San Francisco, CA
S U M M A R Y
DIARY: March 3, 1999 01:49 PM Wednesday;
Received letter from District Counsel with USACE on Comm Metrics.
2...Communication Metrics Converts Short Memory into "Better Than Most"
...................recall is better than most
3...Human Limits on Processing Information Overload 7 Subjects Too Many
.........The Magical Number Seven, Plus or Minus Two:
....Some Limits on our Capacity for Processing Information
4...Span of Attention Supports Calculation of Rework, Cost Savings
5...SDS Record Segments Emulate Human Memory "Chunks" - 3 x 5 Cards
6...Technology Processes Mountains of Information Like a Backhoe Digs Dirt
7...7 Senses Biology Limits Span of Attention Reflect Cultural Artifacts
8...Culture Reflects Span of Attention Limited by 7 Senses for Perception
9...SDS Leverages Intelligence 7 Ways Expand Span of Attention
10...Cognitive Challenges Ignored Feared Denied
11...Paraphrase Recode Segment Name 3x5 Card Chunks Improves Memory
12...Recode Paraphrase Information in 3x5 Card Chunks to Aid Retrieval
13...Meaning Drift People Recode Paraphrase Segment Informatino 3x5 Cards
14...Stories Connect 3x5 Information Chunks Yields Useful Intelligence
15...Intelligence Adds Time to Information for Understanding Causation
16...Communication "Metrics" Designed for Management Improve Performance
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0201 - U.S. Army Corps of Engineers
020101 - San Francisco District
020102 - Ms. Merry Goodenough, ESQ; Office of Counsel
0202 - Wideman, R. Max
020201 - Mr. R. Max Wideman
Meeting District Counsel on 990202
Accuracy of Work Product
Orientation District Counstl, Com Metrics
Meeting Management Needs Note Taker
Feedback Metrics Meeting Notes Improve
Writing Expedited by SDS
Executives Fear Writing, Cannot Think of What to Write
Memory Fragile, People Can Align
Span of Attention Overwhelmed by Too Many
Magical #7, Limits Capacity to Process
Subjects Complex Shocking Everything Related to Everything Else, 9804
Subjects 7 Overwhelm Span of Attention, George Miller, 990303
Architecture Human Thought Information and Knowledge
4415 - ..
4416 - Summary/Objective
441701 - Follow up ref SDS 50 0000, ref SDS 49 0000.
441703 - Received letter from USACE saying the record for the meeting on 990202
441704 - is accurate and attributing this to the memory of the communication
441705 - manager, in this case, Rod. Also received a paper from Max Wideman on
441706 - a classical analysis of human limitations on processing information
441707 - that shows the need for Communication Metrics, especially as the flow
441708 - of information increases. This science on human memory shows the kind
441709 - of tools and processes that provide useful support for management,
441710 - which is the goal of SDS.
441712 - ..
441713 - Submitted ref DIT 1 0001 with link to this record, responding to Max's
441714 - letter, received below. ref SDS 0 0920 Sent copy to Tom Keesling, Jim
441715 - Lovo at HQUSACE. Sent it to Morris, Bill DeHart, Denis at Kwahn
441716 - Henmi, Dave Buoncristinia, and Dave Vanieer at Intel, to explain and
441717 - illustrate why adding "intelligence" to information is helpful to
441718 - management.
441720 - [On 990304 reviewed with Jim Lovo. ref SDS 59 7803]
441722 - ..
441723 - [On 990305 received letter from Max Wideman. ref SDS 60]
441725 - ..
441726 - [On 990309 Bill saw this record. ref SDS 61 4416]
441730 - ..
4420 - Progress
442101 - Communication Metrics Converts Short Memory into "Better Than Most"
442103 - Received letter, ref DRT 2 0001, from Merry Goodenough, counsel for
442104 - USACE, responding to ref DIP 3 0001, and the record of our meeting
442105 - with Tom Keesling on 990202. ref SDS 50 0001
442107 - ..
442108 - Merry indicates the SDS record is accurate, saying [Rod's]...
442110 - recall is better than most
442112 - ... ref DRT 2 0001 At the meeting on 990202 Merry observed that I did
442113 - not write anything down, and joked about taking good notes so she
442114 - could grade the record. ref SDS 50 5904 Previously, on 981027, she
442115 - asked how accuracy of the record is accomplished? ref SDS 47 3366
442117 - [On 000307 people rememeber the "gist", 5% - 10% of what they
442118 - read. ref SDS 75 1122
442120 - ..
442121 - [On 030702 Nancy B***** with US Army reported the record of a
442122 - meeting prepared by Gary using SDS showed "everything
442123 - and more" was remembered. ref SDS 82 IX91
442125 - ..
442126 - Morris at Intel said something similar in our discussion on 990301.
442127 - ref SDS 57 2984 Earlier on 940327 Morris related that better memory
442128 - as a self-evident benefit of SDS. ref SDS 10 J496 On 960721 Morris
442129 - asked how Rod can remember to write an accurate, complete record of an
442130 - event without having attending the event. ref SDS 26 0072 On 971205
442131 - HQUSACE staff cited Rod's ability as critical to Com Metrics.
442132 - ref SDS 41 1103
442134 - [On 030405 Gary reports people feel he has better
442135 - memory than most, without knowing he is using SDS. ref SDS 81
442136 - 0001
442138 - ..
442139 - A subcontractor once said, "Rod, you have a good memory, but it's
442140 - short!
