CONTACTS 0201 - Chips & Tech. O-00000039 0201 020101 - Mr. Morris E. Jones 020102 - Vice President 020103 - Advanced Products SUBJECTS SDS Business Plan, Marketing plan Financing; Marketing SDS, Windows version 16 MB capacity 0506 - 0506 - .. 0507 - Summary/Objective 0508 - 050801 - Follow up 050802 - 050803 - x0001 Did not talk much on this. I asked him to fix the compiler. 050805 - .. 050806 - Send copy of the discussion with PGE, and mention the article in the 050807 - Examiner for Friday Nov 8, 1991. 050808 - 050809 - 050810 - 050811 - 050812 - 0509 - SUBJECTS SDS Marketing, Product Evaluation Diary record to increase understanding Learning period/difficulty Thinking Through Writing Reading and Writing, Not Enough Time Balance Between Time Talking and Time Doing SDS Not Enough Time to Learn SDS Links Gave Up Fear Don't Know What to Write, SDS Doesn't Start from Scratch Objection Not Enough Time to Learn SDS Intuitively Reverting to Conve Not Enough Time SDS Write Notes Twice Objects, Does Not Grasp Differe Objection Write Notes Twice Add Intelligence to Understand Follow Up Time Not Enough Save Time Money Use Intelligence Proactive Problem Ha 3214 - 3215 - Discussion 3216 - .. 321601 - Follow up ref SDS 10 3335. 321602 - 321603 - This is more on how Morris does his work and the management support 321604 - tools he is trying in place of SDS. 321605 - 321607 - .. 321608 - Morris advised he does not have enough time to learn SDS intuitively, 321609 - and so he is has gone back to using the Wizard, because it seems 321610 - adequate, and is easier to learn (discussed below - ref SDS 0 4195) 321611 - despite his endorsement of SDS design on 910810, ref SDS 11 7793. 321612 - 321613 - [On 010924 Morris feels SDS is easier to use after improvements. 321614 - ref SDS 85 X66J 321616 - .. 321617 - This reflects Ross' concern on 890809 that managers only have 20 321618 - minutes to learn how to improve productivity and earnings. ref SDS 2 321619 - 5U6K 321620 - 321621 - [On 911123 2 days later Morris had thought a lot about how Welch 321622 - uses SDS to improve management. ref SDS 18 4930 321624 - .. 321625 - [On 920215 frustration that SDS linking not intiutive. ref SDS 25 321626 - 5820 321628 - .. 321629 - [On 951021 Morris reported SDS design that enables Welch 321630 - Management Method for improving productivity is hard to grasp. 321631 - ref SDS 49 1341 321633 - .. 321634 - The main problem is the difficulty grasping the concept of integrated 321635 - schedule and diary linking, per the meeting on 910523. ref SDS 8 9441. 321637 - .. 321638 - Linking and limits of intuitive applications are discussed below. 321639 - ref SDS 0 4088 321640 - 321642 - .. 321643 - Executives Fear They Don't Know What to Write 321644 - Writing in SDS is Thinking, Analysis, Planning, Not "Extra Work" 321645 - 321646 - Morris said that entering the record into SDS like this record is 321647 - "extra work" to write notes out twice. He feels... 321648 - 321649 - executives don't have enough time 321650 - 321651 - ...to figure out what to write, which aligns with his concern on 321652 - 890809. ref SDS 3 5930 He noted that since there is not enough 321653 - time to write everything down, it becomes difficult to figure what 321654 - part to write down within the time available. 321656 - .. 321657 - Morris did not worry about having enough time to write on 910521 321658 - when he took a few mintues to invest intellectual capital and 321659 - discovered gaps in understanding that saved time and money. 321660 - ref SDS 7 655O 321661 - 321662 - [On 911205 executive wants aid to do writing that expedites 321663 - getting work done. ref SDS 22 8402 321665 - .. 321666 - [On 931130 Drucker maintains analysis is primary 321667 - responsibility of management, ref SDS 34 7911, and says 321668 - difficulty writing points to increased need for investing time 321669 - to do the analysis. ref SDS 34 4966 321671 - .. 321672 - [On 940609 Henry Kissiner reports management is Alice in 321673 - Wonderland; no time to think causes continual bumbling. 321674 - ref SDS 38 4238 321676 - .. 321677 - [On 970911 executives don't have enough time to think. 321678 - ref SDS 65 3479 321680 - .. 321681 - [On 980307 Andy Grove at Intel takes copious notes to avoid 321682 - ambiguity of mental maps. ref SDS 67 3668] 321684 - .. 321685 - On 900809 bad management is cheap, costs nothing, and so always 321686 - takes less time and is cheaper than the investment in good 321687 - management needed to succeed. ref SDS 5 5D7L 321689 - .. 321690 - Experience indicates that executives are ignorant of the need to 321691 - analyse and align the record with commitments, objectives and 321692 - requirements, because, in the moment, they feel they "know" these 321693 - connections, well enough to succeed. This ignorance leads to a 321694 - fear of not knowing what to write. Ignorance and fear lead to 321695 - denial that adding intelligence to management saves time and 321696 - money. 321697 - 321698 - [On 990624 executives fail because they don't want to use 321699 - sound management practice. ref SDS 71 7344 321700 - 321701 - 321702 - 321703 - 3218 - SUBJECTS Broader Vision Sees New Realities Ahead Leadership Overcomes Fear Cha Capturing Record, What did we say, What did we hear Experience Synergy Using Developing Accelerates Creativity Usefulness Meaning Shared Duty of Leadership Requires Common Story for Communica Debug Daily Management Com Manager Takes Time Invest Intellectual Ca Microscope SDS Debugs Management Alignment History Experience Organiz Deliberative Analysis SDS Thinking Through Writing Management Cycle Recession, Economic Communication Manager Support Knowledge Worker Pilot Flys Airplane Com Manager Flys SDS Helps Everybody Arrive at Co Management Evolution of Practices 9113 - 911401 - .. 911402 - Debug Management with Microscope of SDS to Capture Align Record 911403 - Broader Vision Debug Management using Organizational Memory 911404 - Leadership Must Understand Accurately, then Build Shared Meaning 911405 - 911406 - SDS improves capturing organizational memory that grows knowledge 911407 - builds and maintains shared meaning about what people say, write 911408 - and do; it improves deliberative analysis to determine meaning 911409 - based on alignment with objectives, requirements and commitments, 911410 - as we discussed on 890809, ref SDS 3 9Y5I, and it helps assess 911411 - expectations and implications for taking action based on history 911412 - and experience. Continually assembling history and experience 911413 - builds a personal and organizational.... 911415 - .. 911416 - encyclopedia 911417 - 911418 - 911419 - ...of knowledge and ideas based on case studies showing what 911420 - works, what doesn't work, and refining the context for assessing 911421 - application to future conditions. 911423 - .. 