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1...While the paper begins noting need for specifices on how to perform
2...Knowledge Unit is a good idea; needs clarification and an example.
3...How is TRI's daily work strengthened by applying what is learned in
Managing Codified Knowledge Covers Important Points about KM, Michael
Zack, Michale Article Sloan Management Review Managing Codified Knowl
Managing Codified Knowledge, Michael Zack
Procedures How to Manage Knowledge is Limited
0606 - ..
0607 - Summary/Objective
060801 - Follow up ref SDS 14 0528, ref SDS 11 3360.
060803 - An article published in the summer of 1999 makes a credible effort to
060804 - define "knowledge" separately from data and information. ref SDS 0
060805 - NK6O It is a good start on a thorny problem that has stymied IBM and
060806 - others the past few years working on technology for Knowledge
060807 - Management. ref SDS 0 1V6I Despite a good start, the definition
060808 - proposed for "knowledge" as both a "thing" and a "process" does not
060809 - offer enough guidance to break the log jam that prevents developing
060810 - support for KM. ref SDS 0 NK9U Better progress is made on proposing
060811 - the scope for a Knowledge Repository, winding up along the lines Doug
060812 - Engelbart describes for managing all of the information that occurs in
060813 - daily work. ref SDS 0 KY4L The author illustrates that doing
060814 - Knowledge Management with information technology requires diligence,
060815 - hard work and significant investment to add many new work roles,
060816 - ref SDS 0 Q47K Only the Internet and Lotus Notes are cited to support
060817 - Knowledge Management. ref SDS 0 HX9N There is a breakthrough of sorts
060818 - in the paper noting the importance of organizing the record with a
060819 - system of subject management, also, described as categories.
060820 - ref SDS 0 Q47K
060822 - [On 020608 Dave Snowden wrote an article supporting the call for
060823 - understanding "knowledge" as both a thing and a process.
060824 - ref SDS 23 N46N
060830 - ..
0611 - Progress
061201 - Article by Michael Zack in the Sloan Management Review.....
061203 - Managing Codified Knowledge
061205 - http://web.cba.neu.edu/~mzack/articles/kmarch/kmarch.htm
061207 - ..
061208 - ...says in part....
061210 - However, while the popular press calls for effectively managing
061211 - knowledge, almost no research has been done regarding how to do
061212 - it. ref OF 1 8R83
061214 - ..
061215 - Zack proposes creating a number of new work roles, ref SDS 0 Q47K, and
061216 - using Lotus Notes with the Internet, ref SDS 0 HX9N, for accomplishing
061217 - KM.
061219 - ..
061220 - The record on 970418 shows the US Army Corps of Engineers published a
061221 - report on 970328, ref SDS 6 3368, which found that using SDS for
061222 - Communication Metrics adds intelligence that converts information into
061223 - knowledge. ref DRP 1 6172 The Corps issued a follow up report on
061224 - 971007 showing that ROI for using Com Metrics is 10:1, ref DRP 2 0001,
061225 - shown in the record on 971008. ref SDS 7 0001 This record suggests
061226 - that one way to generate and management knowledge for saving time and
061227 - money is to use SDS.
Knowledge Defined as Thing and Process
Knowledge Relates to Experience from Messages
Knowledge Different from Information and Data
Data Represents Observations or Facts Out of Context
Information Places Data in Context Often in Form of a Message
110701 - ..
110702 - Intelligence Process Creates Connections Cause Effect Knowledge Thing
110703 - Experience and Belief Key Aspects of Understanding Knowledge
110704 - Knowledge Distinguished from Information Both a Thing and a Process
110707 - Zack says...
110709 - Knowledge is commonly distinguished from data and information.