442142 - ..
442143 - Two week ago you said the job would be ready; but, it's not, so we
442144 - need more money, more time, and everything!" [See scenario for
442145 - POIMS on 940621. ref SDS 12 8849]
442147 - ..
442148 - Whether Rod has a good memory that is better than most, is not
442149 - important to Communication Metrics. We are providing help so people
442150 - do not have to rely on their memory, and everyone can benefit from a
442151 - useful record. Doing a little bit each day and adding some
442152 - organization, analysis and summary, provides a rich source of
442153 - "experience" that helps write up future events. ref OF 6.
442155 - ..
442156 - Getting feedback like Merry offered today, helps ensure a good record,
442157 - similar to discussions with Max and Major Blechinger on 990225.....
442158 - ref SDS 55 8640
442160 - ..
442161 - On 950204 explained how someone with a poor memory can write up a
442162 - useful record using good tools. ref SDS 15 0550
Magical Number 7 Plus or Minus 2 Limits on Capacity to Process Infor
670401 - ..
670402 - Human Limits on Processing Information Overload 7 Subjects Too Many
670404 - Max Wideman responded to the letter on 990228. ref SDS 56 0000
670406 - ..
670407 - Received ref DRT 1 3510 from Max with a link to a scientific paper
670408 - that explains "information overload" due to limited span of attention
670409 - (see below at ref SDS 0 6120 and impact at ref SDS 0 4510)
670411 - [On 990305 received letter from Max Wideman, ref SDS 60 0001,
670412 - supporting Communication Metrics, and recalling that
670413 - transformation to better tools and practices takes a long time.
670414 - ref SDS 60 7611
670416 - ..
670417 - [On 070301 cited Max Wideman's presentation on history of project
670418 - management to support research for Milan Moravec at UCB.
670419 - ref SDS 89 FV8N
670421 - ..
670422 - Jim Lovo's report on 990126 cited "information overload" as a problem
670423 - for HQUSACE which Communication Metrics addresses. ref SDS 48 7370
670425 - ..
670426 - Decided to receive the paper in this record for context on the benefit
670427 - of SDS to help people remember, based on attributing "Rod" with a good
670428 - memory. ref SDS 0 9499
670430 - ..
670431 - The title of the paper and its substance seem to support the NWO...
670432 - paper concept of "intelligence" as the process that converts
670433 - information into knowledge. ref OF 2 3598
670435 - ..
670436 - This adds weight to Francis Crick's work explaining the human brain
670437 - and visual system. Crick, more well known for discovering DNA, was
670438 - reviewed on 940219. ref SDS 9 3402
670440 - ..
670441 - Limited span of attention is cited in the report on cost savings which
670442 - Max reviewed on 971007. On 971024 he questioned cognitive science as
670443 - support for a theory of "rework" to fix mistakes, in calculating cost
670444 - savings from Communication Metrics. ref SDS 38 8288
670446 - ..
670447 - Max's letter today says.
670449 - In my view [Miller's paper] has a considerable bearing on how to
670450 - construct an effective (Project Management) knowledge structure.
670452 - ...at ref DRT 1 9388 which may reflect emerging awareness and
670453 - acceptance of cognitive science support for Communication Metrics.
670455 - ..
670456 - [On 990313 reviewed paper prepared by Max that has a number of
670457 - diagrams that contain about 7 primary nodes. ref SDS 63 2704]
670459 - ..
670460 - [On 990318 Max is not into cognitive science. ref SDS 66 1750]
670462 - ..
670463 - On 971121 Max sent analysis on communication by dialog and listening.
670464 - ref SDS 40 3575 The paper today exposes weaknesses in these common
670465 - methods that are solved by Communication Metrics.
670467 - ..
670468 - Max provides a link to...
670470 - http://www.yorku.ca/dept/psych/classics/Miller
670472 - ..
670473 - This is a paper entitled...
670475 - The Magical Number Seven, Plus or Minus Two:
670476 - Some Limits on our Capacity for Processing Information
670478 - George A. Miller (1956)
670479 - Harvard University
670481 - First published in Psychological Review, 63, 81-97
670483 - ..
670484 - The paper is also available from Miller's biography at a web site
670485 - for...
670487 - WordNet - a Lexical Database for English
670489 - http://www.pmforum.org/warindex.htm
670491 - ...sponsored by...
670493 - ..
670494 - Cognitive Science Laboratory
670495 - Princeton University
670496 - 221 Nassau St.
670497 - Princeton, NJ 08542
670499 - ...under the direction of...
670501 - Professor George A. Miller
670502 - Princeton University
670503 - Department of Psychology
670504 - 1-S-5 Green Hall
670505 - Princeton, NJ 08544
670506 - 609-258-5973 or 609-258-2972
670507 - email@example.com
670509 - ..
670510 - The paper was first delivered on 550415. ref OF 4 4680 On 960809 the
670511 - paper by Landauer on knowledge acquisition discusses "chunks" of
670512 - memory. ref SDS 27 0085 Miller's 1955 paper says he set the custom of
670513 - using "chunks." ref OF 4 3795 This lineage suggests that Miller's
670514 - work continues to deserve attention.
670516 - [On 990312 reviewed paper prepared by Max that has a number of
670517 - diagrams containing about 7 primary nodes. ref SDS 63 2704
Span of Attention Memory Limitations Supports Calculation of Rework
910401 - ..