911424 - This adds critical "intelligence" to information in order to 911425 - discover sufficient understanding that justifies taking action, 911426 - and whether impressions at the time a communication occurrs 911427 - require changing course, and giving timely notice in order to 911428 - avoid problems, and benefit from opportunities initially 911429 - overlooked due to limited time and span of attention. 911430 - 911431 - [On 940609 alphabet technology augments human memory, 911432 - reasoning, intelligence. ref SDS 38 4671 and ref SDS 38 8854 911434 - .. 911435 - [On 950204 SDS has a lot of firepower to strengthen literacy. 911436 - ref SDS 39 4995 911438 - .. 911439 - [On 970418 scope of services, deliverables. ref SDS 61 2644 911441 - .. 911442 - [On 991108 alphabet technology engine of civilization. 911443 - ref SDS 73 5628 911445 - .. 911446 - [On 001219 Com Manager task to debug daily managment is 911447 - psychologically demanding. ref SDS 82 BV8R 911449 - .. 911450 - Deeper understanding from adding intelligence to daily working 911451 - information debugs management similar to debugging software, see 911452 - POIMS. ref OF 1 1108 911454 - .. 911455 - A lot of mistakes occur that are overlooked writing software code, 911456 - and so are captured for correction with specialized "debugging" 911457 - tools. This takes extra time, but good software cannot be created 911458 - without this investment. The same is true for good management. 911460 - .. 911461 - Why should there be fewer errors in daily management? 911463 - .. 911464 - In fact there are many more mistakes because the process of daily 911465 - management is more discursive and fragile than the narrow focus of 911466 - software programming. 911468 - .. 911469 - Management mistakes simply are deferred, showing up much later in 911470 - the balance sheet, in hurt feelings, lost orders, rework, extra 911471 - cost, loss, conflict, lower stock prices, recessions, downsizing. 911472 - 911473 - [On 950517 example of drifting in circles. ref SDS 42 9442 911474 - 911475 - [On 960518 "meaning drift" caused by lack of alignment in 911476 - communciations. ref SDS 55 3734, 911478 - .. 911479 - [On 980307 Andy Grove's book "Only the Paranoid Survive" says 911480 - that Grove, as CEO of Intel Corporation, takes copious notes 911481 - to verify understandings because "mental maps are awfully 911482 - forgiving of ambiguity." ref SDS 67 3668] 911484 - .. 911485 - [On 001207 management implodes causing recession because too 911486 - many people are having too many problems. ref SDS 81 V54M 911488 - .. 911489 - After new information has been examined with the microscope of 911490 - SDS, then it can be submitted to provide and obtain feedback that 911491 - further refines accuracy, and builds and maintains shared meaning 911492 - to guide conduct by others for coordinated efforts. This is 911493 - sometimes called "collaborating." 911494 - 911495 - [On 960721 Morris found without proactive work to build and 911496 - maintain shared meaning, people draw different understandings 911497 - from common experiences that causes conflicting actions that 911498 - delay the work and increase costs. ref SDS 57 0896 911500 - .. 911501 - [On 970603 same problem at Intel led to desire to use SDS. 911502 - ref SDS 62 5803 911504 - .. 911505 - [On 000515 Percie developed philosophy of semiotics that shows 911506 - "knowledge" requires continual efforts to refine accuracy, and 911507 - is never fully achieved. ref SDS 77 7380 911509 - .. 911510 - Morris asked why it is important for SDS to be fast? 911512 - .. 911513 - A wide range of integrated tasks need to work together smoothly 911514 - and quickly, like playing a piano. SDS is a new instrument for 911515 - executives and engineers to make better "music," so that the work 911516 - is performed in harmony with objectives, requirements and 911517 - commitments. see POIMS. ref OF 1 1054 and ref OF 1 8559 In the 911518 - beginning, to transition from current manual practice, a modern 911519 - day scribe is needed, because SDS is like a powerful airplane that 911520 - requires expertise and full attention to ensure everyone arrives 911521 - at the planned destination, without having to acquire the skills 911522 - of a pilot. 911524 - .. 911525 - Software that works at the speed people think is needed so the 911526 - record can be captured quickly, not exactly in realtime, but 911527 - rather in near-enough-time to routinely invest intellectual 911528 - capital from meetings, calls, and documents using deliberative 911529 - analysis that adds "intelligence," i.e., organization, alignment, 911530 - summary and feedback that hopefully yields a good idea, and then a 911531 - better idea, as a scultpor shapes and refines a statue. Since we 911532 - think, more or less all the time, software needs to integrate a 911533 - range of tasks, so that everything is added to organizational 911534 - memory. This means SDS software is used like a truck, ship or 911535 - plane used for transport, i.e., it is the main instrument for 911536 - getting the work done. 911538 - .. 911539 - Alignment provides traceability to original sources that ensures 911540 - accuracy. Examining original sources in context using SDS takes a 911541 - few seconds, but it greatly increases span of attention to 911542 - discover corrleations, implications and nuance that increase the 911543 - chance of recognizing things that need to be done, which are 911544 - otherwise overlooked by traditional cursory reflection, i.e., 911545 - mental reflection, thinking, pondering, worrying, that is cut off 911546 - from relevant history, experience, knowledge, policy, objectives, 911547 - requirements and commitments, what some authorities call 911548 - organizational memory. 911549 - 911550 - [On 990303 "thinking" is largely self-dialog, recoding what 911551 - has been heard. ref SDS 68 1032] 911552 - 911553 - 911554 - 911555 - 9116 - SUBJECTS 2% of Mental Capacity is Used, SDS Lifts This Value Water under the Bridge, Information Not Connected into Knowledge Straw in the Wind, Disconnected Details Lack of Understanding, Alignm 9905 - 990601 - .. 990602 - Water Under the Bridge Makes for a Bumpy Ride Down the River 990603 - 990604 - If we permit our experience to flow past like so much "water under 990605 - the bridge, without connecting it up into a web of knowledge, then 990606 - the subsequent lack of understanding about the past diminishes our 990607 - ability to control future outcomes. This makes for a bumpy ride 990608 - down the river as we encounter unanticipated consequences. 990609 - 990611 - .. 990612 - Murphy's Law... 990613 - 990614 - Ignoring history of cause and effect, leads to crashing on the 990615 - shoals of ignorance, fear, and denial, more commonly called 990616 - "Murphy's Law." 990617 - 990618 - [On 921127 Morris complained about small, inconsequential 990619 - problems that later explode into major problems. ref SDS 30 990620 - 0674 990622 - .. 