110710 - Data represent observations or facts out of context, and
110711 - therefore not directly meaningful. Information results from
110712 - placing data within some meaningful context, often in the form of
110713 - a message. Knowledge is that which we come to believe and value
110714 - based on the meaningfully organized accumulation of information
110715 - (messages) through experience, communication or inference
110716 - Knowledge can be viewed both as a thing to be stored and
110717 - manipulated and as a process of simultaneously knowing and acting
110718 - - that is, applying expertise. As a practical matter,
110719 - organizations need to manage knowledge both as object and
110720 - process. ref OF 1 PPXS
110722 - ..
110723 - The paper takes a fruitful path distinguishing knowledge from data and
110724 - information along the lines of Bellinger's work reviewed on 000307.
110725 - ref SDS 13 7833
110727 - ..
110728 - By associating "knowledge" with experience, Zack follows Einstein's
110729 - writings, reviewed on 991124. ref SDS 9 VO8L "Experience" as an
110730 - ingredient of knowledge introduces by inference the role of time that
110731 - provides a convenient break with the notion of data and information.
110732 - The role of time, history and experience are further explained in
110733 - POIMS. ref OF 3 0367 These ideas can strengthen Zack's presentation
110734 - on the meaning of knowledge as distinct from information.
110736 - ..
110737 - Zack's idea of "data" as observations or facts out of context aligns
110738 - somewhat with the notion in POIMS of input through sensory perception
110739 - in the moment, what we see, hear, smell, feel, etc. Describing
110740 - "information" as placing data in a meaningful context often in the
110741 - form of a "message," lines up with POIMS explaining information as a
110742 - "story" that relates data to background (history), objectives,
110743 - requirements and commitments. ref OF 3 0367
110745 - ..
110746 - Recognizing "knowledge as both a "thing" to be stored, and a "process"
110747 - is a helpful step in the right direction. Needs explanation of the
110748 - "thing" and the process of how to create the "thing," get it, save it
110749 - and use it.
110751 - [On 020608 Dave Snowden's paper uses similar explanation of
110752 - knowledge as a thing and flow, and does not explain either
110753 - the thing, nor the flow. ref SDS 23 N46N
110755 - ..
110756 - Zackman cites Buckman Laboratories (BL) for progress capturing and
110757 - organizing daily working information....
110759 - ...record of the conversations, interactions, contributions and
110760 - exchanges.... preserved and made easily accessible to and
110761 - searchable by all, ref OF 1 4J69, and organized by subject
110762 - experts. ref OF 1 SO57
110764 - ..
110765 - Analysis, summary and organization with keywords occurs
110766 - periodically. ref OF 1 4L4F
110768 - ..
110769 - Zacks does not list BL's steps as part of the intelligence process
110770 - that converts information into knowledge. Neither does the article
110771 - mention alignment and feedback to refine accuracy of understandings.
110772 - There is no discussion the psychological pressure that builds from
110773 - routinely capturing organizational memory.
110775 - ..
110776 - Zack says BL's technology to capture organizational memory and add
110777 - intelligence to organize, analyse and summarize the record does not
110778 - require unique nor powerful technology, but is driven by culture that
110779 - fosters skills and dedication of professionals. ref OF 1 SO76
110781 - ..
110782 - POIMS explains "knowledge" can be distinguished from information
110783 - based on the process of "intelligence" that links stories, which
110784 - store information based on human needs, into a web of connections
110785 - that impart cause and effect for enabling people to survive in a
110786 - complex world. ref OF 3 0367 Thus, the "thing" Zack has in mind
110787 - is the "body of connections over time that grow understanding of
110788 - cause and effect," and the "process" of creating connections that
110789 - add value to information is "intelligence." ref OF 6 6649
110790 - Connections can be constructed, saved, stored, crafted, and
110791 - linked into a larger mosaic of wisdom, and, also, refined into
110792 - simple rules of truth, see NWO. ref OF 9 23TE
110794 - ..
110795 - Zack's idea of implicit and explict knowledge is explained in
110796 - POIMS as connections we consciously make, which are less than 1%
110797 - of the connections that are made implicitly in the subconscious
110798 - mind constantly at work growing and testing new connections for
110799 - alignement with experience. ref OF 3 V57N
110801 - ..