910402 - Span of Attention Supports Calculation of Rework, Cost Savings
910403 - SDS Record Segments Emulate Human Memory "Chunks" - 3 x 5 Cards
910404 - Technology Processes Mountains of Information Like a Backhoe Digs Dirt
910406 - Miller's paper (cited above, ref SDS 0 0920) explains and quantifies
910407 - human limits on remembering information that cause mistakes due to
910408 - limited span of attention, ref OF 4 9449, see below. ref SDS 0 5328
910410 - ..
910411 - On 940820 support needed to "debug" management to avoid mistakes in
910412 - daily communication. ref SDS 13 7404
910414 - ..
910415 - On 950204 management makes continual mistakes because people can align
910416 - information for only about 1 minute. ref SDS 15 0550
910418 - [On 020820 develop concept of 3-layer architecture using SDS for
910419 - Communication Metrics that expand span of attention. ref SDS 79
910420 - D78M
910422 - ..
910423 - [On 040505 Paris peace conference in 1919 heads of state began
910424 - holding meetings hoping to avoid keeping records, but found the
910425 - top people in the world could not remember enough to perform daily
910426 - work; eventually leadership yielded to an even stronger fear of
910427 - accountable for failing to get anything done, and so a record of
910428 - organizational memory was prepared and this change in management
910429 - practice yielded results that expedited progress. ref SDS 85 MQ49
910431 - ..
910432 - Earlier on 921205 there are seven (7) common excuses for failing to
910433 - use good management. ref SDS 6 6013
910435 - ..
910436 - Examples of bumbling, comedy of errors on 950327. ref SDS 17 0200
910438 - [Impact on earnings, costs are on 990316. ref SDS 64 4410]
910440 - ..
910441 - On 970811 report of a "window of vulnurability" on remembering too
910442 - much information too quickly. ref SDS 31 1111
910444 - ..
910445 - Limited span of attention was reviewed on 970829. ref SDS 33 7721 and
910446 - on information overload. ref SDS 33 2878 On 970818 Max discussed
910447 - "crisis management" caused by unwilligness to invest time to expand
910448 - human limits by using "planning." ref SDS 32 1897
910450 - ..
910451 - On 960419 processing "mountains" of information with SDS technology
910452 - improves management similar to using a backhoe rather than working
910453 - longer and harder. ref SDS 23 4096 Managers, however, prefer to work
910454 - longer and harder because they do not know that "intelligence" works
910455 - better, ref SDS 44 3379, and they do not have enough time to find out.
910456 - ref SDS 46 5313 and ref SDS 34 3479
910458 - [On 990325 not enough time to find out. ref SDS 67 9482]
7 Senses Biology Limits Span of Attention Reflect Cultural Artifacts
AG0401 - ..
AG0402 - 7 Senses Biology Limits Span of Attention Reflect Cultural Artifacts
AG0403 - Culture Reflects Span of Attention Limited by 7 Senses for Perception
AG0405 - Miller presents research showing people can remember at most seven (7)
AG0406 - subjects, with ample time. ref OF 4 WD6N When the number of subjects
AG0407 - increases above 3, and when time is limited, people have difficulty
AG0408 - remembering, and so mistakes occur because span of attention is
AG0409 - overwhelmed, ref OF 4 8491, discussed below, citing Drucker on people
AG0410 - giving up on communication. ref SDS 0 HE4N
AG0412 - ..
AG0413 - The Greek author Antipater of Sidon, who lived in the 2nd century
AG0414 - B.C., was one of several writers to list the greatest monuments and
AG0415 - buildings known to the classical world. He settled on seven because
AG0416 - that was considered a magic number by the Greeks.
AG0418 - ..
AG0419 - See...
AG0421 - TOWERWEB.NET Gateway...
AG0423 - http://towerweb.net/alt-lib/seven.shtml
AG0425 - Seven A mystic or sacred number. It is composed of four and
AG0426 - three, which, among the Pythagoreans, were, and from time
AG0427 - immemorial have been, accounted lucky numbers. Among the
AG0428 - Babylonians, Egyptians, and other ancient peoples, there were
AG0429 - seven sacred planets. The Hebrew verb for "to swear" means
AG0430 - literally to come under the influence of seven things; thus,
AG0431 - seven ewe lambs figure in the oath between Abraham and
AG0432 - Abimelech at Beersheba (Gen. 21:28); and Herodotus describes an
AG0433 - Arabian oath in which seven stones are smeared with blood.
AG0435 - ..
AG0436 - Examples illustrating the dominance of the number seven (7) in
AG0437 - cultural practices are...
AG0439 - 1. Seven days in a week.
AG0440 - 2. Seven days in Creation.
AG0441 - 3. Seven primary colors.
AG0442 - 4. Seven notes in the musical scale.
AG0443 - 5. Seven men of Troy assembled to reason, ref SDS 6 4080
AG0444 - 6. Seven commanders in War of the Seven
AG0445 - 7. Seven gates, City of
AG0446 - 8. Seven habits of successful people, 921205, ref SDS 6 4080
AG0447 - 9. Seven columns in solitare that tests span of attention
AG0448 - 10. Seventh son of a seventh son
AG0449 - 11. Seven graces
AG0450 - 12. Seven deadly sins.
AG0452 - Wikipedia
AG0454 - ..
AG0455 - http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Seven_deadly_sins
AG0457 - ..
