not enable people to learn a new way of working that
C50815 - integrates time and information, as explained on 910529.
C50816 - ref SDS 6 9989 Icons and other GUI features have no meaning for
C50817 - counterintuitive functionality.
C50819 - ..
C50820 - [On 960529 Internet adopts directory structure or efficient
C50821 - organization of information. ref SDS 63 5555
C50822 - ..
C50823 - On 000921 GUI and usability reviewed, requires balance
C50824 - between ease of use with usefulness.
Usability & Entertainment, Require
Effectance, Computers Make People
Market Appeal of Computers
Empowerment to Accomplish Good Management
Effectance Powerful Selling Point Intelligence KM SDS, Landauer
CG0801 - ..
CG0802 - Effectance Makes Computers Attractive Even though Not Productive
CG0803 - People Like Computers for Effectance, Not for Productivity
CG0805 - Landauer explains why people "love" computers at ref OF 22 0440
CG0807 - 1. Games
CG0809 - 2. Computers put enormous power at our fingertips
CG0811 - ..
CG0812 - 3. Desire to be competent is very basic
CG0814 - ..
CG0815 - 4. "Effectance," similar to empowerment, is a strong desire to be
CG0816 - effective, which computers seem to satisfy...
CG0818 - ..
CG0819 - People need to feel empowered to be effective, since survival
CG0820 - depends on having the power to influence, with the result that
CG0821 - confidence from feeling empowered relieves stress, which
CG0822 - necessarily makes people more effective. Thus, synergy between
CG0823 - feeling and being effective is dynamic and powerful. In
CG0824 - advanced, modern culture, effectiveness is narrow, limited to
CG0825 - particular skills and roles that support a larger engine of
CG0826 - commerce. Narrow, focused tasks that work well overall,
CG0827 - frustrate the need to feel effective, relative to larger
CG0828 - forces. Management on the other hand is an integrating job
CG0829 - that sets objectives, makes assignments balancing competing and
CG0830 - complementary forces, and evaluates progress
CG0832 - [On 040227 loss of power causes pain from loss of
CG0833 - effectance, when people are forced to give up SDS.
CG0834 - ref SDS B7 N13H
CG0836 - ..
CG0837 - POIMS explains that satisfaction from effectance overcomes
CG0838 - ignorance, fear and denial that good management is essential.
CG0839 - ref OF 1 WV4I
CG0841 - [On 001004 SDS makes people effective like playing a
CG0842 - piano that brings satisfaction. ref SDS 94 6N9G and
CG0843 - ref SDS 94 GR5L
CG0845 - ..
CG0846 - Since computers convey a feeling of personal effectiveness,
CG0847 - software that can be learned in 20 minutes is enormously
CG0848 - satisfying and therefore attractive, despite failing to expand
CG0849 - effectiveness in accomplishing productive work tasks, as
CG0850 - discussed on 890809. ref SDS 2 2U5F
CG0852 - [On 010426 "effectance" attractive incentive to buy SDS.
CG0853 - ref SDS A3 5M6M
CG0855 - ..
CG0856 - At the personal level, people press a button on a computer
CG0857 - keyboard, and get an expected result, i.e., they can cause
CG0858 - things to happen, which seem to give effect to personal mental
CG0859 - power. In one sense, this is no different from picking up a
CG0860 - fork, or mowing the lawn, except computers present an aura of
CG0861 - leveraging mental strength, rather than physical strength, and
CG0862 - people sense this is a much larger potential for expanding
CG0863 - effectance.
CG0865 - [On 010908 pressing "Reply" in email gives false
CG0866 - impression of progress, like picking up fools gold, by
CG0867 - taking immediate action causing continual bumbling,
CG0868 - delay, loss, conflict, crisis and calamity. ref SDS A7
CG0869 - YF5O and ref SDS A7 W14M
CG0871 - ..
CG0872 - An example is the space program.
CG0874 - ..
CG0875 - Television broadcasts in the 60s and 70s of NASA's space
CG0876 - facilities showed row upon row of people at computer screens
CG0877 - who were controlling events far out in space. This builds
CG0878 - common cultural association in millions of minds linking
CG0879 - computers with power, hence "effectance." Common association
CG0880 - in millions of minds is a powerful cultural force.