990623 - [On 921217 reliance on past is driving by looking in review 990624 - mirrow. ref SDS 31 7344] 990626 - .. 990627 - [On 950517 letter from Ron Buck that the past is not valued by 990628 - executives, ref SDS 42 7943 and ref SDS 42 8599 990630 - .. 990631 - [On 920210 DNRC managemnet cannot keep its head above water. 990632 - ref SDS 24 8400] 990634 - .. 990635 - [On 950822 Morris described history as "water under the 990636 - bridge" which is not valued by executives. ref SDS 46 9433 990637 - 990639 - .. 990640 - Use More than 2% of Mind, Turn Straw into Gold 990641 - 990642 - The unease that only a small portion (2% - 10%?) of human mental 990643 - capacity is applied, seems to correlate with the small portion of 990644 - daily experience people write down and connect up for future use. 990645 - The prospect that humans have a large, unused, capacity leads to a 990646 - search for ways to tap that capacity. One way may be to capture 990647 - and connect a larger portion of daily experience into a web of 990648 - knowledge, rather than allow it to fly into the past as so much... 990650 - .. 990651 - "straw in the wind" 990652 - 990653 - [On 960409 article in Time magazine. ref SDS 53 8552 990655 - .. 990656 - [On 960909 Tom Landauer said the 2% use of mental capacity is 990657 - not supported by specific research, ref SDS 58 4110; analysis 990658 - shows limited span of attention and inaccuratge memory severly 990659 - reduce use of "mental capital." ref SDS 58 7311 990661 - .. 990662 - [On 000307 Colloquium at Stanford contributor reported people 990663 - remember 5% - 10% of they read in books. ref SDS 75 1122 990664 - 990666 - .. 990667 - This suggests significant potential for SDS to improve natural 990668 - ability, i.e., turning "straw into gold" by converting daily 990669 - experience into useful knowledge. Knowledge that is readily 990670 - available when needed leads to wisdom and vision that great 990671 - leaders exhibit. 990672 - 990673 - [An example for the need to clarify the record occurred a few 990674 - years later when Morris reported that my notes misrepresent his 990675 - comments. ref SDS 45 1116 990677 - .. 990678 - [Later developed "Communication Metrics" to explain the idea of 990679 - testing understanding," ref SDS 41 4177, and using a 990680 - "Communication Manager" or Leadership Aide to support the 990681 - process of capturing the record, ref SDS 40 3479, because 990682 - managers don't have enough time to do it 990684 - .. 990685 - [Developed a structure of consciousness from simple questions 990686 - of on off, right wrong, life, death, to higher forms called 990687 - information, knowledge, wisdom and vision at ref SDS 53 2222.] 990689 - .. 990690 - [On 960712 used idea of increasing use of mind above 2% in 990691 - paper for Morris at the 1996 PMI Asilomar Confernece. 990692 - ref SDS 56 5882 990693 - 990694 - 990695 - 990696 - 990697 - 990698 - 9907 - SUBJECTS SDS Marketing, Product Definition Marketing plan A104 - A10501 - .. A10502 - Market Analysis Opportunity A10503 - A10504 - Morris indicates it will cost a lot of money to do market studies in A10505 - order to accomplish effective market analysis. A10506 - A10507 - Why is this so? We have a virtual microcosm of the issues right in A10508 - our hands, yet are unable to take a few minutes from time to time A10509 - to record the knowledge and ideas needed to study the matter and A10510 - shape a solution. A10511 - A10512 - A10513 - A10514 - A10515 - A106 - SUBJECTS SDS Marketing, Product Definition Notepad, replace, Subject Index Learning period/difficulty Correlation to accepted practice and concepts, 910817 Command & Control of the Record, Subject Index, 3 x 5 Cards, Improve Organization of Culture Shock, Communication Metrics Records Management, Information Management Architecture Computers Integrate with Architecture of Human Thought Architecture Human Thought Predicate Architecture KM, 000531 AI Cannot Think No Biological Drives Cannot Map Human Experience AI Architecture Human Thought Missing Unable to Develop KM, 010411 Architecture KM Difficult Design Not Enough Known about Knowledge Nee Automated Integration of Management Tasks Lifts Capacity to Think AO16 - AO1701 - .. AO1702 - SDS Augments Architecture of Human Thinking AO1703 - AO1704 - Morris indicated that people do not think in terms of "records." AO1705 - AO1706 - He said SDS requires people to write, and this does not formulate AO1707 - conclusions or solutions. He feels SDS does not automate "thinking" AO1708 - the way engineers and scientists working on artificial intelligence AO1709 - (AI) are trying to accomplish. AO1711 - .. AO1712 - We considered briefly Jeromy Campbell's book "The Improbable Machine" AO1713 - that reports AI efforts have not been successful, so another method is AO1714 - needed for technology to help managers think, remember and communicate AO1715 - more effectively. ref SDS 4 3002 Since Campbell says people think by AO1716 - experience, rather than logic, a method to capture, organize and align AO1717 - experience according to organizational objectives, may help managers AO1718 - apply their experience more productively. AO1720 - .. AO1721 - Morris was unfamiliar with Campbell's work or other research in AO1722 - cognitive science on the architecture of human thinking. AO1724 - .. AO1725 - He feels SDS should be explained using common terminology like AO1726 - automating the 3 x 5 card filing system. It has been difficult for him AO1727 - to associate what he sees in the SDS screens, and his sense of what he AO1728 - wants to accomplish using SDS, with explanations in Help using terms AO1729 - like "records" and "records management." AO1730 - AO1731 - We discussed how SDS provides an electronic environment that AO1732 - replaces traditional tools for capturing organizational memory of AO1733 - who, what, when, where, why and how events occur. SDS enables AO1734 - people to adding "intelligence" that improves understanding and AO1735 - follow up, as we discussed on 890809. ref SDS 3 CJ9J AO1736 - AO1737 - [On 930112 3 x 5 card system cited in Writers Forum. ref SDS 32 AO1738 - 7488] AO1740 - .. AO1741 - [On 951123 changed SDS menu to avoid "record" ref SDS 51 9005; AO1742 - and discussion with Morris on explaining SDS, ref SDS 35 2223.] AO1744 - .. AO1745 - [On 990303 scientific paper explains human memory seems to work AO1746 - on "chunks" of memory which the 3 x 5 card method emulates, that AO1747 - is supported by SDS. ref SDS 68 3458] AO1748 - AO1750 - .. AO1751 - Command & Control of the Record AO1752 - Records Management Precursor to Organizational Memory AO1753 - AO1754 - Morris said that capturing organizational memory is a