AG0458 - White Stone Journal
AG0460 - http://whitestonejournal.com/index.php/seven-deadly-sins
AG0462 - 1. lust
AG0463 - 2. gluttony
AG0464 - 3. greed
AG0465 - 4. sloth
AG0466 - 5. anger
AG0467 - 6. envy
AG0468 - 7. pride
AG0470 - ..
AG0471 - [On 031206 Gopal Kapur's website uses this commonly
AG0472 - accepted guideline to list "management" sins for
AG0473 - advertising copy. ref SDS 83 6Y6O
AG0475 - ..
AG0476 - 13. Seven ages of man.
AG0477 - 14. Seven divisions in Lord's Prayer
AG0478 - 15. Seven cadles of unity (religious reference from India...
AG0480 - ...by Abdu'l-Baha of India
AG0482 - http://spirituality.indiatimes.com/articleshow/2306726.cms
AG0484 - a. First candle is unity in the political realm...
AG0485 - b. Second candle is unity of thought in world
AG0486 - undertakings...
AG0487 - c. Third candle is unity in freedom..
AG0488 - d. Fourth candle is unity in religion...
AG0489 - e. Fifth candle is unity in religion...
AG0490 - f. Sixth candle is unity of races...
AG0491 - g. Seventh candle is unity of languages...
AG0493 - ..
AG0494 - 16. Seven wonders of the world.
AG0496 - ..
AG0497 - 17. Sensory perception for most people can readily distinguish
AG0498 - about six different tones. ref OF 4 L44G about five degrees
AG0499 - of loudness, ref OF 4 Q74G, and research by the US Air
AG0500 - Force found similar ranges for visual judgements.
AG0501 - ref OF 4 KG5F
AG0503 - ..
AG0504 - [On 011129 Morris cited work on a military project
AG0505 - developed research showing pilots can only manage about
AG0506 - 11 guages in a fighter cockpit, during times of high
AG0507 - activity. ref SDS 78 FE64
AG0509 - ..
AG0510 - [On 040817 Gary found research on designing
AG0511 - menus to navigate computer files that downplays limits
AG0512 - developed in Miller's research. ref SDS 86 0001
AG0514 - ..
AG0515 - [On 090330 1200 Doctor Hsu cited experience at UCSF
AG0516 - shows writing things down enables comprehensive health
AG0517 - care by overcoming limited span of attention.
AG0518 - ref SDS 90 9B65
AG0520 - ..
AG0521 - 18. Four senses: sight, sound, smell, taste, touch; and eight
AG0522 - sources of sensory perception: two eyes, two years, one
AG0523 - nose and one mouth and two hands may relate in some way to
AG0524 - the minds ability to handle seven subjects at once.
AG0526 - ..
AG0527 - Human biology has seven (7) paths for information to reach the brain
AG0528 - through sensory perception, per above. ref SDS 0 575F This physical
AG0529 - limit on span of attention makes understanding increasingly difficult
AG0530 - when when the number of subjects rises above 3. ref SDS 0 5328
AG0532 - ..
AG0533 - Peter Drucker reports people have given up on improving management
AG0534 - because the complexity of communication through conversation in
AG0535 - meetings and calls comprises about 90% of management time and effort.
AG0536 - When details overwhelm human limits on memory, noted by Millier,
AG0537 - people are forced to remember only the gist of the story, causing
AG0538 - continual bumbling, reviewed on 931130. ref SDS 8 3851 Miller's
AG0539 - research suggests that "complexity" occurs when the number of subjects
AG0540 - (i.e., things to think about) exceeds seven (7), because that is the
AG0541 - upper limit on human span of attention, ref SDS 0 5328, perhaps
AG0542 - because that is the number of paths the brain has available for
AG0543 - sensory perception, per above. ref SDS 0 HE4N
AG0545 - [On 061020 7 subjects too many for agenda meeting to review
AG0546 - patient history for diagnosis and treatment planning in health
AG0547 - care, medical practice examinations. ref SDS 88 MO4K
AG0549 - ..
AG0550 - NWO explains the burden of cognitive overhead, ref OF 2 LH6K, drives
AG0551 - people to avoid deliberation essential for diligence to verify
AG0552 - accuracy. ref OF 2 PQ4M
AG0554 - ..
AG0555 - Jeremy Campbell's book reviewed on 900303 says people pay a price for
AG0556 - remembering only the gist of information, ref SDS 2 7Z6G, where "gist"
AG0557 - is short-hand for "span of attention," which Miller reports is limited
AG0558 - to about 7 things. ref SDS 0 5328 Campbell further points out that the
AG0559 - price people pay for limited span of attention is endless mistakes.
AG0560 - Henry Kissinger describes this common malady as an "Alice in
AG0561 - Wonderland" of continual bumbling because people are overwhelmed by
AG0562 - the complexity of daily work, reported on 940609, ref SDS 11 4238
AG0563 - Continual bumbling due to limited span of attention causes continual
AG0564 - "rework," extra cost and delay, leading to conflict, crisis and
AG0565 - calamity, reported on 971008. ref SDS 37 1273 It follows that
AG0566 - expanding information with faster technology necessarily creates a
AG0567 - growing liability that slows productivity, earnings and the economy at
AG0568 - large, in the absence of technology that augments intelligence by
AG0569 - expanding span of attention beyond the limits of innate human biology,
AG0570 - discovered by Millier, as further explained in NWO. ref OF 2 4925
AG0572 - ..