110802 - The report issued by the US Army Corps of Engineers lists
110803 - specific requirements for using SDS to perform Communication
110804 - Metrics that implement process of "intelligence," ref DRP 1 6375,
110805 - and lists deliverables that result from the process. ref DRP 1
110806 - 7402
110808 - ..
110809 - The record on 001219 lists eight steps for accomplishing the
110810 - intelligence process of converting information into knowledge.
110811 - ref SDS 21 4W4L
Knowledge Repository Contains Significant Meaningful Concepts Categor
Categories Definitions Processes Actions Sequence of Events Rationale
Definitions Processes Actions Sequence of Events Rationale for Action
Processes Actions Sequence of Events Rationale for Actions Conclusion
Chronology Meetings Calls Conversations Record of Actions Sequence of
160701 - ..
160702 - Knowledge Repository Contains Organizational Memory
160704 - Zack describe the scope of a Knowledge Repository contains a broad
160705 - range of daily working information....
160707 - To reflect the full range of explicit organizational knowledge,
160708 - repositories should strive to record significant and meaningful
160709 - concepts, categories, and definitions, (declarative knowledge),
160710 - processes, actions and sequences of events (procedural
160711 - knowledge), rationale for actions or conclusions (causal
160712 - knowledge), circumstances and intentions under which the
160713 - knowledge was developed and is to be applied (specific contextual
160714 - knowledge), and the linkages among them. The repository should
160715 - be indexed according to those concepts and categories, providing
160716 - access paths that are meaningful to the organization. It should
160717 - accommodate changes or additions to that knowledge (e.g., by
160718 - linking annotations) as subsequent authors and creators adapt the
160719 - knowledge for use in additional contexts. ref OF 1 QP4J
160721 - ..
160722 - Zack cites Buckman Labatories for organizational memory that contains
160723 - record of the conversations, interactions, contributions and exchanges
160724 - preserved and made easily accessible to and searchable by all,
160725 - ref OF 1 4J69, and organized by subject experts. ref OF 1 SO57
160727 - ..
160728 - This scope aligns with Doug Engelbart's explanation of daily working
160729 - information which he calls a Knowledge Workshop in his 1972 paper,
160730 - reviewed on 000327. ref SDS 14 3971 Bellinger offers a similar
160731 - scope, reviewed on 000307. ref SDS 13 4012
160733 - ..
160734 - POIMS explains the SDS design for investing intellectual capital by
160735 - capturing a greater share of organizational memory, ref OF 5 1101,
160736 - which is also summarized as "report" in the SDS intelligence cycle,
160737 - plan, perform, report. ref OF 5 2300
160739 - [...below, resistance to organiztional memory is disucssed.
160740 - ref SDS 0 W95H
Categories Subjects Need to be Assigned Requires New Work Role
Hard Work Many New Professional Roles Needed for KM without SDS
Knowledge Repository Contains Significant Meaningful Concepts Categor
Categories Definitions Processes Actions Sequence of Events Rationale
Record of Actions Sequence of Events Rationale for Actions Conclusion
KM Hard Work Requires Many New Professional Roles without SDS
190801 - ..
190802 - Work Role to Manage Organizational Memory with Categories
190803 - Categories Define Context to Give Knowledge Meaning and Power
190805 - Zack recognizes the importance of organizing information based on
190806 - context, ref OF 1 8S57, and that this requires information technology
190807 - and long list of new work roles. He says the most important new role
190808 - is the subject matter expert, ref OF 1 0742, mentioning the need to
190809 - organize the record several times throughout the paper. ref OF 1 W964
190810 - This aligns with Jack Park's letter on 000221 citing the complexity of
190811 - "ontology," which, at that time Jack and others used, along with
190812 - "categories," to encompase subject management, ref SDS 12 3248, cited
190813 - in Zack's paper.
190815 - ..