good idea, but AO1755 - people probably have to be shown how it works, because they have never AO1756 - used their notes in this way. He feels the design of using links in AO1757 - SDS is new, but takes time for people to apply links for connecting AO1758 - related ideas and history, because people have not had this AO1759 - capability, and so are not familiar with the benefits. AO1760 - AO1761 - [...below, Morris explains SDS linking is counterintuitive and AO1762 - so hard to grasp at first. ref SDS 0 5699 AO1764 - .. AO1765 - I observed that "Records Management" is one the oldest ideas in the AO1766 - practice of management. People write letters, memos and notes to AO1767 - record and convey their knowledge and ideas. People know that AO1768 - success often depends on remembering accurately. Therefore, people AO1769 - have a strong desire to quickly retrieve their "records." However, AO1770 - no records management system has yet been able to do that. People AO1771 - therefore, act spontaneously on their recollection of the record, AO1772 - rather than look it up. The "record" therefore becomes a (dreaded) AO1773 - source of "discovery" by lawyers. AO1775 - .. AO1776 - SDS automates records management, so people can "remember" accur- AO1777 - ately by quickly looking up the record. This reduces mistakes, and AO1778 - so reduces both disputes, and the degree to which the "record" is a AO1779 - source of "discovery" by lawyers in the event of a dispute. AO1780 - AO1782 - .. AO1783 - Like the alphabet with just 26 letters to arrange and some rules AO1784 - for usage, in SDS one need merely learn how to press a few buttons AO1785 - in order to arrange things, put records away and get them back, AO1786 - i.e. file and retrieve. AO1787 - AO1789 - .. AO1790 - Electronic Filing - Subject Index AO1791 - AO1792 - This is a subset of records management and is another term we AO1793 - use in SDS. It does not convey the whole of the process AO1794 - however, which in SDS entails developing the Subject index. AO1795 - Filing is normally thought of as putting things away, i.e. a AO1796 - physical activity. Managing records in SDS is entirely an AO1797 - intellectual exercise, and thereon requires an emphasis on AO1798 - "management" to determine what information means, rather than AO1799 - clerical to physically put it where it goes. AO1800 - AO1802 - .. AO1803 - Electronic Notebook AO1804 - AO1805 - This is another term we use, but it does not convey what SDS AO1806 - does in managing all forms of information generated and AO1807 - encountered by an individual. Notebooks only have notes. AO1808 - AO1809 - [On 960322 reviewed organic subject structure, Controlled Visibility AO1810 - and reporting methods. ref SDS 52 7749 AO1811 - AO1812 - AO1813 - AO19 - SUBJECTS SDS Marketing, Product Definition Learning Difficulty, Notepad, replace Wizard (Automated Day Timer) Design Support, Engineering Management Different Design Support Method Engineers Resist Changing Work Practices, 000413 Managers Resist Changing Methods AI Supports Engineering Management SDS Not Intuitive Too Difficult to Learn AI Fails Intelligence Knowledge Too Complex AI Cannot Think No Biological Drives Cannot Map Human Experience AI Architecture Human Thought Missing Unable to Develop KM, 010411 Engine Create Topic Map Organizes Information for Retrieval BR15 - BR1601 - .. BR1602 - Wizard Seems Intuitive, Fast and Easy to Learn BR1603 - BR1604 - Morris feels SDS should be easier to use. He does not have enough BR1605 - time to learn SDS, per above, ref SDS 0 7420, and so he has reverted BR1606 - to using the Wizard because it is intuitive, fast and easy to learn. BR1607 - BR1608 - [On 010924 Morris recognized SDS is easier to use after BR1609 - improvements. ref SDS 85 X66J BR1611 - .. BR1612 - [On 020110 Morris advised people only use 5% of Microsoft Word BR1613 - and Outlook that have GUI Interface. ref SDS 86 CK4K BR1615 - .. BR1616 - Morris described how he uses the Wizard. BR1617 - BR1618 - [On 950927 Dave Vannier reported giving up on using computers BR1619 - for management, returning to intuitive, fast, easy, user BR1620 - friendly manual methods. ref SDS 47 7732] BR1621 - BR1622 - [On 940114 Morris dropped the Wizard for the Newton. BR1623 - ref SDS 35 5920 BR1625 - .. BR1626 - [On 951001 he dropped the Newton to use Echo Pro. ref SDS 48 BR1627 - 3460 BR1629 - .. BR1630 - [On 970607 Echo Pro was dropped for Lotus Notes and Organizer. BR1631 - ref SDS 63 5838 BR1633 - .. BR1634 - [On 010720 all of these efforts were abandoned to use Palm BR1635 - Pilot and Microsoft programs. ref SDS 83 0K5K BR1636 - BR1638 - .. BR1639 - Scheduling BR1640 - BR1641 - Morris uses the Wizard to schedule his time, similar to using a BR1642 - conventional manual calendar. He enters short descriptions and BR1643 - can see a month at a time. He likes this better than the SDS BR1644 - schedule, because it seems intuitive. He explained the main BR1645 - advantage is being small and light weight, and so the Wizare can BR1646 - be easily carried around to meetings. BR1647 - BR1649 - .. BR1650 - Organizational Memory by Note Taking, Outlining BR1651 - BR1652 - Morris reported taking some notes in the Wizard to capture the BR1653 - record of daily work, using an outline capability he finds useful, BR1654 - and is not in SDS. BR1656 - .. BR1657 - SDS supports flexible structure and managing context showing BR1658 - alignment with objectives, requirements and commitments, and with BR1659 - the chronology of related subjects, like this record, that BR1660 - improves listening for understanding and follow up. Morris said BR1661 - the Wizard does not have usability like SDS, but feels the BR1662 - functionality of the Wizard is more useful for getting things done BR1663 - because it is fast and easy to learn. BR1664 - BR1665 - [On 911123 Morris said SDS is a new way of working. BR1666 - ref SDS 18 0477 BR1668 - .. BR1669 - [On 950204 Morris reported a seminar presented ideas for BR1670 - improving management that sounded similar to the way SDS is BR1671 - used for capturing organizational memory, but it seemed like BR1672 - overkill. ref SDS 39 5932 BR1674 - .. BR1675 - [On 010924 Morris explained nobody understands usability of BR1676 - organizational memory because nobody can use software the way BR1677 - SDS is used. ref SDS 85 XT5F BR1678 - BR1680 - .. BR1681 - User Friendly Intuitive Easy to Learn Not Productive Usability BR1682 - SDS Usability Not Intuitive Improved Productivity Counterintuitive BR1683 - BR1684 - Morris feels the Wizard is more "intuitive" than SDS because it is BR1685 - fast and easy to learn. Below he discusses difficulty learning to BR1686 - link. ref SDS 0 5699 Limitations of intuitive learning are also BR1687 - discussed below, ref SDS 0 4088, explaining why superior usability BR1688 - in SDS is not