AG0573 - [On 001207 too many people having too many problems caused
AG0574 - productivity, earnings and stock prices to fall.
AG0575 - ref SDS 76 V54M
SDS Leverages Intelligence 7 Ways Expands Span of Attention Increase
B50401 - ..
B50402 - SDS Leverages Intelligence 7 Ways Expand Span of Attention
B50404 - SDS is designed to redress limitations of human biology by providing
B50405 - seven (7) paths for finding information that augment human
B50406 - intelligence...
B50408 - 1. Schedule
B50409 - 2. Diary Summary
B50410 - 3. Subject Report
B50411 - 4. Contact Report
B50412 - 5. Document Log
B50413 - 6. Other Files
B50414 - 7. Keywords
B50416 - ..
B50417 - SDS records have 7 major components to manage context
B50419 - [On 040818 Gary discusses SDS design in relation to
B50420 - limited span of attention, ref SDS 86 LN5I, including using
B50421 - an outline structure reviewed on 031225. ref SDS 84 0185
B50423 - 1. Flexible structure spreadsheet for Knowledge Space
B50424 - 2. Description
B50425 - 3. Contacts
B50426 - 4. References
B50427 - 5. Control Fields
B50428 - 6. Headlines
B50429 - 7. Narrative
B50431 - ..
B50432 - [On 040505 Paris peace conference in 1919 heads of state
B50433 - began holding meetings hoping to avoid keeping records, but
B50434 - found the top people in the world could not remember enough
B50435 - to perform daily work; eventually leadership yielded to an
B50436 - even stronger fear of accountability for failure to get
B50437 - anything done, and so a record of organizational memory was
B50438 - prepared and this change in management practice yielded
B50439 - results that expedited progress. ref SDS 85 MQ49
B50441 - ..
B50442 - SDS provides a flexible structure to manage context, explained on
B50443 - 890523, ref SDS 1 MI6K, that reduces the burden of complexity by
B50444 - expanding span of attention. This design leverages innate ability to
B50445 - remember only the gist of information so that people can quickly and
B50446 - accurately remember 100% of the story; thus, turning an innate
B50447 - liability noted by Miller, Drucker, Campbell, into a powerful asset
B50448 - for productivity and progress, as explained in POIMS. ref OF 1 KH8J
B50450 - [On 990329 serial processing in the conscious span of attention is
B50451 - overwhelmed by the vastness of subject representations which
B50452 - reflect the complexity of daily life explained by Steven Pinker in
B50453 - his book, "How the Mind Works." ref SDS 68 GP2S
B50455 - ..
B50456 - [On 030317 Jeff Conklin notes that dialog mapping failes when the
B50457 - number of issues and loose ends exceeds span of attention.
B50458 - ref SDS 80 XU7L
B50460 - ..
B50461 - [On 030702 Nancy with US Army reported the record of a meeting
B50462 - prepared by Gary using SDS showed "everything and more"
B50463 - was remembered. ref SDS 82 IX91
B50465 - ..
B50466 - Overcoming limited span of attention is the benefit of investing time
B50467 - to identify the actual subjects that impact objectives, rather than
B50468 - rely on limited span of attention, under analysis on 960322,
B50469 - ref SDS 21 7749, and previously on 890523. ref SDS 1 P13O
B50471 - ..
B50472 - On 971007 Max indicated his experience shows meetings typically
B50473 - have fewer than 10 subjects, and meetings with a longer list
B50474 - required much greater effort. ref SDS 36 5920 and ref SDS 36 4957
B50476 - ..
B50477 - Increasing subjects (agenda items) caused anger and frustration.
B50478 - ref SDS 36 6229
B50480 - ..
B50481 - Identification of "subjects" on "automatic pilot" was analysed
B50482 - at ref SDS 36 6883.
B50484 - ..
B50485 - On 971005 Bill DeHart had similar experience on project with
B50486 - PG&E, Bechtel and Sprint. ref SDS 35 4921
B50488 - ..
B50489 - [On 990312 reviewed paper prepared by Max that has a number of
B50490 - diagrams with about 7 primary nodes. ref SDS 63 2704]
B50492 - ..
B50493 - In summarizing the rule of 7, per above, ref SDS 0 5328, the author
B50494 - says...
B50496 - ... the span of absolute judgment and the span of immediate
B50497 - memory impose severe limitations on the amount of information
B50498 - that we are able to receive, process, and remember. By
B50499 - organizing the stimulus input simultaneously into several
B50500 - dimensions and successively into a sequence of chunks, we
B50501 - manage to break (or at least stretch) this informational
B50502 - bottleneck.
B50504 - ... ref OF 4 6457 see below on "recoding" as a thought process to help
B50505 - people remember. ref SDS 0 1032
B50507 - [On 011129 Morris worked on a military project that developed
B50508 - research showing airplane pilots can only manage about 11
B50509 - guages. ref SDS 78 FE64
B50511 - ..
B50512 - An example is the lack of awareness on 990302 about information in the
B50513 - SDS record that impacted a $65M lawsuit. ref SDS 58 2128
B50515 - ..
B50516 - This suggests that, if a system can be devised to overcome the
B50517 - limitations of human biology for span of attention, perhaps by
B50518 - managing "chunks" of information using a 3x5 card-like-structures,
B50519 - then productivity would be significantly improved through more
B50520 - accurate memory, which greatly aids communication, including
B50521 - comprehension. Since management is mostly communication, this should
B50522 - reduce mistakes, reduce costs and improve earnings, as seen from USACE
B50523 - report on 971008. ref SDS 37 2979 and more recently on 981027.
