THE WELCH COMPANY
440 Davis Court #1602
San Francisco, CA 94111-2496
415 781 5700
S U M M A R Y
DIARY: July 23, 2000 02:14 PM Saturday;
SDS history developing POIMS, Communication Metrics, Knowledge Management.
......."Tell me what I need to know in 25 words or 30 seconds!"
2...Paperless Office Enabled by Computers Efficient Records Management
3...SDS Development Started in 1983; Core Design Set in 1985
4...Organizational Memory Drives Intelligence Process Plan Perform Report
...............People Process Time
5...Thinking Through Writing Advanced by Computer Technology
6...Lucky Confluence Enabling Forces Yields Design Initial Platform
7...Miracle Critical Mass Enabling Forces Evolved into Alignment
8...SDS Version 1 Developed from 1985 to 1988
9...1985 SDS Technology Integrated Time Information People Context
10...Experience Revealed Powerful Architecture of Human Thought
11...SDS Version 2 Refined Original Concepts in 1988
12...Subject Index Control Fields Implement Paperless Office
13...Paperless Office Requires Flexible Structure Precision Access
14...SDS Version 3 Evolved Technology to Leverage Intelligence
15...Version 4 Internet Support Better Integration More Memory
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History of SDS, POIMS, Communication Metrics
Welch History Background Leading to SDS and Com Metrics
0804 - ..
0805 - Summary/Objective
080601 - Follow up ref SDS A5 2583. ref SDS 28 0000.
080603 - This record reflects prior reviews of SDS development, for example
080604 - reported on 930728 1130, ref SDS 17 3P3F, and meetings with the Corps
080605 - of Engineers on 961003 1606. ref SDS 43 6I64
080607 - ..
080608 - Beginning in 1965, a 15 year career in contracting led to management
080609 - practices using a conventional notebook to write a record on important
080610 - details of daily work, like Cliff Joslyn used today visiting from the
080611 - Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). ref SDS A5 5084
080613 - ..
080614 - One of my assignments at Lord Bros., in Portland, Oregon, during 1965
080615 - and 1966, was to handle daily "Diary" reports from project managers.
080616 - I collected the documents, and organized the record chronologically
080617 - for review by Bill Lord. I checked the diaries for movement of major
080618 - equipment between projects, and wrote reports for billings, and to
080619 - guide decisions on equipment availablity for assignments to other
080620 - projects. Location was tracked by a chart which I maintained on the
080621 - wall in Bill's office.
080623 - ..
080624 - Experience in the military during 1967 and 1968 exposed processes to
080625 - organize the record using a "suspense file" for time management. A
080626 - list of keywords were written on the left side of lined paper for
080627 - background and pending tasks; each of these words was associated with
080628 - a keyword on objectives written along the right side. Was told at the
080629 - time in 1967, that the FBI used this this method, but this was never
080630 - verfified. Numbers were assigned for priorty. Brief comments on
080631 - results were noted on the list during the day. At the end of the day,
080632 - the current list was used to make another list for the next day, and
080633 - so on. These commented lists of daily action items were saved in a
080634 - file folder for a cursory record of what had been planned and
080635 - accomplished. This practice complemented how contractors prepare a
080636 - "diary" of daily work, and how ship captains keep a daily log to
080637 - record events. ref SDS 0 LR5F
080639 - ..
080640 - Skills to manage objectives were honed through experience over the
080641 - years making calls and conducting meetings. Initial emphasis on
080642 - communication aimed for leadership and collaboration to obtain
080643 - agreement, commonly described as getting people to say "yes." Writing
080644 - skills grew through experience preparing letters, contracts, reports,
080645 - specifications, etc.
080647 - ..
080648 - Common practices to manage work flow and resource requirements with
080649 - cost and schedule control were used extensively. Experience observing
080650 - mentors, and from trial and error over many years showed that
080651 - understanding the organic structure of work including communication
080652 - evolves from both doing daily work and writing what work was done,
080653 - explaining problems and opportunities. Writing a daily diary
080654 - increased understanding of critical details for solving problems and
080655 - taking action in time to be effective. In other words, investing time
080656 - to write detailed reports guided planning and scheduling that reduced
080657 - the chance of mistakes, and so saved time and money. However, at that
080658 - time there was no awareness, scrutiny nor study of the management
080659 - process, because there was not enough time, and there is no evident
080660 - need for improvement with money coming in, other than to attend
080661 - professional events from time to time, which turned out to be
080662 - marketing efforts for well established practices that are useful, but
080663 - also difficult to use on a regular basis due to limited time.
080665 - ..
080666 - Traditional management practices worked well applied over long hours
080667 - to keep up with the pace of constant meetings, calls and documents for
080668 - managing a contracting business.
080670 - ..
080671 - In 1975 a contract dispute with the State of California Department of
080672 - Transportation (Caltrans) exposed weaknesses that are not normally
080673 - evident to busy people on the job, because the press of handling
080674 - complex daily working information masks the actual state of affairs,
080675 - as Doug Engelbart discusses in his 1972 paper, reviewed many years
080676 - later on 000327. ref SDS 71 3971
080678 - ..
080679 - The issue with the State of California was misrepresentation of tide
080680 - conditions for a project to clear debris from the bay floor and
080681 - construct a new concrete fender to protect pier 11 on the
080682 - Benecia-Martinez bridge in the Carquinez straits. In January 1975 a
080683 - ship headed for the port of Stockton got slightly off course in the
080684 - fog and struck Pier 11. The fender saved the bridge, but was
080685 - completely destroyed, and so had to be re-constructed. An engineer
080686 - later questioned the wisdom of engineering that resulted in total
080687 - failure from performing the design function; however, this was not an
080688 - issue in the dispute between Welch and Caltrans.
080690 - ..
080691 - Tide levels on the Pier 11 project plans came from plans for the
080692 - original construction of the Benecia-Martinez bridge built in the
080693 - 1960s by Murphy Pacific, which in turn appear to have been copied from
080694 - the plans for the Carquinez bridge constructed in the 1950s at the
080695 - other end of the strait, about 4 miles West. The design and elevation
080696 - of protective fenders, and tide levels are shown in the project plans
080697 - for both bridges to be identical. However, tide levels are actually
080698 - one (1) foot higher at the Pier 11 location, and this fact impacted
080699 - the cost of construction. Higher tide levels caused work on fenders
080700 - for the Benecia-Martinez bridge to be flooded for a much longer period
080701 - of time each day than under the lower, incorrect figures shown in the
080702 - State's plans.
080704 - ..
080705 - Error in the plans was discovered during construction, when the time
080706 - to perform the work exceeded the original estimate. This increased
080707 - cost caused severe loss of earnings. The project manager reported
080708 - that tide levels prevented and slowed progress during much of the work
080709 - day, which stretched out completion, thus increasing cost.
080710 - Investigating why tide levels obstructed the work, when the plans
080711 - showed clearance, led to discovering that the plans were incorrect.
080713 - ..
080714 - When notified of the error during construction, the State corrected
080715 - the plans, but refused to pay the extra cost to perform the work on
080716 - the grounds that the contractor should not have relied on the plans to
080717 - bid the job. State administrative review of the claim held that,
080718 - while the plans were erroneous, this was not a material
080719 - misrepresentation because, the State maintained, the contractor erred
080720 - by relying on the plans and should have, instead, relied on published
080721 - tide tables. The State ignored that reliance on erroneous tide tables
080722 - would have made the contractor liable for failure to rely on the
080723 - State's published plans. After work was completed, the State was sued
080724 - for misrepresentation to recover extra cost for working under actual
080725 - conditions encountered on the job that were misrepresented in the
080726 - plans.
080728 - ..
080729 - Another issue in the Welch case was failure to disclose information
080730 - about a similar project performed five (5) years earlier to repair the
080731 - Pier 10 fender destroyed by a prior shipping accident in 1969. The
080732 - State gave the record of construction on Pier 10 repairs to one
080733 - bidder, who asked for the amount of time needed for debris removal and
080734 - reconstruction on the prior project. After giving out supplemental
080735 - information on a prior identical project to one bidder, it was was
080736 - still not disclosed to the other bidders.
080738 - ..
080739 - Besides showing the level of effort for the work, Pier 10 information
080740 - also showed the contractor was paid on a force account basis to recoup
080741 - actual expenses for debris removal. The contractor who got this
080742 - information planned to request a change order for similar payment on
080743 - Pier 11, since estimating cost of debris removal on the bay floor that
080744 - could not be readily surveyed at the bottom of bay due to high
080745 - turbulence was difficult, and therefore required a very high risk
080746 - contingency premium, without disclosure of prior history on Pier 10.
080748 - ..
080749 - As a result of erroneous plans, failure to disclose, and failure to
080750 - provide equal treatment of bidders, the suit sought recovery of
080751 - approximately $400,000 to pay for extra work. The Welch company was
080752 - launched in 1974. The Pier 11 work bid in March of 1975 was the 3rd
080753 - or 4th project of the new firm. The Pier 10 project was performed in
080754 - 1969 by Murphy Pacific, which was long established and specialized in
080755 - marine construction, having built the original Benecia-Martinez bridge
080756 - in the early 1960s, and earlier worked on the San Francisco Bay Bridge
080757 - in the 30s, the Richmond-San Rafael Bridge in the 50s, and other major
080758 - projects throughout the country. A workman for Murphy Pacific on Pier
080759 - 10, was called to testify by the State. He had worked on all of the
080760 - major marine projects over a 30 year career, and testified that
080761 - because of tide levels being so close to where work was performed,
080762 - ref SDS 0 QZ66, Pier 10, was the most difficult job he had ever
080763 - experienced in the Bay Area. This evidence aligned with loss of life
080764 - on the Pier 10 project, when a diver working on Christmas eve got his
080765 - air lines caught attempting to remove the tangle of pilings on the bay
080766 - floor, and died.