intuitive, reviewed on 910529. ref SDS 9 9989 BR1689 - BR1690 - [On 010924 Morris says SDS has evolved over many years to BR1691 - integrate commands that make learning and using SDS faster and BR1692 - easier; good management takes less discipline and diligence. BR1693 - ref SDS 85 GV6H BR1695 - .. BR1696 - [On 020110 Morris advised people only use 5% of Microsoft Word BR1697 - and Outlook that have GUI Interface. ref SDS 86 CK4K BR1699 - .. BR1700 - The Wizard has user friendly features to list "to-do" items and BR1701 - notes about progress in a manner similar to using traditional BR1702 - manual methods, i.e. enter short narratives summarizing BR1703 - understandings and concepts from daily work. So lack of BR1704 - flexibility and range make the Wizard seem appealing in the BR1705 - beginning. BR1706 - BR1707 - [On 940114 Morris dropped the Wizard for the Newton. BR1708 - ref SDS 35 5920 BR1710 - .. BR1711 - [On 951001 he dropped the Newton to use Echo Pro. BR1712 - ref SDS 48 3460 BR1714 - .. BR1715 - [On 970607 Echo Pro was dropped for Lotus Notes and BR1716 - Organizer. ref SDS 63 5838 BR1718 - .. BR1719 - [On 010720 Morris had abandoned LN to use Palm Pilot and BR1720 - Microsoft programs. ref SDS 83 0K5K Earlier on 000709 BR1721 - report that these other methods don'improve management like BR1722 - SDS does. ref SDS 79 0052 BR1724 - .. BR1725 - Morris was anxious on 890809 to improve traditional methods that BR1726 - cause listening to fail. ref SDS 3 CJ9J At that time Morris noted BR1727 - traditional methods waste time and cost money. ref SDS 3 126J If BR1728 - we enable people to use traditional methods faster, better and BR1729 - cheaper, like the Wizard, that will make it cheaper, easier and BR1730 - faster to lose more money. Better productivity needs a new way of BR1731 - working to improve listening by adding intelligence to BR1732 - information. This change is not intuitive, as explained below BR1733 - discussing linking. ref SDS 0 4088 BR1734 - BR1735 - [On 911123 Morris said SDS is a new way of working. BR1736 - ref SDS 18 0477 BR1738 - .. BR1739 - [On 010924 Morris reported SDS improves management where BR1740 - others have failed, because of synergy between using and BR1741 - developing over a long period. ref SDS 85 NK4J BR1742 - BR1744 - .. BR1745 - GUI Point & Click Support Aids Intuition BR1746 - BR1747 - Morris feels the "intuitive" objective can be aided by adding BR1748 - a mouse interface, so people can browse through the menu BR1749 - system and select options without having to remember function BR1750 - keys. BR1752 - .. BR1753 - Function keys are much faster than clicking on buttons and BR1754 - wading through menues, so usability is lost by reliance on the BR1755 - mouse. A combination of mouse and Function keys could make BR1756 - learning SDS easier using the mouse for trying things to BR1757 - discover functionality, and then use Function keys to speed BR1758 - production, as proficiency is gained with functionality. BR1759 - BR1760 - [On 920405 reviewed planning for adding mouse support. BR1761 - ref SDS 27 0001 BR1763 - .. BR1764 - [On 920610 Morris developed code for mouse support. BR1765 - ref SDS 28 SU8M BR1767 - .. BR1768 - [On 920611 begain incorporating mouse to support menus in BR1769 - SDS. ref SDS 29 0001 BR1771 - .. BR1772 - [On 010924 Morris recognized SDS is easier to use after BR1773 - improvements. ref SDS 85 X66J BR1774 - BR1775 - BR1777 - .. BR1778 - SDS for Programming, Engineering, Design Support - Different from AI BR1779 - BR1780 - I asked about Chips using SDS to track their projects. BR1781 - BR1783 - .. BR1784 - Morris said Chips has an AI (artificial intelligence) system for BR1785 - engineering management and design support, which he feels is much BR1786 - more sophisticated than SDS. BR1787 - BR1788 - [On 951026 SDS support for traceability to original sources is BR1789 - helpful for design and engineering management, ref SDS 50 7773, BR1790 - because no one performs the requirement. ref SDS 50 3384] BR1792 - .. BR1793 - We discussed briefly the record on 900303 that reviews Campbell's BR1794 - book explaining AI is not effective for daily management, because BR1795 - human intelligence is primarily based on experience, ref SDS 4 BR1796 - 3002, and so requires ability to manage narrative explanations of BR1797 - cause and effect, called "stories," ref SDS 4 3016, which is BR1798 - supported by SDS. AI efforts have not succeeded in accomplishing BR1799 - this requirement for effective capture and management of daily BR1800 - "intelligence." BR1801 - BR1802 - [On 940527 article about a program that seems like what Morris BR1803 - describes here, at ref SDS 37 0783] BR1805 - .. BR1806 - [On 990524 proposed using SDS for engineering management after BR1807 - Morris joined Intel in a merger. ref SDS 69 0876] BR1809 - .. BR1810 - [On 000106 Morris advised SDS is a unique capability. BR1811 - ref SDS 74 5628] BR1812 - BR1814 - .. BR1815 - Narrative Records Managed without "Thinking" BR1816 - BR1817 - Morris explained the Chips AI program has a highly sophisticated BR1818 - design that supports management without engineers having to think BR1819 - about organization of the record, alignment, analysis, summary and BR1820 - feedback. He feels this is better than using SDS. The AI program BR1821 - saves a lot of time by enabling people to work spontaneously using BR1822 - whatever pops into someone's mind at the moment. You don't have BR1823 - to write notes twice, which was a worry on 890809. ref SDS 3 5930 BR1825 - .. BR1826 - After some discussion, Morris said the system at Chips is not BR1827 - actually used for daily management. It is mainly used to support BR1828 - legal efforts for protecting work product. He said it is a real BR1829 - hassel to look up anything, and so is rarely used for anything. BR1831 - .. BR1832 - That is about what I thought. BR1833 - BR1834 - [On 920215 discussed use of this system. ref SDS 25 2115] BR1835 - BR1836 - [On 000405 "knowledge representation" difficult to accomplish. BR1837 - ref SDS 76 B8R4 BR1839 - .. BR1840 - [On 000623 "engine" planned to process record to automatically BR1841 - create useful organization. ref SDS 78 2915 BR1843 - .. BR1844 - [On 001130 proposal to add "engine" to support SDS linking and BR1845 - subjects. ref SDS 80 0001 BR1846 - BR1847 - BR1849 - .. BR1850 - Keyword Reporting BR1851 - BR1852 - The AI system assembles information according to the terms used by BR1853 - the writer, i.e. keywords, albeit a sophisticated application BR1854 - using synonyms. BR1856 - .. BR1857 - Writing & Linking BR1858 - BR1859 - The difficulty with this is that terms have different BR1860 - meanings in different contexts on different days by different BR1861 - people as well as the same person. The flexibility of BR1862 - language vitiates this approach, as noted in