B50524 - ref SDS 47 7315
B50526 - ..
B50527 - [On 011004 paper on KM proposes managing information in chunks,
B50528 - citing work by Chompsky. ref SDS 77 WH5N
B50530 - ..
B50531 - SDS says write things down as soon as possible, use the record to
B50532 - align and organize information into sizeable chunks -- this expands
B50533 - span of attention so more information can be processed than the mind
B50534 - is otherwise capable of handling on its own, as found by Miller. SDS
B50535 - enhances the ability to remember and to write, giving managers a lot
B50536 - of "firepower" to meet the demands of growing information work load,
B50537 - as explained on 950204. ref SDS 15 4995
Default Null Subject Account for Blank Record
BT0401 - ..
BT0402 - Cognitive Challenges Ignored Feared Denied
BT0404 - One difficulty that work-a-day managers have is the lack of a
BT0405 - simple linear calculation for cost savings using Communication
BT0406 - Metrics, nor is there a cultural history that establishes
BT0407 - savings, as in the case of accounting metrics. They can see a
BT0408 - backhoe process more dirt than 20 men, but they cannot "see" SDS
BT0409 - process more information than a bunch of smart people, because
BT0410 - the work occurs out of sight, in a computer and in the mind, and
BT0411 - because the product of "intelligence" pays off over time, so the
BT0412 - results are outside span of attention.
BT0414 - ..
BT0415 - The model for evaluating future results is "return on investment"
BT0416 - (ROI), so there is a natural demand for evidence of cost savings.
BT0418 - ..
BT0419 - Evidence, however, seems unbelievable that is outside human
BT0420 - experience. This tension drives a demand for a steady state
BT0421 - return, like drawing interest in a savings account. People know
BT0422 - that cost savings from improving communication will not result in
BT0423 - someone writing us a check for $200K. However, demanding such
BT0424 - "proof" offers a convenient cover to avoid changing personal work
BT0425 - practice and having to think about the consequences of not doing
BT0426 - so.
BT0428 - [On 990317 manager not totally convinced "cutting edge" method
BT0429 - to add "metrics" to communication will work. ref SDS 65 5600
BT0431 - ..
BT0432 - Savings from better management, like the cost of poor management,
BT0433 - and like better memory, come in "chunks" interspersed over time,
BT0434 - similar to savings from insurance policies. That is because the
BT0435 - impact of communication is uncertain when it occurs. No Chief
BT0436 - Executive, Project Manager nor anyone else expects that any
BT0437 - particular communication, however well accomplished, will, by
BT0438 - itself, yield cost savings or better earnings. It is the
BT0439 - cumulative effect of good management over time that enables the
BT0440 - good leader to produce good earnings, under the farming analogy
BT0441 - of investing. ref SDS 18 4404
BT0443 - ..
BT0444 - Accordingly, savings from Communication Metrics cannot be proven
BT0445 - by linear equations that say pay us x amount and you will get y
BT0446 - return by a particular date, as with an interest bearing account.
BT0447 - The calculation on 971008 presents a method to estimate results
BT0448 - based on critical factors of human cognition. ref SDS 37 1273
BT0450 - ..
BT0451 - The report on 981027 shows quite remarkable, even miraculous,
BT0452 - results can be expected from adding intelligence to management.
BT0453 - ref SDS 47 7315
BT0455 - [On 990316 savings by improving management must overcome
BT0456 - strong resistance. ref SDS 64 4410]
BT0458 - ..
BT0459 - There is though another factor that inhibits acceptance: culture.
BT0461 - ..
BT0462 - Culture relates to "what everybody else is doing." We don't want
BT0463 - to go first!" ...goes the common cry. But even this can be
BT0464 - overcome.
BT0466 - [On 990317 manager not totally convinced. ref SDS 65 5600]
BT0467 - ..
BT0468 - Communication Metrics has an additional burden.
BT0470 - ..
BT0471 - Its support for the functioning of the human mind engenders fear
BT0472 - and anger that are quite overwhelming in many cases, as reviewed
BT0473 - on 961017, ref SDS 28 5832; and on 970611. ref SDS 29 2870
BT0475 - ..
BT0476 - Managers feel they should be intelligent and good communicators,
BT0477 - so it seems to be a blow to sense-of-self to use intelligence for
BT0478 - improving communication (see NWO. ref OF 2 0110) At the very
BT0479 - least this seems redundant, a duplicate cost; and; even though
BT0480 - this is incorrect, because nobody can handle, on their own, the
BT0481 - new environment of information overload, lack of absolute "proof"
BT0482 - on cost savings is an easy cover for deep, emotional resistance
BT0483 - to adding intelligence to management. ref SDS 54 5200
BT0485 - [On 990305 reviewed intangible deliverable. ref SDS 60 9328]
BT0487 - ..
BT0488 - [On 990317 not totally convinced "cutting edge" method to add
BT0489 - "metrics" to communication will work. ref SDS 65 5600]
Magical Number 7 Plus or Minus 2 Limits on Capacity to Process Infor
CU0401 - ..