080768 - ..
080769 - The State argued this evidence showed that the contractor erred by
080770 - bidding the identical Pier 11 in 1975 project with limited experience,
080771 - and that lack of experience attempting such a difficult, dangerous
080772 - project caused extra cost of $400,000 rather than misrepresentations
080773 - and withholding material information. Review of State records showed
080774 - that Pier 11 took 30% less labor and 20% less equipment than was
080775 - required by an expert doing identical work on Pier 10. This showed
080776 - that the actual cost of Pier 11 was reasonable under the actual
080777 - conditions of the work, which was completed within the six (6) months
080778 - time specified for the work in 1975.
080780 - ..
080781 - Administrative claims, and the legal process of discovery, settlement
080782 - hearings, and just waiting for a court date delayed trial for five (5)
080783 - years. Counsel recommended a court trial, which allowed judgement to
080784 - rest solely with the judge, rather than a jury. The plaintiff
080785 - requested a jury trial, but eventually waived this on advice of
080786 - counsel, and strong recommendation by the pre-trial judge who said a
080787 - jury would have a difficult time understanding the complexity of the
080788 - case.
080790 - ..
080791 - At trial in 1980, witnesses for the government testified there was not
080792 - enough time to check the files and the contract, so they relied on
080793 - their notes, their memory and what everybody said at the time, because
080794 - nobody had time to prepare and maintain a useful record. Each witness
080795 - had a different story about what was said, done and intended in
080796 - relation to objectives, requirements and commitments. Most striking
080797 - was the amount of confusion and conflict in testimony by witnesses,
080798 - who criticized others for not being informed, for failing to do their
080799 - "homework," for not following established policy, procedure and
080800 - contract provisions.
080802 - ..
080803 - This experience revealed that good management practice, which people
080804 - commonly urge on others, is a lot harder to accomplish than is evident
080805 - during a busy day. People feel they are doing the best they can, and
080806 - so believe their problems are caused because others (boss,
080807 - subordinate, colleague, contractor, etc.) are not working hard enough
080808 - to use good management practice. Evidence at trial indicated that
080809 - nobody has time to create clear, concise, complete records nor to
080810 - check the files to verify accuracy of daily working information. The
080811 - busier people become, i.e., when time is short, the human mind
080812 - summarizes causing cursory understanding that conceals error, as
080813 - explained in POIMS, ref OF 5 R69H, see also NWO. ref OF 13 0637
080815 - ..
080816 - Though unrelated, the tenor of this case was very similar to a study
080817 - presented at a professional seminar 15 years later on 940612.
080818 - ref SDS 21 8239
080820 - ..
080821 - As in the case study, testimony in the Welch case revealed busy
080822 - engineers misplaced and lost files due to bumbling, and some files
080823 - were simply destroyed to avoid accountability.
080825 - ..
080826 - The judge noted that destroying the record places witnesses at the
080827 - mercy of the court to make all reasonable inferences against the
080828 - witness, including that a cover up is intended.
080830 - ..
080831 - Defense counsel objected that common practice is for lawyers to
080832 - counsel clients not to keep records on the theory that ignorance is a
080833 - better defense against accountability than knowledge, therefore, the
080834 - judge should not make inferences that a witness is covering up, just
080835 - because they lost some files, didn't have time to prepare records and
080836 - can't remember every small detail from many years ago.
080838 - ..
080839 - The judge sustained this objection, but noted the best defense against
080840 - accountability for mistakes is a record that enables people to get
080841 - things done correctly. Destroying records is tricky because you can
080842 - never destroy everything, and, when you try, the court is forced to
080843 - rely on the opponent's records, and must view with suspicion testimony
080844 - after-the-fact that events happened differently from people who say
080845 - they didn't have time to prepare the record, they lost it, or some
080846 - such excuse.
080848 - ..
080849 - Defense counsel pointed out that while keeping good records reduces
080850 - mistakes, lawyers have to defend clients against liability for the
080851 - small number of mistakes that still occur, since no system can ever be
080852 - perfect. Lawyers cannot totally control how juries will take writings
080853 - out of context, so lawyers prefer clients to have no records. Even
080854 - though this increases mistakes and damages, the lawyer uses
080855 - communication skills to persuade the jury that the client is ignorant,
080856 - but not guilty of having known, or reasonably should have known, by
080857 - virtue of a word or two in long forgotten documents, that
080858 - inconsequential details would cause great harm, as later reported on
080859 - 921127. ref SDS 16 0674
080861 - ..
080862 - The judge asked why can't something be done to keep an audit trail so
080863 - people can avoid forgetting documents that have important information,
080864 - and can understand the context of taking action before harm occurs?
080865 - Why wouldn't that work, the Judge asked?
080867 - ..
080868 - Counsel noted that executives are getting mixed signals. Experts on
080869 - efficiency and productivity teach executives to follow government
080870 - regulations (see review of FAR on 020504, ref SDS C9 XV7L), and
080871 - contract notice provisions that require good management by keeping an
080872 - audit trail to avoid mistakes, like the mistake in the plans on the
080873 - Pier 11 project in this case, per above, ref SDS 0 IE4L, (see, also,
080874 - review of industry standards requiring traceability to original
080875 - sources, similar to citations used in legal practice, reported on
080876 - 950721, ref SDS 33 1740). However, executive training, also, teaches
080877 - people to ignore good management, ignore regulations and ignore the
080878 - contract, as unnecessary overkill (cited on 890324, ref SDS 4 8R51,
080879 - because courts often don't enforce regulations and contracts. As a
080880 - result, executives are forced to use "feel good" management to
080881 - expedite getting things done by avoiding "paperwork." (explained years
080882 - later on 911123, ref SDS 11 1331)
080884 - ..
080885 - The judge asked why not look at the documents to align the work with
080886 - requirements and commitments so that context is clear in the record,
080887 - rather than forget, ignore and destroy the record?
080889 - ..
080890 - The lawyer explained big decisions are made by busy executives removed
080891 - from the scene, who like to work by conversation, rather than study
080892 - details in documents. As a result, they don't know the actual context
080893 - from experiencing events. Unlike the judge who hears days, weeks and
080894 - sometimes months of testimony, and documents are studied in great
080895 - detail through examination and cross examination of witnesses,
080896 - executives perform little if any study. Decisions are made based
080897 - primarily on "common sense" from past experience that seems applicable
080898 - in the moment, but may not actually apply to the current situation.
080900 - ..
080901 - Without study for understanding critical details, as occurs in court,
080902 - taking proactive corrective action seems like unnecessary overkill
080903 - that wastes time and money, because when people rely on common sense
080904 - without investing time to understand correlations, implications and
080905 - nuance, as occurs in court, there is no basis to believe there is any
080906 - urgency to correct problems, despite explanations from people who are
080907 - on the scene. Investing time to analyse small details is resisted
080908 - beyond the emotional feeling that spending more time doesn't make
080909 - common sense, because everybody is busy on big problems that were
080910 - ignored when they were small enough to be fixed at minimal cost. As a
080911 - result, executives commonly demand...
080913 - ..
080914 - "Tell me what I need to know in 25 words or 30 seconds!"
080916 - ..
080917 - Company policies call for writing up problems to make effective
080918 - analysis, but managers feel they don't have time, so it seems faster
080919 - and easier to use common sense within the 25 words to 30 seconds
080920 - allocated for understanding daily events. If mistakes occur, it is
080921 - cheaper to destroy documents and buy off damages than invest time to
080922 - understand and follow up small details, because nobody knows which
080923 - detail will balloon into a big problem without writing up the record
080924 - to analyse context, and nobody has time for study. (see the report on
080925 - 921127, ref SDS 16 0674) Complexity of daily management presents a lot
080926 - of scenarios (see ticking time bombs" in POIMS, ref OF 6 JQ7H) that
080927 - make good management to write up the record for effective analysis
080928 - seem risky, because the record is ignored by relying on common sense
080929 - to save time and money, until discovered during a lawsuit. As a
080930 - result, many resist good management, lose the records, and display
080931 - superhuman feats of amnesia. (see example on 890324. ref SDS 4 LZ5F)
080933 - ..
080934 - The judge said that is very interesting. He paraphrased saying our
080935 - jurisprudence seems to make people better off having no records and
080936 - causing a lot of damage, rather than having good records to reduce
080937 - mistakes so there is less damage, because fewer records make it easier
080938 - to pull the wool over the eyes of the court and the jury to avoid
080939 - accountability, in the same way that leaving everybody in the dark
080940 - increases mistakes and damages. So, the net advantage is to avoid
080941 - records and hire a good lawyer rather than invest the time for good
080942 - management.
080944 - ..
080945 - Defense counsel responded for the record that the court's comment is
080946 - not an accurate representation of counsel's advice to clients.
080948 - ..
080949 - The judge said I understand. Let's proceed with trial.
080951 - ..
080952 - Some witnesses offered handwritten notebooks, but could not read them
080953 - very well. They were full of illegible scribbles hurriedly written
080954 - with words omitted, arrows pointing in all directions that made sense
080955 - at the time. Testimony explained there wasn't enough time to write
080956 - everything down nor to prepare a legible draft; nobody thought anyone
080957 - would care at the time. (Years later on 961023, handwritten notes were
080958 - useful for an expert analyst to create a legible record based on near
080959 - term understanding and opportunity to obtain feedback to refine
080960 - accuracy. ref SDS 44 2079) The boss testified that he told everyone
080961 - to save time and money by expediting, so the record was never
080962 - completed nor corrected with feedback. It didn't seem necessary
080963 - because everybody in the meetings seemed to understand what was going
080964 - on at the time.