the comment BR1863 - above. BR1865 - .. BR1866 - [On 970118 Morris asked about how SDS organic subject structure BR1867 - works. ref SDS 59 3109] BR1869 - .. BR1870 - The other difficulty is that simply writing things down BR1871 - without linking them up and thinking about "subjects," BR1872 - prevents the writer from being reminded that other matters BR1873 - may be affected that require either specific notice to others BR1874 - or immediate attention. This is "management" and cannot be BR1875 - delegated to a computer program. Computers can help managers BR1876 - exercise and implement judgement, but cannot replace BR1877 - judgement. BR1878 - BR1879 - BR1881 - .. BR1882 - Record Linkage Forward and Backward in Time Not Supported BR1883 - BR1884 - Morris indicated the records in this system are not linked. BR1885 - BR1886 - BR1887 - I asked to take a look at this AI system to see if we can glean BR1888 - anything useful for enhancing SDS. BR1890 - .. BR1891 - Morris said it would not really be helpful because the system is not BR1892 - practical for daily management, and so cannot add anything to SDS BR1893 - design. BR1894 - BR1895 - BR1896 - BR1897 - BR1898 - BR19 - SUBJECTS SDS Marketing, Product Definition Notepad, replace, Subject Index Learning period/difficulty Correlation to accepted practice and concepts, 910817 Remembering (linked records) Learning time, Create SI, Contacts DB Convert Schedule to Diary, Conflicts with Present Practice Conflict with Existing Methods Learning SDS Beyond Wordprocessing and Spreadsheets Resisted Frustrat Links SDS Gave Up Not Enough Time to Learn Intuitive Learning SDS Difficult Reverting to Conventional Management CH13 - CH1401 - .. CH1402 - Linking Not Intuitive, Frustrating, Reverting to Fast Easy Solutions CH1403 - CH1404 - Morris said linking is a unique SDS feature that is very helpful, per CH1405 - discussion above on creating and quickly accessing organizational CH1406 - memory, i.e., having command and control of the record, ref SDS 0 CH1407 - 8628, but, he feels SDS takes too much time to create links, and so he CH1408 - has reverted to using the Wizard that is a lot easier to learn and is CH1409 - more user friendly. see above ref SDS 0 HT3I Morris recalled our CH1410 - discussion on 890809 saying that integrated tools like SDS are CH1411 - powerful for saving time and money, but are harder to learn. CH1412 - ref SDS 3 6162 CH1413 - CH1414 - [On 921123 Morris describes SDS as a new way of working to enable CH1415 - using good management practices consistently. ref SDS 18 0477 CH1417 - .. CH1418 - [On 940327 Morris reports SDS linking offers self-evident benefits CH1419 - for command and control of the record to avoid mistakes of false CH1420 - memory. ref SDS 36 J496 CH1422 - .. CH1423 - We reviewed SDS processes that create links automatically, and that CH1424 - using only a few key strokes people can custom links instantly CH1425 - anywhere, anytime as a matter mere mental volition; so, Morris must be CH1426 - hitting the wrong keys. We reviewed the many calls the past 6 months CH1427 - asking if he needed help, and he always declined. CH1429 - .. CH1430 - Morris said he has not been able to figure out how to create links in CH1431 - SDS, and is frustrated that SDS is not more intuitive to enable people CH1432 - to transition into a new way of working, which he described above as CH1433 - unique to SDS, ref SDS 0 8628, withtout help and instruction, per his CH1434 - experience using the Wizard, discussed above. ref SDS 0 HT3I CH1435 - CH1436 - [On 010924 Morris says SDS has evolved over many years to CH1437 - integrate commands that make learning and using SDS faster and CH1438 - easier; good management therefore takes less discipline and CH1439 - diligence. ref SDS 85 GV6H CH1441 - .. CH1442 - This aligns with the record on 910503 showing that the new process of CH1443 - converting schedule tasks into diary records is difficult for people CH1444 - to understand. ref SDS 8 9441 The design that strengthens usability CH1445 - with power for adding intelligence to management is counterintuitive, CH1446 - and so requires orientation to understand a new way of working, as CH1447 - explained on 910529. ref SDS 9 9989 CH1449 - .. CH1450 - Morris indicated he wants to learn a new method without any help, and CH1451 - if he cannot do so, then he will abandon the effort regardless of CH1452 - benefits, which he cited on 910810, ref SDS 11 7793 CH1454 - .. CH1455 - He does not want to have to call for help. He wants to learn new CH1456 - methods intuitively based on his computer skills and management CH1457 - experience. CH1458 - CH1459 - [On 911123 Morris cited benefits of SDS new way of working. CH1460 - ref SDS 18 0477 CH1462 - .. CH1463 - [On 920215 frustration, angry not able to learn linking because CH1464 - architecure that strengthens intelligence is counterintuitive. CH1465 - ref SDS 25 5820 CH1467 - .. CH1468 - [On 990625 Fortune article explains psyche that prevents CEOs CH1469 - from improving the work. ref SDS 71 4914 CH1470 - CH1472 - .. CH1473 - GUI Does Not Make Learning Easy Intuitive User Friendly CH1474 - Intuitive Learning Does Not Improve Listening, Earnings CH1475 - Usability Improves Intelligence Productivity Not Intuitive CH1476 - New Way of Working Not "Intuitive" Needs Orientation CH1477 - CH1478 - Morris' difficulty learning to link SDS records reflects challenge CH1479 - of a new way of working that improves traditional methods for CH1480 - saving time and money. ref SDS 0 5699 CH1482 - .. CH1483 - GUI interface makes a computer user friendly for intuitive CH1484 - learning to do traditional manual tasks on a computer for creating CH1485 - information and playing games, ref SDS 0 HT3I, but not for new CH1486 - usability that improves past practice, as discussed above. CH1487 - ref SDS 0 M68K CH1489 - .. CH1490 - SDS provides interface that makes it fast and easy to convert CH1491 - information created with GUI into useful knowledge that saves time CH1492 - and money. CH1493 - CH1494 - [On 911123 Morris described SDS as Welch Management Method CH1495 - that is a new way of working. ref SDS 18 0477 CH1497 - .. CH1498 - [On 001130 Jack Park reports SDS interface translates the CH1499 - structure of knowledge into useful new tools. ref SDS 80 CH1500 - 1O4L CH1502 - .. CH1503 - People cannot "intuit" new capability in SDS that is outside their CH1504 - base of experience, as explained on 910529. ref SDS 9 9989 CH1505 - CH1506 - [On 950710 usability requires useful technology that is not CH1507 - fast and easy to learn intuitively, Landauer. ref SDS 44 CH1508 - 0585 and ref SDS 44 3P6G CH1510 - .. CH1511 - [On 951011 intuition applies "common sense" fails if there CH1512 - is no experience to guide intuition for using breakthrough CH1513 - capabilities. ref SDS 49 7008 CH1515 - .. CH1516 - [On 020110 Morris advised people only use 5% of Microsoft CH1517 - Word and Outlook that have GUI Interface. ref SDS 86 CK4K CH1518 - .. CH1519 - No one has ever considered integrating scheduling and CH1520 - reporting, linking records, segmenting narrative within an organic CH1521 - structure, as this record is, and assembling bits and pieces of CH1522 - different reports that deal only with a subject of current CH1523 - interest, as explained on 890523. ref SDS 1 SQ5L CH1524 - CH1525 - [On 920215 paradigm shift stifles understanding SDS CH1526 - methodology. ref SDS 25 5820 CH1528 - .. CH1529 - Learning Difficulty Compounded by Image of Competence CH1530 - CH1531 - This points to two other issues... CH1532 - CH1533 - 1. Executives fear learning and using SDS because the image of CH1534 - leadership is talking and giving orders, rather than preparing CH1535 - to have an effective meeting and figuring what orders to give. CH1537 - .. CH1538 - Fear about competence prevents competent people from asking CH1539 - for help to increase competence. ref SDS 0 YH3G CH1540 - CH1541 - [On 950710 usability requires useful technology that is not CH1542 - fast and easy to learn intuitively, Landauer. ref SDS 44 CH1543 - 0585 and ref SDS 44 3P6G CH1545 - .. CH1546 - [On 980307 Grove explains executives fear learning to CH1547 - improve, deny new realities that require change. CH1548 - ref SDS 67 1660 CH1550 - .. CH1551 - [On 010908 Jack Park explains laziness hampers diligence CH1552 - for improving the work. ref SDS 84 YF5O CH1553 - .. CH1554 - Fear using SDS is increased by ignorance that SDS CH1555 - increases usability for being prepared to figure out what CH1556 - orders to give by providing timely, accurate history of cause CH1557 - and effect about subjects that impact productivity and CH1558 - earnings. Ignorance arises from reliance on the paradigm that CH1559 - computers cannot improve management, which arises from the CH1560 - fact that only SDS can do this, i.e., the paradigm is 99.99% CH1561 - correct. Accepting that SDS is an exception to this rule is CH1562 - too big a leap for most people. Only experience can overcome CH1563 - ignorance, but a paradigm that is 99.99% true reasonably CH1564 - prevents acquiring experience to discover a powerful CH1565 - exception. CH1566 - CH1567 - [On 990625 Fortune article explains psyche that prevents CH1568 - CEOs from improving the work. ref SDS 71 4914 CH1569 - .. CH1570 - Since there is no tradition for managers to augment CH1571 - their thinking with tools in the manner that a backhoe CH1572 - augments the power of an equipment operator to improve the CH1573 - work, executives equate using SDS with secretaries who type, CH1574 - because people know that computers are used for CH1575 - wordprocessing, but they do know that SDS enables people to CH1576 - use computers for augmenting intelligence. Association of SDS CH1577 - with staff work, rather than understanding cause and effect CH1578 - that impacts earnings and stock prices, makes using SDS seem CH1579 - like a step back in career development. CH1580 - .. CH1581 - As noted on 910911, only managers who cannot afford a CH1582 - secretary use computers. ref SDS 12 UG5I Doubts that SDS CH1583 - might be different, and so improve management, which could CH1584 - lead to trying SDS to discover earnings are increased by CH1585 - adding intelligence to management, are overwhelmed by cultural CH1586 - pressures that guide conduct to conform in order to advance. CH1587 - The desire to maintain an image of competence using good CH1588 - communication skills to talk people into saying yes, prevents CH1589 - executives from acquiring capability that improves competence CH1590 - to understand and follow up, as discussed with Morris on CH1591 - 890809. ref SDS 3 CJ9J CH1592 - CH1593 - [On 990527 culture pressures prevent using SDS to improve CH1594 - earnings. ref SDS 70 1233 CH1595 - .. CH1596 - The image of leadership as speaking to give orders CH1597 - springs from the need for authority to direct the work. see CH1598 - again 910911. ref SDS 12 5567 This overlooks the fact that CH1599 - authority brings responsibility to improve the work by CH1600 - avoiding a Wizard of Oz false image of competence. Too often, CH1601 - managers deny intelligence is needed in order to preserve CH1602 - deniability so that good communication skills can talk our way CH1603 - out of accountability for bumbling, in order to maintain the CH1604 - image of Oz. CH1605 - CH1606 - [On 920402 image was cited as preventing managers from CH1607 - improving the work. ref SDS 26 0344 CH1609 - .. CH1610 - [On 991108 to desire to get by using oral communication CH1611 - rather than analysis has been a titanic struggle from CH1612 - the time of Plato and Aristotle in 2400 BC. ref SDS 73 CH1613 - 7426 CH1614 - .. CH1615 - From a marketing standpoint, we have to get a sufficient CH1616 - number of executives through the learning phase to reach a CH1617 - critical mass of credibility in the theory. If we do not get CH1618 - them to that point, there is no proof of the theory. CH1619 - .. CH1620 - 2. Computer expertise is of no value learning SDS. CH1621 - CH1622 - Everyone starts out from ground zero. People with exceptional CH1623 - skills in computers get stuck overcoming a lifetime of CH1624 - experience and cultural peer pressure doing SDS functions in a CH1625 - manual world. see record on 910529. ref SDS 9 4930 CH1626 - CH1627 - [On 920215 paradigm shift stifles understanding SDS CH1628 - methodology. ref SDS 25 5820 CH1630 - .. CH1631 - Frustration, anger and self-doubt about competence prevent CH1632 - very competent people from asking for help to increase CH1633 - competence. ref SDS 0 YH3G CH1635 - .. CH1636 - This means people and particularly executives need help to CH1637 - transition so they can experience that doing things differently CH1638 - turns out a lot better. CH1639 - CH1640 - .. CH1641 - Product Development ideas. CH1642 - CH1643 - Morris feels SDS should run under Windows that has printer CH1644 - support. He thinks mouse support is essential. CH1645 - CH1646 - [On 971105 Internet made it possible to accomplish a lot of CH1647 - Morris' objectives. ref SDS 66 1459] CH1649 - .. CH1650 - This is a good idea but does not solve the larger problem of CH1651 - enabling Users to "intuit" how to use SDS in a few days, in the CH1652 - same way one cannot intuit the alphabet or calculus in a few days. CH1653 - CH1654 - The things SDS does are not complicated like calculus. The CH1655 - integration of tasks that improves productivity is, however, CH1656 - sufficiently different from present practice, as seen from CH1657 - Morris' experience, to make it not intuitive, per se. CH1658 - CH1659 - CH1660 - CH1661 - CH1662 - CH1663 - CH1664 - CH17 - SUBJECTS SDS Marketing, Product Evaluation Diary record