CG0882 - [On 960612 history of personal computer industry
CG0883 - explained during television broadcast. ref SDS 61 2222
CG0885 - ..
CG0886 - 4. Computers are "interactive" and so they are "fun."
CG0888 - ..
CG0889 - 5. Computers seem to have "intelligence."
CG0891 - See explanation above on the illusion of intelligence that
CG0892 - sells computers for awhile. ref SDS 0 SR41
CG0894 - [On 970418 Corps of Engineers report Communication
CG0895 - Metrics adds "intelligence" to information. ref SDS 67
CG0896 - 5368
CG0898 - ..
CG0899 - 6. Computers pose a graduated challenge
CG0901 - ..
CG0902 - 7. Computers are addictive
CG0904 - [On 951022 CNN report on market psychology, ref SDS 49
CG0905 - V4P2
CG0907 - ..
CG0908 - My take is that people see the space shuttle go up and all those guys
CG0909 - behind computer monitors that seem to exercise control far out into
CG0910 - space. This looks futuristic and powerful. People want to be part of
CG0911 - this. They are not aware of the enormous support behind each of those
CG0912 - monitors at the NASA Control Center, which yield the results people
CG0913 - observe.
CG0915 - [On 950910 CNN broadcast program on the impact of technology, on
CG0916 - society. ref SDS 40 0001
CG0918 - ..
CG0919 - Additionally, people feel computers should be able to improve
CG0920 - productivity, they want them to do this, and continue to buy hoping
CG0921 - this promise will somehow be fulfilled because that is the only
CG0922 - logical objective for using a computer.
CG0924 - [On 960626 failed promises of "paperless," "virtual," more
CG0925 - productive office using Internet. ref SDS 62 3333
CG0927 - ..
CG0928 - [On 950927 discussion with Intel, people want computers to improve
CG0929 - ability to think, remember and communicate, because that improves
CG0930 - productivity and earnings. ref SDS 45 2899
CG0932 - ....however, Intel gave up trying to accomplish this goal.
CG0933 - ref SDS 45 7732
CG0935 - ..
CG0936 - [On 960823 computers reduce productivity. ref SDS 64 4747
Usefulness is Slow Relying on Market
Usefulness Not Marketing Criteria
Design KM Industry Doesn't Know How
Market Forces Blocks Discovery Knowledge Management
Change Right Direction Useful Resisted Market Forces Chase Lowest Com
Landauer, Tom Evolution Improving Usefulness is Fitful and Slow Until
Market Evolution Improving Usefulness is Fitful and Slow Until Market
Landauer, Tom Many Factors Drive Demand that Enables Commercial Succe
Usefulness Does Not Drive Demand Other Factors Impact Commercial Succ
D71201 - ..
D71202 - Demand Sales Not Driven by Usefulness Productivity and Earnings
D71203 - Market Evolution is Slow to Improve Productivity
D71205 - Landauer lists forces that cause market success other than usefulness
D71206 - of the product. ref OF 22 0783
D71208 - 1. Availability
D71209 - 2. Price
D71210 - 3. Advertising,
D71211 - 4. Feature preferences that may or may not reflect productivity.
D71212 - 5. Host of irrelevant political and organizational factors.
D71214 - ..
D71215 - Credibility builds market inertia where a herd mentality forms because
D71216 - "everybody is doing it." Vendors become "credible" because they once
D71217 - made something that worked, for example, a spreadsheet program, and so
D71218 - customers hope the vendor can add intelligence to management, because
D71219 - selecting a vendor on the basis of credibility makes it fast and easy
D71220 - to decide what to buy in the absence of experience, and when people do
D71221 - not have time to make a reasoned investigation. Mostly, people go by
D71222 - what everybody else is doing. An example is the record on 921127
D71223 - showing people try in vain to solve difficult management problems with
D71224 - the Wizard and similar gadgets, because information technology is what
D71225 - everybody else is doing. ref SDS 15 0788
D71227 - Market forces impede progress, see above. ref SDS 0 0585
D71229 - ..