080966 - ..
080967 - The Judge asked the boss how it was determined that everybody
080968 - understood what was going on at the time?
080970 - ..
080971 - The boss testified that nobody ever asked any questions, so he assumed
080972 - everybody understood everything. He learned about avoiding questions
080973 - getting his MBA and attending executive seminars. Keep a low profile
080974 - and you'll be okay was the guidance from top management experts.
080976 - ..
080977 - The Judge asked why that practice doesn't place a burden on the boss
080978 - to be proactive to query people during meetings on understandings in
080979 - order to test for conflicts and potential problems? The Judge noted
080980 - that is the only way a judge can understand critical context and
080981 - connections of causation to decide who wins the lawsuit.
080983 - ..
080984 - The boss said that sounds good in theory, but often there isn't enough
080985 - time to ask questions, like lawyers do in court, working day-to-day on
080986 - the job. When questions are asked, there isn't time to check the
080987 - record, nor is there time to write down what was asked and answered.
080988 - He said sometimes he works through lunch, comes in early and leaves
080989 - late, and there still isn't enough time to do everything the manuals
080990 - say to do in the way of tracking action items, commitments,
080991 - so-on-so-forth. (On 950721 management standards call for
080992 - "documentation" showing an audit trail, like accountants and lawyers
080993 - use, to original sources, ref SDS 33 1740)
080995 - [On 020504 Federal Acquisition Regulations (FAR) require a record
080996 - of organizational memory to ensure accuracy of the work.
080997 - ref SDS C9 IY4I
080999 - ..
081000 - [On 020820 people giving up on accuracy; seems less important
081001 - than creativity. ref SDS D0 V66I
081003 - ..
081004 - The boss testified that even though records were indecipherable at
081005 - trial, this didn't hinder making decisions at the time. He saved time
081006 - working by conversation when everyone understood context, and he used
081007 - the 20 80 method that says 80% of decisions only need 20% of the
081008 - information. That means you can forget about 80% of the information
081009 - and still be okay. (Years later this method was endorsed by experts
081010 - for saving time, on 950426. ref SDS 30 4022)
081012 - ..
081013 - The Judge asked "Can't a lot go wrong if decisions are unsupported by
081014 - 80% of the record? Can't that cause a lot of harm? What happens to
081015 - the 80% of information? Does anyone ever take a look to see what if
081016 - anything "slipped through the cracks" - something that might save
081017 - time, money, lives?"
081019 - ..
081020 - The boss said they were very sensitive to TQM concerns about quality
081021 - and listening, and so everybody was required to attend seminars. When
081022 - problems arose they had a meeting and talked things out.
081024 - ..
081025 - At one point the judge asked "How can you say that? Your story does
081026 - not hold water! We've had witness after witness come in hear and tell
081027 - us about commitments you made, and we have the contract in evidence.
081028 - Here, I have it here in my hand; and your organizational policy and
081029 - procedures. Nothing you are telling me now aligns with requirements
081030 - and commitments that have been put into evidence under oath before
081031 - this court."
081033 - ..
081034 - The witness apologized and said "It's plain now that this is a very
081035 - complex story. But, day-to-day it didn't seem complicated at the
081036 - time. Everyone seemed to understand from the context of what was
081037 - going on at the time, so it seemed like overkill to write everything
081038 - down that was obvious during the meetings and out on the job. So, I
081039 - guess what I am saying is that our story doesn't "hold water" now
081040 - because we didn't understand as well as we thought we did at the time,
081041 - if that makes any sense. I'm awfully sorry. We didn't intend for
081042 - things to turn out this way. But we didn't know enough at the time,
081043 - even though we had lots of information every day."
081045 - ..
081046 - Years later on 950417 former Defense Secretary Robert MacNamera
081047 - reported that events moved too fast for even the best and
081048 - brightest to know what was going on during the build up of
081049 - forces in the Vietnam era, despite having lots of information;
081050 - this experience points to significant difference between
081051 - "knowledge" and "information." ref SDS 29 5872
081053 - ..
081054 - Piecing disparate information together during trial from testimony,
081055 - correspondence and requirements in contracts, regulations and policies
081056 - revealed conflicting meanings are unknowingly drawn by participants
081057 - from common instruments, i.e., meetings, calls and documents. These
081058 - conflicts led people to take conflicting, rather than complementary,
081059 - actions. Small deviations in alignment of communication were
081060 - concealed from everyone's awareness by inadequate records and the
081061 - press of a busy schedule (i.e., "information overload," also the "fog
081062 - of war"), and so were overlooked and forgotten at a time when the cost
081063 - of correction would have been minimal. Small problems escalated, but
081064 - were ignored then covered up rather than anyone bear responsibility
081065 - for accountability from having allowed little mistakes to escalate
081066 - then ignore growing problems. Eventually huge losses could no longer
081067 - be concealed because nobody could afford, and/or was willing, to
081068 - buy-off the consequences of bad management, leading to a lawsuit.
081070 - ..
081071 - On 970524 Morris reported on a seminar at Cal Tech that pieced
081072 - together communication showing failures that caused the Challenger
081073 - Space Shuttle to explode following launch in 1986. ref SDS 47 7298
081075 - [On 030304 same problem caused loss of Columbia Space Shuttle
081076 - and her crew of 7. ref SDS D2 KV6K
081078 - ..
081079 - Experts from top management consultants, firms like Ernst & Young,
081080 - Booze Allen, Deloitte & Touche, etc., testified that daily work is
081081 - more complex than people realize when doing it. People are confused
081082 - by complexity from the constant blur of information, again sometimes
081083 - called the "fog of war." However, though confused, people do not feel
081084 - confused, because there is no immediate physical threat that forces
081085 - people to act in order to avoid the pain of physical combat, and so
081086 - the mind's ability to buffer complexity, enables people to put down
081087 - their pencil and shut off their computer to go home and tend to other
081088 - matters without worrying about many unresolved conflicts that will
081089 - surface in a few days, weeks, months or years to cause untold
081090 - calamity, and which will then be excused as "Murphy's Law." Even the
081091 - most high-payed, gifted executives and experts get easily confused and
081092 - make big mistakes by failing to align communication with requirements,
081093 - because they do not have the tools to discover conflicting stories,
081094 - nor to maintain a consistent record of alignment, following the basic
081095 - idea in Hansel and Gretle to construct an "audit trail" back to
081096 - original sources.
081098 - ..
081099 - This seemed startling, because people say it doesn't matter what we
081100 - say; it is only action that counts, leading to a feeling, we can say
081101 - anything in a meeting, but it doesn't matter as long as we do the
081102 - "right" thing. However, legal briefs showed that communications in
081103 - meetings, calls, discussions, letters and scribbled notes drive
081104 - decisions and precede actual work by hours, days, weeks, even years.
081105 - In other words, evidence at trial showed that communication is a
081106 - predicate to action under the common rule: so let it be written, so
081107 - let it be done, reviewed later on 941010. ref SDS 23 5R3I
081109 - ..
081110 - The cause of difficulty is easy to grasp in retrospect by discovering
081111 - communication that does not align with requirements, but it is very
081112 - hard to recognize at the time events occur using traditional methods
081113 - of relying on conversation and managing the dynamic complexity of
081114 - daily working information in meetings, calls, computers, filing
081115 - cabinets, notebooks, desk drawers, and personal memory, per Doug's
081116 - article reviewed on 000327. ref SDS 71 3971 Communication carefully
081117 - pieced together after-the-fact by high-priced, skilled experts in a
081118 - legal brief can show a clear and convincing story of causation. This
081119 - takes years of discovery and many drafts to make sense of complex
081120 - events that often seem disconnected and unrelated at the time work is
081121 - performed due to limited span of attention, reviewed later on 990303.
081122 - ref SDS 54 6120
081124 - ..
081125 - Lawyers and judges are paid to spend all of the time needed to unravel
081126 - and understand the chronology of complex scenarios that reveal the
081127 - root cause of mistakes. In depositions and during trial, they press
081128 - every witness to testify about...
081130 - "Then what happened?"
081132 - ...in order to "connect the dots" that enable everyone to easily trace
081133 - causation back to original sources.
081135 - ..
081136 - People performing work day-to-day on the job do not have the luxury of
081137 - a fixed record that is available to lawyers and judges. Performing
081138 - daily work to maintain progress always seems like there is not enough
081139 - time to understand dynamic, complex events in order to prepare clear,
081140 - concise and complete communications using available tools, per the
081141 - witness above. ref SDS A5 H44G Even lawyers and judges, who are great
081142 - at discovering and connecting details when paid $600 an hour to
081143 - present and hear a case at law on a record after-the-fact in the
081144 - calmness of a court room where the phone isn't ringing, there are no
081145 - other meetings to attend, and no emails to send and answer, don't in
081146 - fact themselves have enough time to discover and connect critical
081147 - details that show alignment of communication and conflicts that cause
081148 - continual mistakes, when they are at the office rather than in the
081149 - courtroom, as reported on 950605. ref SDS 31 0U3F The difference
081150 - between after-the-fact "study" by people being paid to discover how
081151 - communication should have been aligned years earlier for good
081152 - decisions that would have avoided mistakes, and limited time on the
081153 - job that causes a lot of hidden mistakes due to the "fog of war,"
081154 - later guided development of tools for deliberative analysis that
081155 - enable a practice of "concurrent discovery." ref SDS 0 JP5V
081157 - ..