to increase understanding Legal Restraints, Can't Save the Record Thinking Through Writing; Litigation Support Deliberative Analysis; Concurrent Discovery Document Management Systems; Information Management Command & Control of the Record Destroying Documents/Records Consistent use of Good Management Discovers Good Management Practice Used Consistently Leadership Broader Vision, Technology D513 - D51401 - .. D51402 - Organizational Memory Destroyed to Avoid Accountability D51403 - D51404 - Morris advised of trends in industry for companies, under advice of D51405 - counsel, to adopt policies that require destroying information in D51406 - order to limit exposure of discovery in litigation and thereby avoid D51407 - accountability for mistakes. D51408 - D51409 - [On 911123 Morris explaines this practice. ref SDS 18 8934 D51411 - .. D51412 - [On 911130 discussed with Stan Mosk. ref SDS 19 0001 D51414 - .. D51415 - [On 911204 discussed with Mark Davis and L&C. ref SDS 21 7755 D51417 - .. D51418 - [On 911212 discussed with Dave Bounchristiani. ref SDS 23 8492 D51420 - .. D51421 - Fear of accountability is twisting the role of management away from D51422 - efforts to capture an accurate account of organizational memory that D51423 - is necessary for doing a good job. A request on 911120 shows that D51424 - destroying the record to avoid accountability is becoming more D51425 - important than doing the job correctly. ref SDS 17 5588 In other D51426 - words, covering up has somehow come to be seen as a better strategy D51427 - than working intelligently to avoid mistakes through better listening D51428 - for understanding and follow up, which Morris said on 890809 is D51429 - critical to productivity and earnings. ref SDS 3 CJ9J D51430 - D51431 - [See later discussion with Stan Mosk, ref SDS 19 3606 D51433 - .. D51434 - [See article on "Information Entropy" ref SDS 64 0108 D51436 - .. D51437 - [On 991021 Morris mentioned this issue again. ref SDS 72 2695] D51439 - .. D51440 - This leads to destroying information and more critically it eliminates D51441 - the knowledge that flows from connecting information over time, which D51442 - is the antithesis of intellectual rigor. Avoiding mistakes requires D51443 - working consistently. Working consistently requires capturing the D51444 - record and checking later to make sure what one recalls is accurate D51445 - and to find out what happened and why things were done. That is why D51446 - writing was invented. D51448 - .. D51449 - Concern about litigation is destroying the value of this tool. As the D51450 - practice of law becomes more sophisticated in creating theories of D51451 - recovery and obtaining proof, managers are destroying the most valu- D51452 - able resource for performing their work: knowledge and ideas. D51453 - D51455 - .. D51456 - Solution D51457 - D51458 - I do not think one can expect the practice of law to become less D51459 - sophisticated. Law is the check and balance to ensure things are D51460 - done correctly and those who practice it will through competition D51461 - and evolution get better. D51463 - .. D51464 - One area of solution is to invigorate contracting standards so D51465 - people can limit their exposure by agreement. This has fallen off D51466 - in recent years and so requires legislative attention. D51467 - D51469 - .. D51470 - Leadership with Broader Vision, Avoid Feel Good Management D51471 - Litigation Support & Debugging Management Decisions D51472 - D51473 - Business protects itself by reducing seat-of-the-pants decisions, D51474 - i.e., minimizing "Feel Good" management practice. D51475 - D51476 - This is really a source of significant tension. Some people D51477 - go into business precisely in order to "do what they feel like D51478 - doing" instead of having someone telling them what to do. They D51479 - want their errors to be absorbed and corrected by others, D51480 - rather than being called to account. D51482 - .. D51483 - Capturing organizational memory showing why something was done and D51484 - what was considered, linking decisions with objectives, policies, D51485 - requirements and commitments, provides a much better chance of D51486 - avoiding errors that lead to litigation. SDS preserves the record D51487 - so it can be relied on again and again consistently. Second, if a D51488 - mistake occurs, there is a much better chance of showing it was D51489 - unavoidable or inadvertant by pointing to the record of careful D51490 - considerations, rather than covering up. Managers are required to D51491 - be reasonable not perfect. If a decision was appropriate for the D51492 - context at the time, then juries will be less likely to find D51493 - against them, than if it appears an effort was made to cover up D51494 - mistakes rather than figure out the best solution. D51496 - .. D51497 - Doing this consistently improves management because it identifies D51498 - a much larger share of mistakes that occur outside span of D51499 - attention at a time when action can be taken to avoid loss and D51500 - delay. However, dealing with error is stressful. Reporting D51501 - mistakes is even more psychologically demanding, causing people to D51502 - withold notice of problems in order to avoid being the bearer of D51503 - bad news. D51505 - .. D51506 - Typically, managers wish to be excused from "debugging" their D51507 - programs (i.e. decisions) by analysing competing recommendations. D51508 - This position will likely fail because of evolving legal practices D51509 - discussed above. D51511 - .. D51512 - Example D51513 - D51514 - If doing a CPM to figure out what needs to be done, when and D51515 - who should do it is recommended and rejected, then management D51516 - can best protect itself by entering in the record the good D51517 - reasons why under the circumstances such course was not adopt- D51518 - ed. Destroying the record of the recommendation seems like a D51519 - good idea at the time only where the reason for rejection is D51520 - arbitrary. This places a burden on senior management in the D51521 - first instance to foster a climate of debate and care in D51522 - decision making, rather than the "me-too, don't rock the boat" D51523 - philosophy that permeates many management meetings. D51525 - .. D51526 - Therefore, a Communication Manager using SDS can significantly D51527 - improve management by performing the alignment (debugging) process D51528 - and notice task, similar to an accountant who aligns daily D51529 - finances. D51531 - .. D51532 - [See correlation to Communication Metrics at ref SDS 41 6007.] D51534 - .. D51535 - [See later discussion with Stan Mosk, ref SDS 19 3606.] D51537 - .. D51538 - [See article on "Information Entropy" ref SDS 64 0108.] D51539 - D51540 - D51541 - D51542 - D51543 - D51544 - D51545 - D516 -Distribution. . . . See "CONTACTS"