D71230 - Landauer says market success may reflect superior productivity but
D71231 - retain many flaws, even ones that less popular competitors avoid,
D71232 - ref OF 22 0783, because marketing can for awhile focus popular
D71233 - attention on frivolous issues, e.g., conforming with accepted practice
D71234 - -- everyone is using Windows.
D71236 - ..
D71237 - Landauer's view reflects the challenge of selling SDS to produce
D71238 - useful "intelligence," when the market wants pictures and talking,
D71239 - i.e., sight and sound, in hopes that the mind will automatically
D71240 - create good intelligence. see 940609, ref SDS 23 1913
D71242 - [On 960518 Landauer's paper on knowledge acquisition explains
D71243 - natural mental machinery that causes "meaning drift" which
D71244 - requires proactive efforts and tools to produce accurate
D71245 - intelligence. ref SDS 60 3734
D71248 - ..
D71249 - Evolution by market selection of the fittest is fitful and slow, until
D71250 - the market begins to compete on something that is truly productive,
D71251 - ref OF 22 9672
D71253 - ..
D71254 - This can take a long time to figure out, especially when people are
D71255 - rushing to market without testing for usefulness, in order to maintain
D71256 - technological edge and market share, as Landauer cites at ref OF 20
D71257 - 0785, ref OF 21 7814, rather than focusing on what will improve the
D71258 - management process for saving lives, time, and money. "Get it right
D71259 - the first time" restrains useful advances, per above. ref SDS 0 3848
D71260 - and ref SDS 0 0582
D71262 - ..
D71263 - Market forces impede progress on usefulness because computers and
D71264 - software are sold on the basis of being fast and easy to learn, rather
D71265 - than making productive work fast and easy to perform, i.e., being
D71266 - useful for saving lives, time, and money, see above. ref SDS 0 0585
D71268 - ..
D71269 - Morris mentioned a few months ago that an advantage creating SDS is
D71270 - that the person creating the code is using the program every day, and
D71271 - so all of the focus is on usefulness, and there is immediate and
D71272 - constant feedback to revise the code so it is useful.
D71274 - [...below, Landauer explains User Centered Design for computers to
D71275 - improve productivity as well as ease of use by focusing on synergy
D71276 - between users and developers. ref SDS 0 6403
D71278 - ..
D71279 - [On 950927 Intel gave up competing to make computers that improve
D71280 - management productivity. ref SDS 45 7732
D71282 - ..
D71283 - [On 960612 cultural acceptance of improvements, better usefulness
D71284 - is slow requires enabling forces, Lynn Conway on VLSI chip design
D71285 - that launched the personal computer industry. ref SDS 61 1368
D71287 - ..
D71288 - [On 970603 personal computer market competing to provide best
D71289 - support for games, not to improve management productivity.
D71290 - ref SDS 68 4486
D71292 - ..
D71293 - [On 010924 Morris mentioned again that SDS efficient usability has
D71294 - been optimized by continuing refinement through synergy between
D71295 - design and development, and feedback from experience using SDS by
D71296 - the designer and developer. ref SDS A9 NK4J
D71298 - ..
D71299 - [On 011210 adopting a new way of working can take 50 years in an
D71300 - established culture. ref SDS B1 R66K
D71302 - ..
D71303 - [On 020820 better mouse trap does not bring immediate commercial
D71304 - success. ref SDS B3 EH9O
D71307 - ..
D71308 - Selling What People Buy Rather than Usefulness
D71310 - Ross said last year on 940916 that computer sales are made by
D71311 - salesmen, who do not use computers, to purchasing agents who, also, do
D71312 - not use computers. These sales are intended for other people who are
D71313 - told to use computers "productively." ref SDS 26 8209
D71315 - [On 951228 computers are designed for what people will buy which
D71316 - is mainly aimed at entertainment value, rather than usefulness,
D71317 - ref SDS 52 3883
D71319 - ..
D71320 - [On 970603 Intel selling technology for games. ref SDS 68 4486
D71322 - ..
D71323 - [On 951214 IT product development WBS criteria omits usefulness.
D71324 - ref SDS 51 8848]
D71326 - ..
D71327 - [On 960612 Lynn Conway explains difficulty getting new methods
D71328 - accepted. ref SDS 61 1368]
D71330 - ..