081158 - After trial, everyone said that, since there wasn't enough time for
081159 - good management, mistakes were understandable under the circumstances,
081160 - and, since everyone did their best using methods taught at the top
081161 - management schools to expedite and save money there's nothing to worry
081162 - about.
081164 - ..
081165 - This experience indicated that "time" is the core driving force in
081166 - communication, understanding, thinking and getting things done.
081167 - Without ability to understand sequence, imparted by time and
081168 - chronology, the notion of "control" in daily management is an
081169 - oxymoron.
081171 - ..
081172 - A few years later the appellate court (Welch v State of California,
081173 - 139 Cal App 3rd, 546 1983) said that not having enough time to check
081174 - the files, the contract and the computer does not excuse mistakes that
081175 - cause harm. The actual litigation lasted 15 years, but the court
081176 - eventually held to the position that not having enough time to handle
081177 - daily working information is not excused.
081179 - ..
081180 - We checked with the Supreme Court, and they said that holding people
081181 - accountable encourages investing time and expense to align work with
081182 - requirements and commitments; they held that accountability for lack
081183 - of alignment is the only incentive the courts can provide for people
081184 - to avoid practices that cause mistakes and to improve practices that
081185 - reduce mistakes, which in combination save time and money in the long
081186 - run. Without accountability, a race to the bottom ensues, where
081187 - competition for business cuts cost by cutting capability for meeting
081188 - requirements and commitments.
081190 - ..
081191 - This experience from trial and appelate review indicated that better
081192 - time management and adding alignment to daily information save time
081193 - and money, which improves earnings and stock prices under the common
081194 - rule: time is money, see POIMS. ref OF 6 TP4N
081196 - ..
081197 - Sometime about 1977 and prior to the first trial in 1979, the practice
081198 - of scheduling tasks with cursory comments on results that began in
081199 - 1967, ref SDS 0 YE6J, evolved into a more robust diary effort. About
081200 - this same time work began on preparing for trial that included writing
081201 - legal briefs for the first trial and then later for appelate review.
081202 - Cursory comments on daily work expanded into a handwritten "diary" or
081203 - "journal" that reported work in progress with written analysis to
081204 - strengthen understanding for planning and scheduling follow up.
081206 - ..
081207 - Writing in a diary or journal to analyse daily work applies the power
081208 - of chronology for understanding causation based on the sequence of
081209 - events, which is a major factor during trial, and in preparing legal
081210 - briefs. ref SDS 0 TQ4H Exposure to the legal practice of linking for
081211 - adding alignment with precedent to writings, called "citations,"
081212 - expand common methods for footnotes and bibliography to amplify the
081213 - power of literacy for understanding causation. Better understanding
081214 - of why things occurred improves planning what needs to be done, i.e.,
081215 - scheduling. Religiously linking back to original sources in legal
081216 - briefs more closely applies methods observed in the Bible for
081217 - constructing a web of connections that refine and preserve memory of
081218 - important knowledge about cause and effect, called "causation" in the
081219 - law (see NWO, ref OF 13 4723). This experience beginning in 1977
081220 - focused on using writing for deeper understanding and better planning,
081221 - reinforced the correlation between diary and schedule begun in 1967.
081222 - ref SDS 0 HO4L
081225 - ..
081226 - Paperless Office Enabled by Computers Efficient Records Management
081227 - SDS Development Started in 1983; Core Design Set in 1985
081228 - Organizational Memory Drives Intelligence Process Plan Perform Report
081230 - Follow up ref SDS A5 0008.
081232 - The goal of using computers to leverage human intelligence summarized
081233 - as integrating....
081235 - ..
081236 - People Process Time
081238 - ...(see POIMS, ref OF 4 5884), was set in 1983 to solve weaknesses in
081239 - in management practice exposed at trial, per above. ref SDS 0 TV4J
081240 - POIMS evolved from experience using and developing SDS technology that
081241 - helps people think, remember, and communicate. POIMS was initially
081242 - prepared about 1989 to explain and understand what was discovered over
081243 - the prior six (6) years of trial and error developing SDS and using it
081244 - for daily work. ref OF 4 0001
081246 - ..
081247 - About six (6) years later, research showed that Vannevar Bush had
081248 - traveled a similar path, reported on 960304. ref SDS 37 J46H In the
081249 - early 1930s Bush invented the first large scale calculator, the
081250 - "Differential Analyzer" for solving complex mathematical problems,
081251 - (see NWO, ref OF 18 J65W) Bush was named Dean of Engineering at MIT.
081252 - He headed R&D for the military during WWII that included the Manhattan
081253 - project. ref OF 20 YY59 The Bush "Differential Analyzer" led others
081254 - to invent ten (10) years later the first digital computer, the ENIAC.
081255 - ref OF 19 GM4M Curiously, Bush opposed the ENIAC project as beyond
081256 - reach in 1943, reported 960304. ref SDS 37 YG3K After the war in 1945
081257 - Vannevar Bush published an article, "As we may think," in Atlantic
081258 - Monthly, reported on 960304. ref SDS 37 L47F Bush explained how
081259 - digital computers can be applied to think, remember, and communicate
081260 - that improves daily management. ref SDS 37 H68K His vision to use
081261 - computers for creating, storing, and retrieving documents
081262 - electronically to improve traditional records management has come to
081263 - be called a "paperless office." Years later, research on 991222
081264 - showed that in the 1960s Douglas Engelbart working at SRI advanced the
081265 - Bush vision proposing to use computers for augmenting intelligence.
081266 - ref SDS 65 7H5H SRI's 1962 proposal quoted verbatim a series of pages
081267 - from the Bush 1945 article. ref SDS 65 XS6N
081269 - ..
081270 - [On 001102 history developing SDS was reviewed showing challenge
081271 - of improving management with technology. ref SDS B6 B47L
081273 - ..
081274 - [On 041228 motivations for donating time to develop useful
081275 - products at Apple Computer reflect experience that motivated
081276 - SDS. ref SDS D6 CQ7J
081278 - ..
081279 - Recently, on 000324 Doug Engelbart assembled a team at SRI to continue
081280 - his mission. At that time, SRI reported that all projects to use
081281 - computers for what is popularly called Knowledge Management applying
081282 - the paperless office metaphor had failed, essentially for two (2)
081283 - reasons. ref SDS 70 4877
081285 - 1. Desiging tools to aid the cognitive process that converts
081286 - information into "knowledge" is counterintuitive, and so
081287 - difficult, requiring a lucky insight from a confluence of
081288 - enabling forces, plus willingness to start over a few times in
081289 - order to discover a technology framework that can implement an
081290 - effective understanding of "knowledge."
081292 - ..
081293 - 2. Co-evolution of work and tools embodies willingness to start
081294 - over many times to finally hit on a critical mass of tools that
081295 - integrate smoothly in complementary ways that support each
081296 - other. The dynamics of software engineering have not been
081297 - conducive to this process, reported on 991222. ref SDS 65 MF4N
081298 - Review on 990517 shows that organizations have difficulty
081299 - supporting innovation that requires starting over. ref SDS 57
081300 - 4077
081302 - ..
081303 - However, in 1983 none of this history was known; there was no overt
081304 - goal to program anything.
081307 - ..
081308 - Thinking Through Writing Advanced by Computer Technology
081310 - Experience to this point had revealed that writing in the framework of
081311 - a journal or diary aided thinking and planning, i.e., scheduling.
081312 - ref SDS 0 LR5F Limited experience with computers showed advantages of
081313 - legibility and editing. Computers turn writing into a powerful tool
081314 - for refining human thought through fast, easy, and flexible editing,
081315 - summarized by the notion of "thinking through writing" (see POIMS,
081316 - ref OF 8 3742). Combining reporting with planning on a computer
081317 - seemed a natural extension.
081319 - ..
081320 - By lucky coincidence experience showing potential for computers to aid
081321 - thinking aligned with market forces that brought the cost of computers
081322 - within reach to test theories on improving management.
081324 - ..
081325 - A computer was purchased in 1983 to aid practices for planning and
081326 - reporting begun in 1969, ref SDS 0 YE6J, and which had evolved to
081327 - include an extensive diary by the 1980s, explained above. ref SDS 0
081328 - KU55 Therefore, in 1983 goals for getting a computer were to improve
081329 - this manual practice of combining schedule and diary for managing time
081330 - and information, which, it was later discovered, seem to leverage
081331 - "intelligence" that grows "knowledge" of cause and effect for
081332 - controlling the future, explained in POIMS. ref OF 4 0367
081334 - ..
081335 - However, daily "management," which innately integrates planning,
081336 - performing, and reporting, i.e., the intelligence process, is not
081337 - supported by computers. Software for schedules and diaries per se are
081338 - cannot track and research cause and effect in the dynamics of daily
081339 - work. People can write a lot with computers, but without organization
081340 - and timely access, writings soon become a pile of paper that is more a
081341 - threat from discovery in a law suit, than a useful asset for getting
081342 - things correctly, withing budget, and in time to be effective.
081344 - ..
081345 - When this was revealed through failed efforts to buy technology that
081346 - supports the manual schedule and diary system, ref SDS 0 YE6J, a
081347 - gradual process evolved to develop ways for computers to integrate
081348 - time and information, which eventually led to tools and practices that
081349 - leverage human thought and memory. Years later, it turned out that
081350 - using computers to improve management encounters significant cultural
081351 - resistance; see, for example, discussion on culture and style using
081352 - computers at IBM on 920402, ref SDS 14 0344, the meeting at Intel on
081353 - 950927, ref SDS 34 7732, the record on 890809 reporting that managers
081354 - do not use computers; even computer experts don't use computers for
081355 - management. ref SDS 7 6993 Powerful cultural forces that resist
081356 - improving the ability to think, remember and communicate present a
081357 - classic innovation dilemma, reviewed on 990527. ref SDS 57 1233
081359 - [On 010924 Morris says SDS has evolved over many years to
081360 - integrate commands, so that good management takes less time.