190816 - [On 021031 Sergey Brin with Google reports that people have given
190817 - up on adding "meta data" to organize information; there is no
190818 - progress on developing the role of subject matter expert.
190819 - ref SDS 24 M53H
190821 - ..
190822 - While the paper begins noting need for specifices on how to perform
190823 - Knowledge Management, ref SDS 0 BM3J, there are no examples of work
190824 - product. Nothing illustrates how, for example, Zack indexed subject
190825 - matters in his paper, as is shown in the typical day scenario for
190826 - using SDS. ref OF 14 YQ6O
190828 - ..
190829 - Zack solves this dilemma in part by calling in his paper written in
190830 - 1998 and published in the summer of 1999 for new work roles to create
190831 - and manage the record, and explains organizations are forming an
190832 - executive position called "Chief Knowledge Officer." ref OF 1 QU6F
190833 - Zack's report aligns with the KMCI meeting in the winter of 1999. On
190834 - 991217 a professional event in San Ramone, California brought together
190835 - newly assigned Chief Knowledge Management Officers" from around the
190836 - world, and all had a common question -- "What is Knowledge
190837 - Management?"
190839 - ..
190840 - Buckman Laboratories is cited for developing role solely to assign
190841 - subjects to daily working information. ref OF 1 SO57
190843 - ..
190844 - Zack explains some of the new roles and skills required for performing
190845 - Knowledge Management...
190847 - ....knowledge creators, finders, and collectors. Capturing
190848 - verbal knowledge requires interviewers and transcribers.
190849 - Documenting observed experiences requires organizational
190850 - "reporters". Surfacing and interpreting deeply held cultural and
190851 - social knowledge may require corporate anthropologists. Refining
190852 - requires analysts, interpreters, abstractors, classifiers,
190853 - editors, and integrators. A librarian or "knowledge curator"
190854 - must manage the repository. Others must take responsibility for
190855 - access, distribution and presentation. Finally, organizations may
190856 - need people to train users to critically interpret, evaluate and
190857 - adapt knowledge to new contexts. ref OF 1 MB48
190859 - ..
190860 - Zack continues on roles needed for Knowledge Management....
190862 - ...recruiters and facilitators encourage and manage participation
190863 - in interactive forums so that those with the appropriate
190864 - expertise are contributing. The refining, structuring, and
190865 - indexing of the content often is done by the communicators
190866 - themselves, using guidelines and categories built into the
190867 - application, supplemented by a conference moderator. Assuring the
190868 - quality of the knowledge may require quality assurance personnel
190869 - such as subject matter experts and reputation brokers. Managing a
190870 - conference repository over its lifecycle usually falls to a
190871 - conference moderator. Others may be required to work with users
190872 - to help them become comfortable and skilled with accessing and
190873 - using the application. ref OF 1 MB44
190875 - ..
190876 - Subject matter expert is the most important new role. ref OF 1 0742
190878 - ..
190879 - The many roles Zack's proposes supports the explanation on 000307 that
190880 - Knowledge Mangement is expensive, takes diligence and a lot of hard
190881 - work using information technologies commonly available, ref SDS 13 5182
190882 - This shows the value of SDS that supports a range of professional
190883 - tasks enabling one person to accomplish roles Zack identifies for
190884 - performing Knowledge Management. ref OF 5 2688
190886 - [On 010924 Morris said experience at intel indicates that
190887 - nobody uses software like SDS for doing KM to routinely
190888 - capture, organize and use the record of daily work to plan
190889 - and perform daily work. ref SDS 22 XT5F
Resistance to Knowledge Mangement Not Reviewed in the Paper
200301 - ..
200302 - Social Cultural Impacts Require Leadership with Broader Vision
200304 - TRI explains social and cultural dimensions of creating a new
200305 - work role, saying....
200307 - Implementing this new architecture has been as much an
200308 - organizational and social, as a technical, intervention.
200309 - TRI has explicitly assigned and trained people to perform
200310 - new roles to shepherd the movement of knowledge from raw to
200311 - useable product, and this investment has been instrumental
200312 - in their success. ref OF 1 4J92
200314 - ..