D71331 - [On 960823 discussed with Bill DeHart impact on effectiveness of
D71332 - executives caused by changing technology. ref SDS 64 4747]
D71334 - ..
D71335 - [On 960828 industry uses pilot testing. ref SDS 65 2284]
D71337 - ..
D71338 - [On 971124 Dave Vannier at Intel wants to try Communication
D71339 - Metrics; his boss decides to wait. ref SDS 70 3256]
D71341 - ..
D71342 - [On 980307 Andy Grove's book "Only the Paranoid Survive" calls
D71343 - for experimentation by managers to discover better methods. see
D71344 - ref SDS 72 4025]
D71346 - ..
D71347 - [On 990527 book "The Innovator's Dilemma" explains disruptive
D71348 - technology that takes time to catch on, but evolves to displace
D71349 - existing markets. ref SDS 79 9711]
D71351 - ..
D71352 - [On 990615 proposal to NSF justified by aiding market forces to
D71353 - find useful development path. ref SDS 80 2808
D71355 - ..
D71356 - [On 000130 knowledge management project evaluates usefulness and
D71357 - ease of use. ref SDS 84 9492]
D71359 - ..
D71360 - [On 000227 Colloquium at Stanford disappointed by time required
D71361 - to "penetrate" market place.
D71363 - ..
D71364 - [On 000315 Colloquium frustrated Engelbart's ideas on using
D71365 - technology for knowledge management and improving productivity
D71366 - takes a long time to be adopted. ref SDS 87 1914
D71368 - ..
D71369 - [On 000723 propose consortium for SDS to solve dilemma of market
D71370 - forces delaying progress. ref SDS 92 1391
D71372 - ..
D71373 - [On 001219 worry about exponential growth of technology.
D71374 - ref SDS A0 9I6K
D71376 - ..
D71377 - [On 010105 example of markets ignoring productivity. ref SDS A1
D71378 - SZ8L
Lift Capacity to Think, Remember and
UCD, User Centered Design
Evolution of Technology Requires SDS as 1st
Computers Should Help Aspects of Cognition
Automation Trends, AI
Leverage Capacity to Think, Remember,
Thinking Improved by SDS, Linking Summary
DH1001 - ..
DH1002 - Usefulness Critical Ingredient Making Computers Productive
DH1003 - Goal: Find Aspects of Human Cognition for Technology to Leverage
DH1005 - Landauer says his User Centered Engineering has the aim of finding
DH1006 - aspects of people's jobs where computers can be applied usefully.
DH1007 - ref OF 22 0997
DH1009 - ..
DH1010 - This is the Welch notion of lifting the capacity to think, remember
DH1011 - and communicate. POIMS says don't try to have the computer think
DH1012 - for the manager. Let the computer strengthen parts of thinking
DH1013 - that are weak in human cognition like creating and remembering
DH1014 - connections of cause and effect. ref OF 1 3742
DH1016 - [On 960304 industry expert Feddrico Faggin points out that
DH1017 - computers cannot think like humans. ref SDS 54 G13J
DH1019 - ..
DH1020 - [On 011102 usefulness computer information technology goal of
DH1021 - information management that was later called knowledge
DH1022 - management. ref SDS B0 YO5M
UCD, User Centered Design
DK0501 - ..
DK0502 - User Centered Design UCD
DK0504 - Landauer proposes a new engineering and management discipline in which
DK0505 - the assessment of new products is brought closer to the source, made
DK0506 - sooner and more informative, ref OF 22 QRXS and ref OF 22 1422
DK0508 - ..
DK0509 - Value added and ROI of software in relation to other products is
DK0510 - reviewed. ref OF 22 0909
DK0512 - ..
DK0513 - Significant opportunity for computers to help people think.
DK0514 - ref OF 22 1E5K
DK0516 - ..
DK0517 - Landauer's ideas on "user centered design" solves the problem of slow
DK0518 - market evolution to improve productivity of software, ref SDS 0 0722,
DK0519 - by striking a better balance between ease of use and usefulness, also
DK0520 - discussed above. ref SDS 0 0585
DK0522 - ..
DK0523 - UCD has three (3) parts...
DK0525 - 1. Design,
DK0526 - 2. Development
DK0527 - 3. Deployment
DK0529 - ..