081361 - ref SDS C6 GV6H Other software cannot be used like SDS to enable
081362 - consistent use of good management. ref SDS C6 XT5F
081364 - ..
081365 - [On 020130 Don Rumsfeld, Secretary of Defense, explained cultural
081366 - forces that resist improvement, ref SDS C8 G15V; suggested forming
081367 - circle of advocates to help busy people learn enough to approve
081368 - new ideas. ref SDS C8 6L5K
081370 - ..
081371 - As noted, initial efforts showed that a few key tasks must be
081372 - integrated smoothly and seamlessly so that each supports the other,
081373 - ref SDS 0 4T7J, in order to lift the capacity to think, rememeber, and
081374 - communicate, essential for better management productivity, explained
081375 - later in POIMS. ref OF 5 8559 and ref OF 6 2688
081377 - ..
081378 - Combining methods in legal and library practice that evolved over
081379 - centuries to organize information, with modern accounting and WBS
081380 - planning methods guided design of a logical contextual framework for
081381 - SDS. A composite design of flexible structure and common storage
081382 - positions everything in the right place at the right time. These
081383 - elements of common storage, flexible structure, and organic contextual
081384 - framework provide a fast way to find information, and a consistent way
081385 - to cite the record, as explained on 890523, ref SDS 5 P13O, and in
081386 - POIMS. ref OF 7 1232 Finding critical details makes connecting the
081387 - record fast and easy, and creates synergy between the plan, perform,
081388 - and report intelligence process, explained in POIMS. ref OF 7 6649 On
081389 - 911130 Justice Mosk of the California Supreme Court remarked that SDS
081390 - extends traditional practices of the court for lawyers to manage a
081391 - fixed case record by enabling everybody to quickly and easily organize
081392 - information from current and evolving events into an encyclopedia of
081393 - personal and organizational history. ref SDS 12 ST7G Knowledge Space
081394 - was later adopted on 960620 to summarize the design for organizing
081395 - information that draws on legal practices. ref SDS 39 3516
081397 - [On 000812 need to maintain accurate history and rely on the
081398 - record cited as need for KM. ref SDS B2 GP3N
081400 - ..
081401 - [On 010425 Morris Jones noted using SDS is a utopia compared to
081402 - other methods because everything is in the right place at the right
081403 - time. ref SDS C1 EP7F
081405 - ..
081406 - Common practice of checking details in files, contracts and
081407 - correspondence in order to "conntect the dots" for understanding cause
081408 - and effect, shown by experience in the Welch case, ref SDS 0 KU75, can
081409 - be summarized as a process of "intelligence." People need tools and
081410 - processes to discover misunderstanding in time to take corrective
081411 - action before communication errors cause actual mistakes that cost
081412 - lives, time, and money. The same design reveals opportunities to
081413 - increase earnings, but are normally overlooked due to limited time.
081414 - ref SDS 0 TQ4H Thus, avoiding harm, and exploiting opportunity both
081415 - depend on time of discovery. This idea was later called "concurrent
081416 - discovery" to reflect a proactive, continual process performed daily,
081417 - rather than wait until opportunity is lost, or disaster strikes, and
081418 - then lawyers "discover" critical intelligence, years later, when it is
081419 - too late to take effective action, reported on 960620. ref SDS 39 1101
081421 - [On 010916 SDS organizing mechanisms improve memory by consistently
081422 - drawing on the record to create links for alignment. ref SDS C5
081423 - PG6J
081425 - ..
081426 - Progress accomplishing SDS requirements was greatly aided by Morris
081427 - Jones. In 1981 Morris developed Medit using assembly language for a
081428 - full-screen line editor to write ordinary text electronically on a
081429 - computer screen, similar to writing text on paper with the structure
081430 - of lines and columns that organize content. The Medit macro language
081431 - enabled people to assign complex tasks for efficient execution with
081432 - function keys. This provided a platform to experiment, discover,
081433 - test, and apply a "new way of working" using the speed and efficiency
081434 - of electronics for thinking through writing while performing daily
081435 - work to make a living. Morris developed Medit using experience from
081436 - many years working with IBM full-screen text editors. Assembly
081437 - language optimized control of computer technology to work at the speed
081438 - of human thought.
081440 - ..
081441 - Medit was not sold commercially, so it was not widely distributed.
081442 - Morris licensed Medit to a manufacturer of a video circuit board that
081443 - displayed 132 columns and 40 or so lines on a computer monitor display
081444 - screen. This improved the 80 columns and 25 line display that was the
081445 - industry standard at the time. Medit provided an application for the
081446 - display capabilities of the video card. After purchasing the computer
081447 - in 1983, an advertisement in a computer industry magazine showed Medit
081448 - with both 80 and 132 column display. More importantly was the picture
081449 - in the magazine suggested full-screen editor capabilities which were
081450 - familiar from experience using computers on the job. The circuit
081451 - board was purchased to get Medit that seemed like a path for immediate
081452 - use of the computer using existing skills and training.
081454 - ..
081455 - Minimal experience in 1981 and 1982 working with IBM editors on
081456 - mainframe systems for scheduling (CPM) provided a bridge to make
081457 - immediate use of Medit with minimal time for learning. Since there
081458 - had been no experience using "wordprocessing," and since the structure
081459 - of text more closely aligns with requirements for structure needed for
081460 - daily management, wordprocessing software was ignored. The extensible
081461 - Medit text editor evolved into an effective platform for SDS.
081463 - ..
081464 - For many years beginning in 1983, and upon request, Morris created
081465 - commands in his editor that enabled trying ideas toward discovering an
081466 - effective design. This was very lucky, essential, and a powerful
081467 - enabling force, because it is rare that customers can guide developers
081468 - to improve computer programs. Software companies get feedback from
081469 - customers on improving programs for tasks everybody knows about, like
081470 - writing a letter, adding and multiplying numbers or showing a picture
081471 - in a Powerpoint presentation. However, the architecture of human
081472 - thought, commonly called "intelligence," that enables good management,
081473 - ref OF 4 0367, is difficult to grasp. (see New World Order...
081474 - ref OF 15 42HC)
081476 - [On 041228 access to specialists and experts essential to develop
081477 - complex products, illustrated by Graphis Calculator shipped with
081478 - Apple computers. ref SDS D6 E74N
081480 - ..
081481 - More importantly, software companies feel they cannot afford to
081482 - provide tools requested by only one person, or by a few people, in
081483 - order to experiment. Companies do not allocate budgets for enabling
081484 - customers to test ideas about whether one function or another might
081485 - yield significant productivity gain, noted by Clay Christensen in his
081486 - book on disruptive technologies, reviewed on 990527. ref SDS 57 4720
081488 - ..
081489 - This overlooks the fact that imagination and creativity on productive
081490 - functionality is a different capacity than imagination and creativity
081491 - in engineering software and programming. The latter is focused on
081492 - solving complex, difficult engineering challenges of how to create a
081493 - particular result; there is not a lot time left over to focus on what
081494 - results are actually useful. Productivity of the "result" can only be
081495 - derived from the synergy between imagination and creativity using
081496 - technology in complex and difficult scenarios that occur on the job,
081497 - and continual refinement of the design that applies creativity and
081498 - imagination to program software tools. A software company may well
081499 - respond to requests from large companies in order to maintain good
081500 - will, however, people working in large companies are often in the same
081501 - position as the people in the software company -- they do not have
081502 - time to experiment, because they do not have enough time to think,
081503 - noted by Kissinger, years later in the record on 940609. ref SDS 20
081504 - 4238 and again a few years later on 970910. ref SDS 48 3479
081506 - ..
081507 - Ideas originate in the minds of individuals. Organizations commonly
081508 - require multiple approvals for implementation. New ideas often seem
081509 - "unreasonable," and "crummy," conflicting with accepted paradigms and
081510 - practice, noted by Lyn Conway, reviewed on 960612. ref SDS 38 1368
081511 - Earlier in 1943 all the experts said that plans to build the first
081512 - digital computer, was "for the birds" (see NWO, ref OF 20 X16Q). On
081513 - 990527 Clay Christensen's book, "Innovator's Dilemma" recommends
081514 - experimenting to discover value added by new methods, but notes that
081515 - getting approval to improve the work is difficult in established
081516 - organizations. ref SDS 57 5258 Improvement is resisted because people
081517 - who must approve do not have time nor desire to expend "cognitive
081518 - overhead" studying to learn new ideas, see NWO. ref OF 16 LH6K Andy
081519 - Grove, CEO of Intel, explains that experimenting with new ideas is
081520 - resisted in a big organization because "people just don't get it."
081521 - reviewed on 980307. ref SDS 52 GW7H
081523 - [On 020130 Don Rumsfeld, Secretary of Defense, explained cultural
081524 - forces that resist improvement, ref SDS C8 G15V; suggested forming
081525 - circle of advocates to help busy people learn enough to approve
081526 - new ideas. ref SDS C8 6L5K
081528 - ..
081529 - As a result, since most functions impact productivity through complex
081530 - integration of complementary tasks, commercial software design and
081531 - support is largely cut off from the dynamics of investigation,
081532 - experimentation and multiple design iterations required to discover a
081533 - path to rapid productivity growth, noted by Morris years later on
081534 - 010924. ref SDS C6 NK4J
081536 - ..