200315 - TRI does not cite cultural resistance to a new way of working --
200316 - capturing orgainzational memory is resisted, reported on 961017,
200317 - ref SDS 5 5832, by ignorance, fear of accountability, and denial
200318 - that working intelligently is unnecessary overkill, reported on
200319 - 950204, ref SDS 4 5932, -- neither does Zack discuss resistance
200320 - to transformation from IT to a culture of knowledge that adding
200321 - links and using links to increase access of relevant information
200322 - by a thousand fold, yet is strongly resisted, as reported on
200323 - 990527, ref SDS 8 1233, and illustrated by a hypothetical dialog
200324 - between leadership and management in the Typical Day Scenario
200325 - using SDS. ref OF 14 4679
200327 - [On 010924 resistance to Knowledge Management is reviewed.
200328 - ref SDS 22 JS6G
200330 - ..
200331 - [On 020130 every element of Knowledge Management has failed
200332 - to be implemented, except SDS. ref SDS 24 LG9H
Cost Benefits Not Presented Calculating Cost of Adding Many New Roles
210301 - ..
210302 - Savings for New Way of Working Huge Opportunity to Increase ROI
210304 - Cost benefits of working intelligently are not presented showing
210305 - the level of investment required using a multitude of new work
210306 - roles and existing information technology, and comparing with
210307 - benefits saving time and money.
210309 - ..
210310 - Experience shows that using SDS has been effective with a new role
210311 - of Communication Manager defined by requirements in the report
210312 - published by USACE on 970328. ref DRP 1 6375 Qualifications for
210313 - this new role reflect Zack's ideas for Knowledge Management.
210314 - ref DRP 1 2084 USACE cited mentoring to transition staff for
210315 - making effective use of knowledge. ref DRP 1 2814
210317 - ..
210318 - Zack's explanation of the need for a new work role aligns with the
210319 - meeting at PG&E on 941010, ref SDS 1 M94K, discussed again at PG&E
210320 - on 941130. ref SDS 3 KW7J NWO supports Zack's idea for a new
210321 - role.
210323 - ..
210324 - As noted, USACE reported ROI of this role is 10:1, ref DRP 2 0001,
210325 - which is supported by analysis in NWO. ref OF 11 0110
Multiple Views Add Value to Knowledge Repository
Flexible Structure Standardized Enable Routine Capture Organizational
Knowledge Units Recognized as Building Blocks of Knowledge Repository
240501 - ..
240502 - Multiple Views Add Value to Knowledge Repository
240503 - Case Studies Show Implemetation of Zack's Ideas for KM
240504 - Flexible Structures Enable Routine Capture Organizational Memory
240506 - Zack cites favorable results using a new role for KM at....
240508 - Technology Research, Inc. (TRI) maintains a data base of
240509 - "knowledge units" containing the executive summaries,
240510 - abstracts, main text, graphics, tables, and charts making up
240511 - research reports. The repository is dynamic in that research
240512 - reports are being updated continuously. Knowledge units are
240513 - indexed and linked for flexible access, and users may
240514 - sequentially navigate from one to the next within a report,
240515 - access similar units across reports (e.g. executive summaries
240516 - only), or access particular units directly.... Building
240517 - repositories using a flexible, yet standard - and therefore
240518 - integrable - structure has enabled TRI to respond by creating
240519 - composite virtual research programs. From its repositories,
240520 - TRI derives standard monthly reports and more frequent ad hoc
240521 - bulletins for each research program in several electronic
240522 - formats (web, CD, fax, email). ref OF 1 4J40
240525 - ..
240526 - Knowledge Unit is a good idea; needs clarification and an example.
240527 - What separates one unit from another. How are units applied?
240530 - ..