CU0402 - Paraphrase Recode Segment Name 3x5 Card Chunks Improves Memory
CU0403 - Recode Paraphrase Information in 3x5 Card Chunks to Aid Retrieval
CU0404 - Meaning Drift People Recode Paraphrase Segment Informatino 3x5 Cards
CU0405 - Stories Connect 3x5 Information Chunks Yields Useful Intelligence
CU0407 - Miller defines "bits" of information, and "chunks." ref OF 4 3795 from
CU0408 - his paper reviewed above. ref SDS 0 6177 On 940901 SDS provides
CU0409 - flexible structure that enables organizing information into convenient
CU0410 - "chunks," also called record segments. ref SDS 14 9009
CU0412 - ..
CU0413 - Communication theory says the brain "recodes" bits of information into
CU0414 - a "chunk" and gives it a name. Then people need merely remember the
CU0415 - "name" to recover the information bits. ref OF 4 4410 This seems to
CU0416 - reflect Campbell's explanation that the mind constructs plausible
CU0417 - "stories" to understand information in relation to personal needs and
CU0418 - experience, reviewed on 900303. ref SDS 2 3016 Campbell says ability
CU0419 - of human cognition to expand information based on presonal experience
CU0420 - is a powerful advantage, called "common sense," but people pay a price
CU0421 - when action is based on incorrect understanding. ref SDS 2 4456
CU0422 - Landauer describes a process of "meaning drift" that explains how the
CU0423 - mind changes information, reviewed on 960518. ref SDS 24 3734
CU0425 - [On 990329 Steven Pinker calls meaning drift a feature not a bug
CU0426 - of human cognition, because in the original setting where the
CU0427 - brain evolved, context helped prevent misunderstanding from
CU0428 - recoding; but in the modern era, recoding occurs apart from
CU0429 - original context, and this accelerates meaning drift. ref SDS 68
CU0430 - 3196
CU0432 - ..
CU0433 - Recoding is evident from the common practice of a teacher telling a
CU0434 - student to "paraphrase, by saying it in your own words," in order to
CU0435 - aid understanding and memory by correlations with personal experience.
CU0436 - Since people "recode" information to fit their own experience, it is
CU0437 - easier to use "recoded" words that have a familiar context, than to
CU0438 - remember original words heard or read from someone else. Recoding and
CU0439 - paraphrasing to aid memory enables people to be effective by
CU0440 - remembering only the gist of things, rather than the actual record.
CU0442 - ..
CU0443 - On 971229 the "telephone game" is a humerous example of the mind
CU0444 - recoding information and passing it on. ref SDS 42 1526
CU0446 - [On 990422 Dave Vannier at Intel cites joke that illustrates need
CU0447 - for short "chunks" of stuff. ref SDS 69 4590]
CU0449 - [On 990710 Dan Palanza building a bookkeeping system that may
CU0450 - apply system of naming patterns. ref SDS 70 0864]
CU0452 - ..
CU0453 - [On 990924 telephone game that recodes information causes high
CU0454 - cost of medical mistakes due to meaning drift from constant
CU0455 - recoding over time. ref SDS 71 3955
CU0457 - ..
CU0458 - [On 991007 paradigm shift of millennium is that communication is
CU0459 - the biggest risk in enterprise. ref SDS 72 7920
CU0461 - ..
CU0462 - [On 000305 Xanadu transclusions seems to manage commonality of
CU0463 - information "chunks."
CU0465 - ..
CU0466 - On 911121 Morris Jones at Intel recognized that SDS supports a 3x5
CU0467 - card system that records "chunks" of information. ref SDS 4 8849 He
CU0468 - cited this again on 950223, ref SDS 16 9933; and on 960519 reviewed
CU0469 - application of 3x5 card methods in detail. ref SDS 25 1934
CU0471 - [On 041111 Gary submits information on Maxthink that
CU0472 - supports outlining to organize information into components that
CU0473 - help prepare documents. ref SDS 87 KP3H
CU0475 - ..
CU0476 - On 911130 Justice Stanley Mosk of the California Supreme Court noticed
CU0477 - SDS links "chunks" into chains of chronology (diary records) which
CU0478 - supports legal practice to rely on cause and effect. ref SDS 5 5006
CU0480 - ..
CU0481 - "Chunks" as part of "meaning space" was reviewed on 960809 from
CU0482 - Landauer's paper. ref SDS 27 0085 On 960518 the alphabet is an analog
CU0483 - of connectionist theory. ref SDS 24 3374 On 971029 "chunks" of memory
CU0484 - was used to explain a theory of management rework. ref SDS 39 0275,
CU0485 - cited also in POIMS. ref OF 1 2301
CU0487 - ..
CU0488 - As noted, "recoding" to aid memory and understanding the context of
CU0489 - information in relation to personal experience may explain "meaning
CU0490 - drift" identified on 960518, ref SDS 24 3734, based on how the mind
CU0491 - constructs "meaning" reviewed on 960809. ref SDS 27 5555 It explains
CU0492 - "information entropy" cited by US Air Force reviewed on 970707,
CU0493 - ref SDS 30 0108, illustrated by the "telephone game" reviewed on
CU0494 - 971229, where people change communication when re-telling a story,
CU0495 - ref SDS 42 1526, which explains the report on 960205 of studies that
CU0496 - managers waste 70% of the day in meetings, ref SDS 19 5222, because
CU0497 - they are overwhelmed by information (reported by CBS News on 980412,
CU0498 - ref SDS 43 8956). Since managers do not have time to think, see
CU0499 - 970910, ref SDS 34 3479, management becomes a comedy of errors, or as
CU0500 - Kissinger says an "Alice in Wonderland" of continual bumbling,
CU0501 - reported on 940609. ref SDS 11 4238 This is the price people pay for
CU0502 - expanding information noted by Campbell on 900303. ref SDS 2 4456
CU0504 - ..