081537 - For example, Morris pointed out on 890809 that communication is 80% of
081538 - management. ref SDS 7 8812 Some authorities say management is 90%
081539 - communication. Drucker points out that people have given up on
081540 - improving communication because it is too complicated, see review on
081541 - 931130. ref SDS 19 3851 On 000716 Professor Joseph Ransdell reported
081542 - that a general theory of management has eluded discovery since the
081543 - 17th century, making SDS an ambitious project. ref SDS 97 7838 This
081544 - explains why software engineers don't know what to program for
081545 - improving management, noted by Landauer on 950710, ref SDS 32 3387,
081546 - and later by Morris on 951011. ref SDS 35 1341 As a result,
081547 - technology for better management requires regular collaboration
081548 - between programming and managing in order to discover what to program.
081551 - ..
081552 - Lucky Confluence Enabling Forces Yields Design Initial Platform
081553 - Miracle Critical Mass Enabling Forces Evolved into Alignment
081555 - Accomplishing a workable initial design without skills or training in
081556 - computer science, cognitive science, and management science suggests
081557 - that a miracle occurred in 1985 when a critical mass of enabling
081558 - forces came into alignment that yielded better technology from a lucky
081559 - confluence of experience in the military, in construction, and in the
081560 - law, per above, ref SDS 0 0001, and expertise applied by willing hands
081561 - over a long time. see Edison on 950710, ref SDS 32 0582, and Morris on
081562 - faith needed to gain experience using SDS, reported on 950223.
081563 - ref SDS 27 3003
081565 - [On 010924 a long history explains why knowledge technology is
081566 - difficult to discover in market place. ref SDS C6 JS6G
081568 - ..
081569 - Morris further noted on 951011 that SDS needs to be taught in schools,
081570 - as an extension of basic literacy, at a time when learning can be
081571 - acquired with less faith and fewer demands that compete for limited
081572 - time in order to focus attention on gaining experience with knowledge
081573 - tools that complement traditional alphabet technology. ref SDS 35 0990
081574 - Teaching SDS in school would help remedy difficulty learning SDS on
081575 - the job, reported earlier on 920215. ref SDS 13 5820
081577 - [On 010924 Morris explains nobody uses other software the way SDS
081578 - is used for intelligence support. ref SDS C6 XT5F
081582 - ..
081583 - SDS Version 1 Developed from 1985 to 1988
081584 - 1985 SDS Technology Integrated Time Information People Context
081586 - Applying computers for management evolved slowly.
081588 - ..
081589 - By 1985 the plan, perform, report "intelligence" process emerged for
081590 - personal and organizational memory and management. ref OF 7 6649 The
081591 - design combined listing pending tasks begun in 1967, ref SDS 0 YE6J,
081592 - as a Schedule, with writing history of results, per above, ref SDS 0
081593 - LR5F, as a complementary Diary. The original practice of "keyword
081594 - associations with objectives" became pointers into the diary using
081595 - Control Fields. Adding control to narrative provides a "filing"
081596 - mechanism to find information showing chronology based on context.
081598 - ..
081599 - Functions evolved with support from Morris in the Medit editor macro
081600 - language, which eventually Morris converted into a compiled language
081601 - for SDS. This permitted continual refinement for doing tasks
081602 - efficiently and for combining major elements into a single new kind of
081603 - integrated work product, per analysis above. ref SDS 0 VV5L Continued
081604 - use led one day in 1985 to a lucky guess or hunch (see, also, "lucky"
081605 - reported on 950204, ref SDS 26 4365) that combining planning and
081606 - reporting is more effective than using discrete methods, by making it
081607 - faster and easier to use good management practice consistently for
081608 - relying on experience from the record of actual work history, rather
081609 - than remembering only the gist of the story, based on what people say
081610 - during meetings and calls.
081612 - ..
081613 - In addition to luck that computers became affordable for many people
081614 - to experiment, ref SDS 0 DW4I, Morris was willing to support
081615 - development, ref SDS 0 JP4J, and a lucky hunch that schedule and diary
081616 - could be combined, ref SDS 0 EO8K, the computer keyboard provided
081617 - another lucky condition for efficient usability. Over many years
081618 - assignment of tasks evolved to execute commands with left and right
081619 - hands, e.g., on 990530, ref SDS 58 EE6R, so that performing work
081620 - optimizes left and right brain, reviewed on 990121, ref SDS 53 CO6I,
081621 - with the harmony of playing a piano, explained in POIMS. ref OF 7 6M5H
081623 - ..
081624 - [On 001206 reviewed hands on keyboard and advantage of function
081625 - keys on left end. ref SDS B8 PK4H
081627 - ..
081628 - The hunch, that the SDS design to improve human memory, also, augments
081629 - intelligence, was later confirmed from research on 900319 showing that
081630 - memory is a big part of human reasoning. ref SDS 9 0005 Similar
081631 - research on 900303 showed from review of Jeremy Campbell's book, "The
081632 - Improbable Machine" that people pay a price for relying on remembering
081633 - the gist of things and using common sense to fill in the gaps.
081634 - ref SDS 8 4456 In a modern, complex environment where the impact of
081635 - communication is delayed by days, weeks, months, and years, and is
081636 - transferred to others. reliance on the innate architecture of human
081637 - thought that can only remember about 5% of the gist of things creates
081638 - a daily milieu where nobody knows why things happen, noted by Henry
081639 - Kissinger in his book reviewed on 940609. ref SDS 20 4238 This
081640 - setting makes communication the biggest risk in enterprise and this
081641 - risk is mostly hidden from participants at the time it is possible to
081642 - take action that avoids harm, as indicated by the trial in 1980, per
081643 - above. ref SDS 0 4W9L
081645 - ..
081646 - Therefore, the ability to maintain accuracy over time is crucial to
081647 - avoid the compounding effect of meaning drift, that causes continual
081648 - bumbling, later explained in POIMS. ref OF 5 8774 and NWO, ref OF 12
081649 - 4077
081651 - ..
081652 - Making good management faster and easier enables consistent use of
081653 - good practices, because it takes less diligence to do things that are
081654 - fast and easy. Since Drucker points out that good management is the
081655 - only source of productivity, and earnings, reviewed on 931130,
081656 - ref SDS 18 E94F, SDS seems like a simple, direct way to lift
081657 - civilization by enabling a large mass of people to use good work
081658 - practices consistently, rather than struggle with changing habits,
081659 - which is very hard to do, as set out in reviewing Stephen Covey's work
081660 - on 921205.
081662 - ..
081663 - [On 010908 evidence shows laziness makes bad management seem more
081664 - attractive than using good management to save time and money.
081665 - ref SDS C4 YF5O
081667 - ..
081668 - Initial implementation to test the hunch was crude, but supported the
081669 - idea, so "Schedule Diary System" (SDS) was adopted to describe
081670 - integrating time and information, as a new software program.
081672 - ..
081673 - In 1985 making it faster and easier to prepare analysis and planning
081674 - linked to history began a long process of discovering that connected
081675 - chronologies of cause and effect, organized according to context, aid
081676 - human intelligence for understanding and following up, commonly called
081677 - "listening." This led to the concept of thinking through writing set
081678 - out in POIMS, ref OF 8 3742, which further led to a counterintuitive
081679 - idea that more analysis, commonly called "paperwork," increases
081680 - productivity, when done in a paperless work practice (see review on
081681 - 880628, ref SDS 1 WU49) using the SDS "intelligence cycle" (see POIMS,
081682 - ref OF 7 6649), better than traditional reliance on conversation to
081683 - "expedite" using spontaneous, stream-of-conscious reaction to
081684 - information in meetings, calls and email. see POIMS, ref OF 5 CZ6K
081685 - Experience over many years using SDS showed that "intelligence"
081686 - converts "paperwork," that delays getting things done, into
081687 - "knowledge" that improves listening for better understanding and
081688 - following up to get things done correctly, on time and within budget.
081689 - This means the SDS "intelligence" process is a significant advance for
081690 - "expediting" daily work.
081692 - ..
081693 - Adding "intelligence" to information greatly increases the store of
081694 - "knowledge" for saving time and money (some authorities refer to a
081695 - "knowledge repository" and to "organizational memory") and so requires
081696 - technology for organization. Sometime in 1985 and 1986 the rudiments
081697 - of organic subject structure that apply library science, accounting,
081698 - epistomology, work breakdown structure, CPM and cost control were
081699 - worked out to manage information on everything in existence by
081700 - providing multiple paths to assemble chronologies of cause and effect
081701 - according to context. The ability to manage context at lower levels
081702 - of organic structure is another technology advance, explained later on
081703 - 890523, ref SDS 5 SQ5L, and discussed at Intel on 950927. ref SDS 34
081704 - 5412
081707 - ..
081708 - Experience Revealed Powerful Architecture of Human Thought
081710 - Follow up ref SDS A5 TF4H.
081712 - In 1986 an assignment to support a developer for the Plumbtree
081713 - Apartments in Martinez, CA, permitted experimenting to use SDS for the
081714 - first time in an ordinary work setting. Though awkward and crude in
081715 - 1986, the plan, perform, report process was workable on the Plumbtree
081716 - project by investing extra time for experimenting to test a new way of
081717 - working that uses a computer to improve management. A stunning
081718 - discovery in the first 2 - 4 weeks was that SDS work product was
081719 - recognized by contractors, engineers, executives, lawyers, indeed
081720 - everyone at all levels, as a unique and powerful new way of working
081721 - that helps everyone get things done correctly, on time and within
081722 - budget. This initial experience indicated SDS provided a fruitful new
081723 - development path for software that improves management. Over the next
081724 - 4 years or so the structure of SDS records was revised many times for
081725 - efficiently integrating data bases on planning, people, subjects,
081726 - documents and diary records, so that by about 1990 a design where each
081727 - component smoothly supports the others was established, see POIMS.