DK0530 - User Centered Design is similar to Emphatic Design reviewed on 940508,
DK0531 - ref SDS 18 6930 and Human Centered Design reviewed on 940510.
DK0532 - ref SDS 19 3850, which support automated integration of management
DK0533 - tasks formulated in POIMS technology, and applied in SDS.
DK0535 - ..
DK0536 - Landauer argues software can be greatly improved by carefully studying
DK0537 - the behavior of people trying to use a mock-up or prototype, and cites
DK0538 - a successful project that used this method for developing an email
DK0539 - program. ref OF 22 5M4H
DK0541 - ..
DK0542 - These dynamics help solve Landauer's point that market forces driving
DK0543 - competition on ease of use take a long time to improve productivity,
DK0544 - per above. ref SDS 0 2004
DK0546 - [...above, SDS functionality improve productivity based on user
DK0547 - centered design, ref SDS 0 M44L, rather than ease of learning.
DK0548 - ref SDS 0 0585
DK0550 - ..
DK0551 - [On 951225 popular marketing avoids usefulness. per ref SDS 51
DK0552 - 8848]
DK0554 - ..
DK0555 - [On 990527 Disruptive Technology uses research methods cited by
DK0556 - Landauer, ref SDS 79 6633, to jump productivity of existing
DK0557 - methods by an order of magnitude, but are counterintuitive by
DK0558 - overturning existing methods that make common sense. ref SDS 79
DK0559 - 3034
DK0561 - ..
DK0562 - [On 991222 SRI proposal in 1962 presented by Doug Engelbart calls
DK0563 - for augmenting human intellect by software engineers developing
DK0564 - tools for software engineering will increase the rate of
DK0565 - improving productivity from synergy between self-interest
DK0566 - dynamics that desires better usefulness, and design of software
DK0567 - used for software engineering. ref SDS 81 KL6N
DK0569 - ..
DK0570 - [On 000324 40 years after 1962 proposal, Doug Engelbart proposed
DK0571 - OHS/DKR project at SRI develop Knowledge Management software that
DK0572 - improves Engineering Management with better communication and
DK0573 - collaboration because self-interest dynamics would yield synergy
DK0574 - that would optimize performance of the software for communication
DK0575 - and collaboration. ref SDS 88 6992
DK0577 - ..
DK0578 - [On 010924 Morris Jones at Intel notes SDS has optimized common
DK0579 - management tasks by continuing refinement for efficient
DK0580 - usability through synergy between design, and feedback from
DK0581 - experience using SDS by the developer to think, remember, and
DK0582 - communicate. ref SDS A9 NK4J
DK0584 - ..
DK0585 - On 950223 Morris commented that breakthroughs in technology to design
DK0586 - SDS require a unique life experience. ref SDS 29 3003
Theory, Science, Engineering, Use
Communication Metrics, History
Use (Technology Application) Drives Theory
DN0601 - ..
DN0602 - Technology Drives Scientific Research
DN0604 - Landauer notes that scientific research and new theories often arise
DN0605 - from experience using new technology. ref OF 23 9368
DN0607 - [The same point is reported in his paper on "Plato's Problem"
DN0608 - ref SDS 55 6822]
DN0610 - ..
DN0611 - This seems to have occurred with SDS. About 10% of its concept was
DN0612 - implemented initially, but use and refinements led to a broader
DN0613 - conceptual framework about information technology which then led to a
DN0614 - statement of POIMS. ref OF 1 0001
DN0616 - ..
DN0617 - Further application led to a new management science...
DN0619 - Communication Metrics
DN0621 - ...to describe what someone who uses SDS is doing, i.e., converting
DN0622 - information into knowledge.
DN0624 - ..
DN0625 - Continued use of the citation tools led to recognition of "knowledge
DN0626 - creep" which may model how the mind stores information and looses
DN0627 - track of things, i.e., forgets.
DN0629 - ..
DN0630 - [On 950921 experience using and developing SDS leads to
DN0631 - contacting cognitive scientists about correlations between
DN0632 - data, information, knowledge, intelligence history, experience,
DN0633 - wisdom, memory, and meaning drift, etc. ref SDS 43 7S8N
Distribution. . . . See "CONTACTS"