CU0505 - This makes communication the biggest risk in enterprise, from analysis
CU0506 - on 991010.
CU0508 - ..
CU0509 - An example is the record of the Broadwater Dam project on 911009,
CU0510 - ref SDS 3 3333, and
CU0512 - [On 990311 asked Max for comment. ref SDS 62 5852]
CU0514 - [On 991101 meaning drift similar to "confusion," ref SDS 73 2800,
CU0515 - solution is "alignment." ref SDS 73 1448]
CU0517 - ..
CU0518 - [On 001207 too many people having too many problems causes
CU0519 - productivity, earnings and stock prices to fall; a heavy price
CU0520 - for relying on common sense, rather than organizational memory.
CU0521 - ref SDS 76 V54M
CU0523 - ..
CU0524 - [On 040505 Paris peace conference in 1919 heads of state began
CU0525 - holding meetings hoping to avoid keeping records, but found the
CU0526 - top people in the world could not remember enough to perform
CU0527 - daily work; eventually leadership yielded to an even stronger
CU0528 - fear of accountable for failing to get anything done, and so a
CU0529 - record of organizational memory was prepared and this change in
CU0530 - management practice yielded results that expedited progress.
CU0531 - ref SDS 85 MQ49
CU0533 - ..
CU0534 - Miller believes "chunks" can be of varying size, which may support the
CU0535 - notion of an organic structure for human thinking" that comprises an
CU0536 - expanding spectrum of associated "bits" accumulated over time, as
CU0537 - shown in the NWO paper. ref OF 2 5846
CU0539 - ..
CU0540 - The author says...
CU0542 - "... linguistic recoding that people do seems to ...be the
CU0543 - very lifeblood of the thought processes."
CU0545 - ... ref OF 4 3726
CU0547 - ..
CU0548 - Since "recoding" necessarily leads to "meaning drift," a "metric" may
CU0549 - be needed to maintain alignment. ref SDS 27 8849
Intelligence Connects Time Information into Chains Cause Effect Yiel
CZ0401 - ..
CZ0402 - Intelligence Adds Time to Information for Understanding Causation
CZ0403 - Communication "Metrics" Designed for Management Improve Performance
CZ0405 - Miller maintains that at a low level, information processing endemic
CZ0406 - to "communication" is subject to measurements. This may support using
CZ0407 - a system of Communication Metrics for daily management. ref OF 4 6848
CZ0408 - The form and application of these metrics must of necessity be suited
CZ0409 - to the conditions and purpose of management: getting things done
CZ0410 - correctly and on time. "Measuring" communication with traditional
CZ0411 - methods is difficult, but should not be an excuse to avoid improving
CZ0412 - performance and earnings by adding a metric that is suitable to
CZ0413 - business. (see "What's a Metric" on 950223. ref SDS 16 5868; and on
CZ0414 - "subject indexing" on 960322. ref SDS 22 7749
CZ0416 - ..
CZ0417 - Remembering is enhanced by "retelling" to ourselves what we encounter,
CZ0418 - hear and see, in our own words. ref OF 4 8503 This seems to suggest
CZ0419 - the more we write-up the record, the better we can remember it,
CZ0420 - because we have done it in our own words.
CZ0422 - ..
CZ0423 - The problem of people drawing different meaning from common events, is
CZ0424 - explained by the notion that "meaning" derives from life experience,
CZ0425 - and everyone's experience is different. ref OF 4 5799
CZ0427 - ..
CZ0428 - Confusion is discussed as making mental mistakes. ref OF 4 0471
CZ0430 - ..
CZ0431 - Intelligence to build "shared meaning," also "common understanding,"
CZ0432 - is an essential expense in the age of information overflow, as seen
CZ0433 - from review on 980815 of U.S. foreign policy. ref SDS 45 1173
CZ0435 - ..
CZ0436 - However, it is not clear where the paper addresses the problem of not
CZ0437 - recognizing confusion due to lack of time, which is by far the
CZ0438 - greatest cause of mistakes, extra cost, delay. See for example review
CZ0439 - of Landauer's work on 960321. ref SDS 20 0076
CZ0441 - ..
CZ0442 - Analysis in NWO presents a concept...
CZ0444 - Automated Thinking: Leveraging the Capacity of the Mind
CZ0446 - ..
CZ0447 - ...where "confusion" is resolved through experience building theories,
CZ0448 - concepts, and paradigms to understand cause and effect. ref OF 2 5203
CZ0450 - ..
CZ0451 - Miller specifically ignores the factor of time, ref OF 4 0471, which
CZ0452 - is the dominate force on management. In the real world, if we want
CZ0453 - useful intelligence, if we want to improve earnings that depend on
CZ0454 - good decisions from processing information, then we need to add an
CZ0455 - ingredient to accomplish this objective: a communication manager with
CZ0456 - a good memory.
CZ0458 - ..
CZ0459 - Communication Managers have memory that is "better than most" as found
CZ0460 - by District Counsel today, ref DRT 2 5112, because SDS supports key
CZ0461 - aspects of human cognition. ref SDS 15 0550
CZ0463 - [On 990319 what happened last year is taxing. ref SDS 66 8745]
Distribution. . . . See "CONTACTS"