081728 - ref OF 5 8559 and ref OF 6 1368
081732 - ..
081733 - SDS Version 2 Refined Original Concepts in 1988
081734 - Subject Index Control Fields Implement Paperless Office
081735 - Paperless Office Requires Flexible Structure Precision Access
081737 - Trial and error experimentation applying experience from the Plumbtree
081738 - project led to a complete re-write of all the code to create record
081739 - formats, data structures, functions and integration. The original
081740 - design required a lot of hard work to implement the plan, perform,
081741 - report "intelligence" cycle. Therefore, in order to make management
081742 - faster and easier everything had to be done over.
081744 - ..
081745 - Many formats were tried for bridging the gap between a task scheduled
081746 - for the future that has not yet occurred, but requires planning, a
081747 - place to perform work, like reading a book, making a call, reviewing a
081748 - dispute, writing a letter, creating software or designing a product,
081749 - etc., that all occur in the present moment-to-moment, and are guided
081750 - by both prior planning and the history of past experience, and a diary
081751 - to report on what actually occurred, so that there is a history
081752 - available to plan future tasks in a way that applies relevant
081753 - experience accuratly and comprehensively. Part of this process
081754 - yielded a design for precision access using Control Fields for a
081755 - concept of flexible structure to segment information along a continuum
081756 - of evolving context, as occurs in narrative. (see review on 890523,
081757 - ref SDS 5 P13O) This came to be called organic subject structure that
081758 - makes finding information fast and easy so that people can assemble
081759 - multiple views of chronology to discover emerging patterns of cause
081760 - and effect based on context. (see again review on 880628, ref SDS 1
081761 - BI3G) Traditionally, these instruments used different formats, but
081762 - experience indicated that a common method was needed to represent the
081763 - past, present and future. The solution enables using computers for a
081764 - "paperless office" that saves time and money filing and retrieving
081765 - information electronically.
081767 - ..
081768 - Two years later in 1988 and 1989 an assignment to work on Broadwater
081769 - Dam in the State of Montana, enabled live testing of SDS improvements,
081770 - noted in the project launch meeting on 880815. ref SDS 2 7388 This
081771 - work applied SDS version 2 over an extended period and exposed a wider
081772 - group of people to the power of knowledge relative to traditional
081773 - information technology.
081775 - ..
081776 - Results reinforced the record on the Plumbtree project showing SDS is
081777 - a powerful new management method, as reported on 890324. ref SDS 5
081778 - LZ5F On 911123 Morris identified SDS as the Welch Management method,
081779 - because it is different from the way other people do things.
081780 - ref SDS 8 4930 After the Broadwater Dam project, the last major
081781 - re-design was done that settled on program elements reviewed with
081782 - Cliff Joslyn at LANL earlier today. ref SDS A5 3780
081784 - ..
081785 - Work on Broadwater Dam demonstrated that the version 2 design was
081786 - still inadequate for consistently using good management practices, and
081787 - ideas emerged from project management to improve a broad range of SDS
081788 - features and functions. While onsite, during off hours, system
081789 - improvements were developed and experiements were tried to revise SDS
081790 - code, e.g., on 881203. ref SDS 3 0001 These records created with SDS
081791 - version 2 are remarkable for showing the basic SDS design using record
081792 - segments, but with different structure, format and less functionality,
081793 - that was solidified, refined and expanded for version 3.
081795 - ..
081796 - During this time in Montana, Morris Jones continued to assist by
081797 - creating new programming tools. Major improvements Morris developed
081798 - were a compiler for Medit macros and support for a mouse and other
081799 - things needed for menus that strengthen user interface.
081803 - ..
081804 - SDS Version 3 Evolved Technology to Leverage Intelligence
081806 - When the assignment in Montana ended in March of 1989, a development
081807 - effort was undertaken to apply lessons learned from that experience
081808 - and on subsequent small projects.
081810 - ..
081811 - In 1990 and 1991 the code for the entire program was re-written again
081812 - based on another design for SDS version 3, which substantially
081813 - improved the Schedule, the diary and expecially SDS records to create
081814 - a common format that supports the plan, perform, report intelligence
081815 - cycle within a flexible structure of time that links past, present and
081816 - future. (see, for example, background on 890523, ref SDS 5 P13O) The
081817 - new design eliminated record identification on every line of a record
081818 - by providing one line for identification at the top of the record and
081819 - then capture and use that data where needed for linking and archiving
081820 - reference data bases to find information quickly when needed. All
081821 - reporting mechanisms had to be updated to support the new scheme. A
081822 - user interface that applies mouse (point and click or double click)
081823 - and menus to execute functions was developed using tools Morris
081824 - developed for SDS during this period, per above. ref SDS 0 QY9J These
081825 - changes in code structure, appearance and usability were largely
081826 - completed in 1991 to apply ideas from work in 1988 - 1990, and
081827 - constituted a new program and so became SDS version 3.
081829 - ..
081830 - Version 3 added functions that formalized practices for a Document Log
081831 - system to integrate external sources into the SDS record.
081833 - ..
081834 - Versions 1 and 2 listed external documents, but did not provide access
081835 - through a consistent format. This made document management very time
081836 - consuming which reduced the amount of actual management to only a few
081837 - documents that were recognized as "important" in the moment.
081838 - Experience using SDS versions 1 and 2 showed that often importance is
081839 - not fully evident at the time a document is issued or received.
081840 - Technology that enables capturing a greater share of daily working
081841 - information increases the chance of managing critical information that
081842 - seems inconsequential in the moment, noted on 921127. ref SDS 16 0674
081843 - Version 3 developed concepts and designs for distinguishing and
081844 - managing formal correspondence that imparts duties and rights based on
081845 - the legal practice of notice that occurs in documents issued and
081846 - received, and which do not arise from other files. The document log
081847 - system integrated management of all external information, including
081848 - instruments like a book or a magazine article.
081850 - ..
081851 - SDS evolved in version 3 support for integrating information from all
081852 - sources into a common work space to leverage human thinking by
081853 - emulating the model of human cognition that receives external data
081854 - through the senses and then integrates and connects what is received
081855 - with prior experience to grow a more powerful resource commonly called
081856 - "knowledge." SDS aids the intelligence process that uses information
081857 - from the present to predict future consequences based on understanding
081858 - and remembering cause and effect for comparable context from past
081859 - experience.
081861 - ..
081862 - Four forms of linking were implemented to aid "intelligence," reviewed
081863 - on 890523. ref SDS 5 T14T
081865 - 1. SDS design permenantly positions information in a structure
081866 - for understanding context that innately imparts knowledge
081867 - of the link between cause and effect to leverage human
081868 - reasoning that relies on sequence derived from chronology.
081870 - ..
081871 - 2. Organic structure and record segments link information on a
081872 - common subject that occurs at different times but can be
081873 - assembled into a sequence that reveals cause and effect
081874 - based on the chronology of a particular context.
081876 - ..
081877 - 3. Linking enabled people to create citations used in the law
081878 - and in the Bible to set and maintain associations going
081879 - forward or backward in time that impart important
081880 - understanding of details about cause and effect based on
081881 - context. Backward and forward links enable to people to
081882 - understand why things happened and subsequent consequences.
081884 - ..
081885 - 4. Automatic linking was added to provide consistent use of an
081886 - audit trail showing traceability to original sources called
081887 - out in published standards for good management. Two
081888 - baseline levels of links occur at the headline level within
081889 - a record segment to make finding relevant information fast
081890 - and easy.
081892 - ..
081893 - Along with rewriting SDS for the 3rd time beginning in 1989, in 1990
081894 - work was begun to develop a formal explanation of SDS technology.
081895 - Research showed two broad classes of technology were recognized in the
081896 - liturature....
081898 - 1. Organizational management to aid memory and understanding
081900 - Data base programs in this category capture, organize and
081901 - report data from daily work. Examples include payroll,
081902 - sales and inventory data, engineering, accounting, health
081903 - and economic data, production, crime, weather data, and so
081904 - on.
081906 - ..
081907 - The basic idea of softare for organizational or enterprise
081908 - management is for a group of people to use software in
081909 - collecting data and then "process" the data to provide
081910 - another group of people with a report, input, etc., on data
081911 - that helped the second group, typically called managers,
081912 - leaders, authors and the like to make decisions that guided
081913 - actions that affect everybody. An example of how data base
081914 - programs help organizational management is reported on
081915 - 960627. ref SDS 40 5002
081917 - ..
081918 - 2. Personal management to aid memory and understanding
081920 - People evolve work habits or practices to remember
081921 - contacts, appointments, important results of calls and
081922 - meetings, to write letters, reports, laws, rulings,
081923 - articles and books, and prepare outlines and graphical
081924 - diagrams and pictures that aid verbal presentations in
081925 - persuading people, i.e., talking people into saying yes
081926 - and telling people what to do, i.e., giving orders.
081928 - ..
081929 - Work in 1988 and 1989 on Broadwater Dam showed that SDS supports both
081930 - popular technology schemes by integrating personal and organizational
081931 - memory to improve management productivity. During 1989 a formal
081932 - explanation of the SDS design was begun in POIMS. ref OF 4 0001 On
081933 - 910810 Morris described an SDS design "breakthrough" as integrating
081934 - relational and hierarchial software architecture. ref SDS 10 0001
081936 - ..
081937 - In 1992 linking was enhanced by making construction and opening links
081938 - fast and easy, reported on 920813. ref SDS 15 0001
081940 - ..