240531 - TRI's practice of linking and indexing information in research
240532 - reports, mentioned again, ref OF 1 4J66, and further for enabling
240533 - multiple views to access knowledge, ref OF 1 4J79, has some utility,
240534 - and aligns with Doug Engelbart's ideas for providing multiple views
240535 - reported on 000405, ref SDS 15 6O8L, again on 000601, ref SDS 16 7238,
240536 - and then in the OHS/DKR launch plan received on 001025. ref SDS 18
240537 - D6H8 As well, using flexible, yet standard structures that facilitate
240538 - integration is also very useful, as explained in POIMS. ref OF 5 M17I
240540 - ..
240541 - Zack does not relate how all of this capability is used to manage TRI,
240542 - rather than merely to manage TRI's work to produce documents.
240544 - ..
240545 - How is TRI's daily work strengthened by applying what is learned in
240546 - the documents and in the document creation process?
240550 - ..
240551 - Knowledge Requires Linking and Storage in Flexible Structure
240553 - Zack describes a knowledge unit.....
240555 - The basic structural element is the knowledge unit, a formally
240556 - defined, atomic packet of knowledge content that can be labeled,
240557 - indexed, stored, retrieved and manipulated. The format, size and
240558 - content of knowledge units may vary depending on the type of
240559 - explicit knowledge being stored and the context of their use.
240560 - The repository structure also includes the schemes for linking
240561 - and cross-referencing knowledge units. These links may represent
240562 - conceptual associations, ordered sequences, causality or other
240563 - relationships depending on the type of knowledge being stored.
240564 - ref OF 1 H264
240566 - ..
240567 - Labeling and linking are useful, like knowledge units, depending on
240568 - what it means and how it is applied, per above. ref SDS 0 1U7H
240570 - ..
240571 - Need to address resistance to linking and labeling, also, called "meta
240572 - data" for subject management in noted above. ref SDS 0 W95H
Information Technology Part of Knowledge Management Proposes Internet
Zack, Michael Cites Lotus Notes as Only Information Technology for KM
Lotus Notes Only Information Technology that Supports Knowledge Manag
270501 - ..
270502 - Lotus Notes Information Technology Proposed to Support KM
270504 - Zack says....
270506 - Information technologies such as the World Wide Web and Lotus
270507 - Notes offer a potentially useful environment within which to
270508 - build a multimedia repository for rich, explicit knowledge.
270509 - Input is captured by forms for assigning various labels,
270510 - categories, and indices to each unit of knowledge. The structure
270511 - is flexible enough to create knowledge units, indexed and linked
270512 - using categories that reflect the structure of the contextual
270513 - knowledge and the content of factual knowledge of the
270514 - organization, displayed as flexible subsets via dynamically
270515 - customizable views. ref OF 1 W474
270517 - ..
270518 - Zack feels information technology can support Knowledge Management,
270519 - rather than developing KM technology, ref OF 1 W484, which aligns with
270520 - his proposal to use a long list of experts working diligently, per
270521 - above, ref SDS 0 T16O, rather than use one person with SDS. This idea
270522 - lines up with recommendations on 001126 for people to us IT with
270523 - greater diligence, rather than use SDS with less diligence.
270524 - ref SDS 19 QW8I
270526 - ..
270527 - Belief Lotus Notes can support advance from information to a culture
270528 - of knowledge, reflects IBM's confidence investing $4B to buy Lotus
270529 - Notes in 1995, instead of supporting SDS, as planned in the meeting on
270530 - 941114. ref SDS 2 9481
270532 - ..
270533 - On 000829 Jack Park reported that a world conference on Knowledge
270534 - Management in Montreal, Canada, featured Lotus Notes as the best hope
270535 - for developing software to support KM. ref SDS 17 G69G Four months
270536 - later IBM announced the project to convert Lotus Notes into a KM
270537 - program failed because engineers could not agree on the meaning of
270538 - knowledge that can be implemented with technology. ref SDS 20 F26K
270539 - Earlier on 991217 people at a conference on KM in San Ramone, CA
270540 - reported bad luck using LN for KM. ref SDS 10 QI77