081941 - In late 1994, we lost an order at PG&E for extending SDS support. At
081942 - that time on 941228 the sponsor for SDS with the PG&E company reported
081943 - that one reason management reversed an earlier commitment was
081944 - difficulty explaining the meaning of POIMS. ref SDS 24 2126 This led
081945 - to a search for something that sounds new and useful without a lot of
081946 - explanation.
081948 - ..
081949 - In 1995 experience using SDS indicated that lifting the capacity to
081950 - think, remember and communicate, explained in POIMS, ref OF 8 3742,
081951 - provides a powerful new business metric that complements traditional
081952 - cost and schedule control. On 950202 a lecture on integrating these
081953 - traditional methods, ref SDS 25 5093, revealed a gap in popular
081954 - management theory and practice that overlooks the opportunity to
081955 - improve productivity and earnings, as well as save lives, by
081956 - integrating controls for communication together with cost and schedule
081957 - control. ref SDS 25 8402 A few days later on 920204 this idea was
081958 - discussed with Morris. ref SDS 26 J67M
081960 - ..
081961 - The concept of "metrics" for communication centers on tasks, tools and
081962 - tests to improve accuracy. ref SDS 26 8A4G A few weeks later on
081963 - 950307 Communication Metrics was defined as a formal solution enabled
081964 - by SDS. ref SDS 28 0001 POIMS summarizes how Communication Metrics
081965 - accomplishes popular calls for better "listening." ref OF 7 1106
081966 - Since communication comprises 80% - 90% of daily time on the job,
081967 - shown on 890809, ref SDS 7 8812, and further since communication is a
081968 - predicate to doing the actual work, controls to make communication
081969 - useful and productive by accurate understanding improves earnings much
081970 - more than cost and schedule control, noted in NWO. ref OF 13 8577
081972 - ..
081973 - SDS version 3 was used on work at PG&E in 1994, and at USACE in 1996 -
081974 - 1997. Experience on these assignments, illustrated by the record on
081975 - 961126, ref SDS 45 0001, appeared to validate earlier experience in
081976 - 1986 - 1989 that indicated SDS is a new way of working "intelligently"
081977 - that saves time and money. These results encouraged further
081978 - development work to improve SDS....
081980 - PG&E found SDS best system to improve
081981 - management................................. ref DRP 7 0001
081983 - ..
081984 - USACE found SDS supports an
081985 - intelligence role for daily
081986 - management................................. ref DRP 8 6172
081988 - ..
081989 - USACE found Com Metrics saves
081990 - time and money at the rate of
081991 - 10 to 1.................................... ref DRP 9 0001
081995 - ..
081996 - Version 4 Internet Support Better Integration More Memory
081998 - Results using SDS on the job showed Communication Metrics helps people
081999 - work "intelligently" to save lives, time, and money, and further that
082000 - people resist SDS because working "intelligently" is a foreign
082001 - practice in management, as noted at Intel on 990713, ref SDS 60 2150,
082002 - and explained in POIMS. ref OF 5 5820 On 890324 a top executive of a
082003 - prominent engineering firm explained good management is unnecessary
082004 - overkill. ref SDS 4 X74I Later on 950426 a management consultant
082005 - disclosed top executives like to work through conversation, rather
082006 - than invest time for accuracy. ref SDS 30 4392 On 951026 another
082007 - expert disclosed that industry standards and government regulations
082008 - requiring traceability to original sources for accurate communication
082009 - are ignored because there is not enough time for good management
082010 - practice using technologies everybody likes. ref SDS 36 3245
082012 - ..
082013 - Like alphabet technology, 3,000 years ago, people tend to resist tools
082014 - that entail investing time for thinking. The 4th version of SDS
082015 - strives to reduce the time required for good management to work
082016 - intelligently, so that people can discover advantages of
082017 - transformation from information to a culture of knowledge.
082019 - [On 020504 Federal Acquisition Regulations (FAR) that require an
082020 - audit trail showing daily work aligns with requirements are
082021 - ignored, because people don't have enough time. ref SDS C9 NS6F
082023 - ..
082024 - Linking to automatically construct an audit trail for record segments
082025 - and headlines was developed beginning on 970216. ref SDS 46 3157
082027 - ..
082028 - Internet support was added to accomplish Intel's goal for anytime,
082029 - anywhere intelligence by making it fast and easy to produce useful
082030 - content, reported on 971021. ref SDS 49 9999
082032 - ..
082033 - On 971125 changed from linking by line numbers to using anchors, which
082034 - added a new form of punctuation that identifies a unit of information
082035 - in SDS.
082037 - ..
082038 - A few years later on 990530 commands were integrated to make
082039 - converting information into knowledge faster and easier and more
082040 - intuitive by making Enter and double clicking "intelligent."
082041 - ref SDS 58 0001
082043 - [On 010907 people who encounter SDS records on the Internet
082044 - report "intelligence" provides self-evident benefits that save
082045 - time and money. ref SDS C3 KX3L
082047 - ..
082048 - Since then, improvements continued to evolve SDS version 3 toward a
082049 - version 4, and are listed in the record on 000824. ref SDS B3 0001
082051 - [On 031207 final change to implement version 4 of SDS.
082052 - ref SDS D5 0001
082054 - [On 031208 full scope of SDS version 4 listed. ref SDS D5 0001
082056 - ..
082057 - Another discovery was that ergonomic use of computer aided functions
082058 - augment "intelligence" through efficient use of hands and eyes, as
082059 - later explained in reviewing Andy Grove's book on 980307. ref SDS 52
082060 - 4810
082062 - ..
082063 - Thus, not only the express functionality, but the way functions are
082064 - applied greatly impacts whether technology actually improves daily
082065 - work, and this extends to the physical location of the computer screen
082066 - and keyboard relative to the layout of the desk and other elements of
082067 - a work station. Awkward design diminishes intelligence, and so
082068 - reduces productivity, earnings and stock prices.
082070 - ..
082071 - In the year 2000 tried to help Doug Engelbart, and an ad hoc group of
082072 - engineers meeting at SRI in Menlo Park develop technology, based on
082073 - Doug's work in the 1960s, for an open hyperdocument computer sytstem
082074 - that supports a dynamic knowledge repository, summarized as OHS/DKR.
082075 - This was nominally a group that could grasp objectives and benefits of
082076 - SDS for Communication Metrics, shown by a telecon with Doug Engelbart
082077 - on 991222. ref SDS 65 3977 On 000120 the engineering group working on
082078 - Doug's ideas in an open source business model considered studying the
082079 - human intelligence process to learn about converting information into
082080 - knowledge, as a predicate to develope tools for knowledge. ref SDS 66
082081 - 5063 On 000327 Doug discussed the issue. ref SDS 71 MO4G Later on
082082 - 000615 the entire team of engineers gave up because there was not
082083 - enough knowledge to develop technology for a knowledge repository.
082084 - ref SDS 85 6271
082086 - ..
082087 - On 000425 experience with OHS/DKR and other research indicated SDS is
082088 - a unique solution, ref SDS 75 0480, that is hard for people to grasp
082089 - without experience using the work product. A report on 010426 that,
082090 - DARPA, the research group in the Department of Defense, gave up on
082091 - knowledge management, shows the gap between efforts to advance
082092 - information technology, and SDS that has advanced to a knowledge based
082093 - technology. ref SDS C2 657O
082095 - ..
082096 - [On 001126 the OHS/DKR group was offered the opportunity to use
082097 - SDS for learning about knowledge technology; the group decided to
082098 - apply greater diligence using information technology to study,
082099 - learn and create tools for knowledge. ref SDS B7 4E3X The group
082100 - later migrated to another sponsor and continues to conduct
082101 - important discussions, illustrated by a letter on 010908.
082102 - ref SDS C4 0001 On 010916 there was feedback from the group that
082103 - SDS is more effective for finding information than popular IT
082104 - search methods. ref SDS C5 0001 On 011003 the OHS/DKR group was
082105 - frustrated by slow progress advancing beyond the paradigm of
082106 - information technology. ref SDS C7 O74L
082108 - ..
082109 - [On 001219 identified eight (8) steps using the SDS program for
082110 - Communication Metrics. ref SDS B9 4W4L
082112 - ..
082113 - [On 020924 Gary began learning SDS, ref SDS D1 0001, and on
082114 - 030413 reported progress using SDS at aerospace company.
082115 - ref SDS D3 0001
082117 - ..
082118 - [On 030724 entered into agreement for pilot testing SDS at a
082119 - technology firm. ref SDS D4 0001
082121 - ..
082122 - The history of SDS over the past 20 years or so led to research in
082123 - management science, engineering, management, law, computer science,
082124 - cognitive science and philosophy that supplement training and
082125 - experience in construction and project management. On 991108 research
082126 - indicates the alphabet is an explosive technology that enabled modern
082127 - civilization by leveraging innate biological cognition to think,
082128 - remember and communicate. ref SDS 63 5628 Another powerful advance
082129 - from traditional literacy, enabled by information technology, to a
082130 - culture of knowledge, enabled by SDS, may once again lift civilization
082131 - to a new plateau. see POIMS, ref OF 6 JE6L
082133 - ..
082134 - [On 010924 Morris explained SDS improves management better than
082135 - other methods because of synergy between use and development.
082136 - ref SDS C6 NK4J
082138 - ..
082139 - [On 010924 Morris disclosed that nobody uses software the way SDS
082140 - is used to leverage human intelligence. ref SDS C6 XT5F
082142 - ..
082143 - [On 010924 eight (8) reasons identified that make SDS a unique
082144 - solution that is difficult for others to develop. ref SDS C6 JS6G